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Table 10Prevalence of serious bacterial infection by setting for studies across North America

Author (year)Study PeriodAge RangePrevalence
n/ N (%)
SBI (or SBI type)
PPV (%)
[95% CI]
Emergency Setting
Andreola (2007)872004- 2005< 30 d6/52 (11.5) SBINR
< 90 d20/175 (11.4) SBINR
Bachur (2001)491993–19990–90 d373/5,279 (7.0) SBI21.0
[19.0, 23.0]
Bachur (2001)521993–19990–29 d73/868 (8.4) UTI48.4
[39.4, 57.5]
Baker (1993)121987–199229–56 d65/747 (8.7) SBI14.0
[11.0, 17.0]
Baker (1999)91994–199629–60 d43/422 (10.2) SBI14.0
[10.0, 17.7]
Baker (1999)111994–19963–28 d32/254 (12.5) SBI18.6
[12.0, 25.0]
Baker (1990)641987–198829–56 d12/126 (9.5) SBI11.4
[3.7, 27.6]
Baskin (1992)561987–199028–89 d27/501 (5.4) SBINR
Berkowitz (1985)1091978–1979< 60 d10/239 (4.2) sepsis/meningitisNR
Bonadio (1993)101991–199229–60 d22/532 (4.1) SBI5.9
[3.6, 8.2]
Bonadio (1993)211991–19920–29 d29/233 (12.4) SBI37.3
[25.3, 50.8]
Bonadio (1991)361986–199030–60 d34/683 (5.0) SBI26.0
[11.8, 46.6]
Bonadio (1987)1121986–19870–28 d8/55 (14.5) SBINR
Bonadio (1994)381989–199360–90 d33/356 (9.3) SBINR
Bonadio (1992)441985–19914–60 d81/1,009 (8.0) SBINR
Bonadio (1987)1141984–19850–60 d12/159 (7.5) UTINR
Bonadio (1991)88January–November 199028–60 d18/161 (11.2) SBINR
Bonsu (2007)501993–19990–89 d307/3,765 (8.1) UTI/sepsis17.0
[15.1, 19.0]
Bonsu (2003)1111992–19990–89 d38/3,810 (1.0) bacteremia2.0
[1.2, 3.2]
Broner (1990)32NR4- 56 d5/52 (9.6) Bacteremia10.0
[0.5, 45.8]
Brown (2005)431999–2002< 28 d8/66 (12.0) SBI21.0 [7.8, 50.2]
Byington (2004)601996-20021- 90 d109/888 (12.3) SBI16.6
[13.8, 20.0]
Byington (2003)931999-20021- 90 d105/1,298 (8.0) SBINR
Byington (1999)741996–19970–90 d44/345 (12.8) SBINR
Caviness (2008)632001–20050–28 d119/800 (14.8) SBI18.1
[13.2, 24.2]
Crain (1988)31NR0- 15 d3/35 (8.5) sepsis/meningitis27.3
[7.3, 60.7]
Crain (1990)851982–19878- 57 d33/442 (7.4) UTI64.0
[42.6, 81.3]
Crain (1982)331979–19810–60 d5/134 (3.7) bacteremia4.5
[1.6, 10.6]
Dayan (2002)131998–20001–60 d27/193 (14.0) UTI56.6
[37.6, 74.0]
DeAngelis (1983)1151978–19810–60 d39 /290 (13.4) SBINR
Ferguson (2008)1162004–200530–60 d9/90 (10.0) SBINR
60–90 d10/100 (10.0) SBINR
Ferrera (1997)241990–19940–28 d22/134 (16.4) SBI26.8
[17.2, 38.8]
Filippine (2001)621995–19970–30 d27/113 (23.8) SBINR
Garra (2005)251998–20040–56 d65/259 (25.1) SBI13.9
[11.0, 17.0]
Gomez (2010) 302003–20080–90 d198/1,018 (19.4) SBINR
0–90 d23/1,018 (2.2) bacteremia12.5
[5.4, 22.6]
Grover (1999)1171992–19930–60 d7/48 (14.6) SBINR
Herr (2001)281999–2000< 59 d41/344 (12.0) SBI12.9
[8.8, 18.2]
Hoberman (1993)911990-19910–59 d306/14 (4.6) UTINR
Hsiao (2006)1182003-200457–90 dNR (8.8) SBINR
Jaskiewicz (1994)231984–19920–60 d66/931 (7.0) SBI12.3
[9.6, 15.6]
Kadish (2000)221993–19961–28 d45/372 (12.1) SBI21.0
[15.5, 27.6]
Kaplan (2000)551993–199728–90 d191/2,190 (8.7) SBI16.2
[14.0, 18.6]
King (1987)391978–1982< 60 d4/97 (5.4) bacteremia or meningitis5.5
[0.2, 29.3]
Kuppermann (1997)781993–19950–60 d6/86 (7.0) UTINR
Kuppermann (1999)1191994–19950–60 d7/30 (23.3) SBINR
Krief (2009) 80
Levine (2004)65
1998–20010–60 d123/1,169 (11.4) SBINR
Maniaci (2008)612005–20070–90 d30/234 (12.8)NR
Meehan (2008)69NR (4 Years study)0–90 d192/2003 (9.6%) SBI4.9
[2.5, 9.1]
Rittichier (2005)731996-20020–90 d15/214 (7.0) SBINR
Rosenberg (1985)401981–19820–60 d5/122 (4.1) bacteremiaNR
Stanley (2005)351993–20000–90 d480/5,279 (9.1) SBINR
Titus (2003)771997–20010–60 d24/348 (6.9) SBINR
Wasserman (1990)67NR< 60 d22/236 (9.3) SBI21.6
[16.5, 27.7]
Watt (2010)812002–20060–90 d52/361 (14.4)
SBI
[UTI: 45/52 (86.0%); 38 cases in infants 31-90 d]
NR
1997–20010–90 d20/307 (6.5)
SBI
[UTI: 13/20 (65%), 9 cases in infants 31–90 d]
NR
Wolff (2009) 422000–200745–90 d130/1,950 (6.6) SBI7.1
[6.7, 7.3]
Zorc (2005)651999–20011–60 d91/995 (9.0) UTI5.6
[1.8, 14.5]
Primary Care Setting
Caspe (1983)341974–19790–30 d7/107 (6.5) bacteremiaNR
30–60 d4/198 (2.0) bacteremia27.3
[7.3, 60.6]
Dagan (1985)271982–19840–90 d23/233 (9.9) SBI24.7
[16.4, 35.2]
Pantell (2004)5PROS Study:
1995–1998
0–90 d63/3066 (3.6) bacteremia/meningitisNR
212/2058 (10.3) SBI (excluding Gastroenteritis)NR

d=days; PPV = positive predictive value; PROS = Pediatric Research in Office Setting; SBI = Serious Bacterial Infection; UTI= urinary tract infection;

From: Results

Cover of Diagnosis and Management of Febrile Infants (0–3 Months)
Diagnosis and Management of Febrile Infants (0–3 Months).
Evidence Report/Technology Assessments, No. 205.
Hui C, Neto G, Tsertsvadze A, et al.

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