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Sobieraj DM, White CM, Kluger J, et al. Adjunctive Devices for Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2011 Dec. (Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 42.)

Appendix JGlossary

Acute Coronary Syndrome

Any group of clinical symptoms compatible with acute myocardial ischemia. Acute coronary syndrome includes the spectrum of clinical conditions ranging from unstable angina to non-Q-wave myocardial infarction and Q-wave myocardial infarction.

Catheter Aspiration Device

Including the Diver, Diver CE, Export, Pronto, Rescue, Thrombuster, and TransVascular Aspiration Catheter devices.

Confidence Intervals

A range that is likely to include the given value. Usually presented as a percent (%). For example, a value with 95% confidence interval implies that when a measurement is made 100 times, it will fall within the given range 95% of the time.

Correlation Coefficient

A value (which usually ranges from zero to one) that indicates the degree of relationship between two variables. For example, a correlation coefficient of one would indicate a strong relationship.

DerSimonian and Laird Random-Effects Model

A statistical method based on the assumption that the effects observed in different studies (in a meta-analysis) are truly different.

Embolic Protection Device

Included the following devices: FilterWire EX, FilterWire EZ, SpideRX, AngioGuard, AngioGuard XP, PercuSurge GuardWire, PercuSurge GuardWire Plus, Proxis

Egger's Weighted Regression Statistics

A method of identifying and measuring publication bias.

I2

Measure of degree of variation due to statistical heterogeneity. Usually reported as a percent ranging from 0 to100.

Mechanical Thrombectomy Device

Including the AngioJet and X-Sizer devices.

Meta-Analysis

The process of extracting and pooling data from several studies investigating a similar topic to synthesize a final outcome.

Myocardial Blush Grade

An angiographic method of grading myocardial tissue perfusion ranging from grade 0 to grade 3. In grade 0, the dye fails to enter the microvasculature with either minimal or no ground glass appearance (“blush”) or opacification of the myocardium in the distribution of the culprit artery indicating lack of tissue level perfusion. In grade 1, the dye slowly enters but fails to exit the microvasculature. There is the ground glass appearance (“blush”) or opacification of the myocardium in the distribution of the culprit lesion that fails to clear from the microvasculature and dye staining is present on the next injection (approximately 30 seconds between injections). In grade 2, there is delayed entry and exit of dye from the microvasculature. There is the ground glass appearance (“blush”) or opacification of the myocardium in the distribution of the culprit lesion that is strongly persistent at the end of the washout phase (i.e. dye is strongly persistent after 3 cardiac cycles of the washout phase and either does not or only minimally diminishes in intensity during washout). In grade 3, there is normal entry and exit of dye from the microvasculature. There is a ground glass appearance (“blush”) or opacification of the myocardium in the distribution of the culprit lesion that clears normally, and is either gone or only mildly/moderately persistent at the end of the washout phase (i.e. dye is gone or is mildly/moderately persistent after 3 cardiac cycles of the washout phase and noticeably diminishes in intensity during the washout phase), similar to that in an uninvolved artery. Blush that is of only mild intensity throughout the washout phase but fades minimally is also classified as grade 3.

Non-ST Segment Myocardial Infarction

An acute coronary syndrome characterized by myocardial ischemia without an elevation of the ST-segment on the electrocardiograph. Most patients who have non-ST-segment elevation will ultimately develop a non Q-wave acute myocardial infarction.

Publication Bias

The possibility that published studies may not represent all the studies that have been conducted, and therefore, create bias by being left out of a meta-analysis.

Q Statistic

A test to assess the presence of statistical heterogeneity among several studies.

Relative Risks (RRs)

The ratio of an event occurring in an exposed group to an event occurring in a non-exposed group in a given population. A ratio of one indicates no difference in the risk between the two groups.

Risk difference

The absolute difference in the event rate between two comparison groups. A risk difference of zero indicates no difference between comparison groups.

Sensitivity Analyses

A ‘what if’ analysis that helps determine the robustness of a study. Helps determine the degree of importance of each variable for a given outcome.

Standard Deviations (SDs)

A measure of the variability of a data set. For a simple data set with numbers, can be calculated using the following formula:

σ=(((x-xm))2/N)0.5
  • σ is standard deviation
  • xm is the average
  • ∑(x-xm) is the sum of xm subtracted from each individual number x
  • N is the total number of values
  • Note: Other formulas also exist.

Statistical Heterogeneity

Variability in the observed effects among studies in a meta-analysis.

ST-Segment Myocardial infarction

An acute coronary syndrome characterized by myocardial ischemia with elevation of the ST-segment on the electrocardiograph. Most patients who have ST-segment elevation will ultimately develop a Q-wave acute myocardial infarction.

Target Revascularization

Any repeat percutaneous intervention or surgical bypass of the target lesion or segment of the target vessel.

TIMI-3 Blood Flow

Thrombolysis in myocardial infarction graded with a range from 0 to 3. A grade of 0 is defined as complete occlusion of the infarct related artery. A grade of 1 is defined as some penetration of contrast material beyond the point of obstruction but without perfusion of the distal coronary bed. A grade of 2 is defined as perfusion of the entire infarct vessel into the distal bed but with delayed flow compared with a normal artery. A grade of 3 is defined as full perfusion of the infarct vessel with normal flow.

Unstable Angina

An acute coronary syndrome characterized by chest pain which occurs unexpectedly and at rest. The most common cause of the chest pain is due to reduced blood flow to the myocardiam caused by either atherosclerotic narrowing or constriction of the coronary arteries or partial blockage of the coronary arteries by a blood clot.

Cover of Adjunctive Devices for Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
Adjunctive Devices for Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention [Internet].
Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 42.
Sobieraj DM, White CM, Kluger J, et al.

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