PubMed Health. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.

Centre for Clinical Practice at NICE (UK). Donor Breast Milk Banks: The Operation of Donor Milk Bank Services. London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (UK); 2010 Feb. (NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 93.)

Appendix 2Key guideline questions

Key references and guidelines

Scoping searches identified the UKAMB and the HMBANA guidelines. Full-text copies of all references in the UKAMB guidelines (117) and those references assessed as relevant from the title and abstract from the HMBANA guidelines (78) were ordered and checked for inclusion or exclusion.

Any relevant references from the HMBANA position paper (10) were also retrieved and checked for inclusion in the review.

A focussed search was conducted by information services and 5236 references retrieved (with 2 additional from Medline Update – 5238 in total). These were scanned (see the review protocol below) and 406 references were selected on the title and abstract. These were imported into the master database, and any duplication with the UKAMB/HMBANA guidelines corrected. This left a set of core references for full-text examination (525 in total).

References were added from reference lists of relevant articles and where published versions of unpublished/grey reports were found.

Any excluded papers (including those excluded from the HMBANA guidelines) were documented in the Excluded Studies table below.

Excluded Studies table.

Table

Excluded Studies table.

Key guideline questions

  • How should donor women be recruited, and what information should be provided? The needs of different ethnic, religious and cultural groups will be considered.
  • What factors should be assessed to determine the suitability of potential donors?
  • What initial and repeat serological testing should be undertaken:

    When screening potential donors?

    In donor women whilst continuing to donate?

  • When should donor women be advised to stop donating milk, either temporarily or permanently?
  • What are the best (safest) methods for collecting, storing and handling donor breast milk?

    How should donor milk be expressed?

    How, and for how long, should donor milk be stored at home, during transportation and at the milk bank, including refrigeration and freezing?

    How should donor milk be tested and treated?

    Should donor milk be pooled?

    How should donor milk samples be archived?

    How should donor milk samples be disposed of?

  • How should donor breast milk samples be tracked and traced?
  • What information should donors and parents or carers of infants using donor breast milk be given to ensure full informed consent, and how should this be recorded?
  • What training and competencies should the following have:

    Milk bank staff?

    Staff working with mothers and babies who may benefit from, or who are receiving, donor breast milk?

    Staff working with potential donors?

During the development of the evidence reports, it was clear that some evidence reports would include several questions; the GDG were therefore presented evidence on the following areas:

  • Administration, including tracking and tracing
  • Donor recruitment
  • Donor screening and selection, including testing
  • Donor stopping
  • Donor training and support
  • Donor training
  • Milk disposal
  • Milk expression
  • Milk fortification
  • Milk handling
  • Milk handling at home
  • Milk handling at the milk bank
  • Milk handling during transportation
  • Milk pooling
  • Milk testing
  • Milk transportation
  • Staff training

Included studies

    See also Appendix 5 for the evidence reviews by clinical question.

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  • Pedersen JK. The woman milk bank at Fuglebakken Children's Hospital. Danish Medical Bulletin. 1982;29:300–5. [PubMed: 7140385]
  • Penc B. Currents in human milk banking: organization and activity of a human milk bank in Poland. Journal of Human Lactation. 1996;12:243–6. [PubMed: 9025434]
  • Pimenteira Thomaz CA, Maia Loureiro LV, da Silva OT, et al. The human milk donation experience: Motives, influencing factors, and regular donation. Journal of Human Lactation. 2008;24:69–76. [PubMed: 18281358]
  • Pittard WB III, Bill K. Human milk banking. Effect of refrigeration on cellular components. Clinical Pediatrics. 1981;20:31–3. [PubMed: 7449243]
  • Pittard WB III, Geddes KM, Brown S, et al. Bacterial contamination of human milk: container type and method of expression. American Journal of Perinatology. 1991;8:25–7. [PubMed: 1987962]
  • Raptopoulou-Gigi M, Marwick K, McClelland DB. Antimicrobial proteins in sterilised human milk. British Medical Journal. 1977;1:12–4. [PMC free article: PMC1603642] [PubMed: 831963]
  • Rechtman DJ, Lee ML, Berg H. Effect of environmental conditions on unpasteurized donor human milk. Breastfeeding Medicine: The Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine. 2006;1:24–6. [PubMed: 17661557]
  • Rees E. Human breast milk: Laboratory detection of enzymes, and their use as markers for control of the pasteurisation process. Medical Laboratory Sciences. 1987;44:345–9. [PubMed: 3503953]
  • Reid E. Breast milk banks & HIV. Midwife, Health Visitor & Community Nurse. 1988;24:287. [PubMed: 3419347]
  • Reynolds GJ, Lewis-Jones DI, Isherwood DM, et al. A simplified system of human milk banking. Early Human Development. 1982;7:281–92. [PubMed: 7160338]
  • Ribeiro KDS, Melo ILP, Pristo AZO, et al. The effect of processing on the vitamin A content of human milk. Jornal de Pediatria. 2005;81:61–4. [PubMed: 15742088]
  • Roberts SA, Severn M. Bacterial growth in raw and pasteurised human milk. British Medical Journal. 1978;2:1196. [PMC free article: PMC1608369] [PubMed: 363230]
  • Romeu-Nadal M, Castellote AI, Lopez-Sabater MC. Effect of cold storage on vitamins C and E and fatty acids in human milk. Food Chemistry. 2008;106:65–70.
  • Romeu-Nadal M, Castellote AI, Gaya A, et al. Effect of pasteurisation on ascorbic acid, dehydroascorbic acid, tocopherols and fatty acids in pooled mature human milk. Food Chemistry. 2008;107:434–8.
  • Roy CC, Lescop J. Human milk banking: high rate of interest for a still uncertain credit balance. American Journal of Diseases of Children. 1979;133:255–6. [PubMed: 425940]
  • Ryder RW, Crosby-Ritchie A, McDonough B, et al. Human milk contaminated with Salmonella kottbus. A cause of nosocomial illness in infants. JAMA. 1977;238:1533–4. [PubMed: 578222]
  • Santiago MS, Codipilly CN, Potak DC, et al. Effect of human milk fortifiers on bacterial growth in human milk. Journal of Perinatology. 2005;25:647–9. [PubMed: 16121201]
  • Sauve R, Buchan K, Clyne A, et al. Mothers' milk banking: microbiologic aspects. Canadian Journal of Public Health. 1984;75:133–6. [PubMed: 6733651]
  • Scott GM, Kelsey MC. Assessment of the Axicare human milk pasteuriser (CM80) Journal of Hospital Infection. 1989;14:163–8. [PubMed: 2572634]
  • Siimes MA, Hallman N. A perspective on human milk banking, 1978. Journal of Pediatrics. 1979;94:173–4. [PubMed: 758414]
  • Silprasert A, Dejsarai W, Keawvichit R, et al. Effect of storage on the creamatocrit and total energy content of human milk. Human Nutrition - Clinical Nutrition. 1987;41:31–6. [PubMed: 3570860]
  • Silverman WA. Human milk banking practices. Pediatrics. 1971;47:456–9. [PubMed: 5542787]
  • Silvestre D, Lopez MC, March L, et al. Bactericidal activity of human milk: stability during storage. British Journal of Biomedical Science. 2006;63:59–62. [PubMed: 16871996]
  • Silvestre D, Ferrer E, Gaya J, et al. Available lysine content in human milk: stability during manipulation prior to ingestion. Biofactors. 2006;26:71–9. [PubMed: 16614484]
  • Silvestre D, Miranda M, Muriach M, et al. Antioxidant capacity of human milk: effect of thermal conditions for the pasteurization. Acta Paediatrica. 2008;97:1070–4. [PubMed: 18477059]
  • Silvestre D, Ruiz P, MartÃ-nez-Costa C, et al. Effect of pasteurization on the bactericidal capacity of human milk. Journal of Human Lactation. 2008;24:371–6. [PubMed: 18784324]
  • Simmer K. Human milk banks and evidence-based medicine. Journal of Paediatrics & Child Health. 2000;36:182–3. [PubMed: 10760021]
  • Smith L, Harkes A, D'Souza SW. Fat content and fatty acid composition of pooled banked milk. British Medical Journal. 1984;288:283. [PMC free article: PMC1444034] [PubMed: 6419895]
  • Smith L, Bickerton J, Pilcher G, et al. Creamatocrit, carbon content, and energy value of pooled banked human milk: implications for feeding preterm infants. Early Human Development. 1985;11:75–80. [PubMed: 4040010]
  • Spencer SA, Hull D. Fat content of expressed breast milk: a case for quality control. British Medical Journal. 1981;282:99–100. [PMC free article: PMC1503859] [PubMed: 6779930]
  • Springer S. Currents in human blood banking: human milk banking in Germany. Journal of Human Lactation. 1997;13:65–8. [PubMed: 9233190]
  • Stagno S, Reynolds DW, Pass RF, et al. Breast milk and the risk of cytomegalovirus infection. New England Journal of Medicine. 1980;302:1073–6. [PubMed: 6245360]
  • Stagno S. Breastfeeding and the transmission of cytomegalovirus infections. Italian Journal of Pediatrics. 2002;28:275–80.
  • Stocks RJ, Davies DP, Carroll LP, et al. A simple method to improve the energy value of bank human milk. Early Human Development. 1983;8:175–8. [PubMed: 6884258]
  • Terai K. Changes of lipids and fatty acid compositions in fresh and frozen human milk during various stages of lactation. Acta Paediatrica Japonica (Overseas Edition) 1979;21:33.
  • Terpstra FG, Rechtman DJ, Lee ML, et al. Antimicrobial and antiviral effect of high-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization applied to human milk. Breastfeeding Medicine: The Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine. 2007;2:27–33. [PubMed: 17661617]
  • Thompson N, Pickler RH, Munro C, et al. Contamination in expressed breast milk following breast cleansing. Journal of Human Lactation. 1997;13:127–30. [PubMed: 9233203]
  • Tomalin C. Is breast always best?… for premature babies… human milk banks. Health & Social Service Journal. 1983;93:82–3.
  • Tully DB, Jones F, Tully MR. Donor milk: what's in it and what's not. Journal of Human Lactation. 2001;17:152–5. [PubMed: 11847831]
  • Tully MR. Currents in human milk banking: donating human milk as part of the grieving process. Journal of Human Lactation. 1999;15:149–51. [PubMed: 10578791]
  • Tully MR. Currents in human milk banking: a year of remarkable growth for donor milk banking in North America. Journal of Human Lactation. 2000;16:235–6. [PubMed: 11153160]
  • Tully MR. Currents in human milk banking: cost of establishing and operating a donor human milk bank. Journal of Human Lactation. 2000;16:57–9. [PubMed: 11138226]
  • Tully MR. Currents in human milk banking: Excelencia em Bancos de Leite Humano: Uma Visao do Futuro -- The First International Congress on Human Milk Banking. Journal of Human Lactation. 2001;17:51–3. [PubMed: 11847853]
  • Tully MR. Currents in human milk banking: recipient prioritization and use of human milk in the hospital setting. Journal of Human Lactation. 2002;18:393–6. [PubMed: 12449058]
  • Tyson JE, Edwards WH, Rosenfeld AM, et al. Collection methods and contamination of bank milk. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 1982;57:396–8. [PMC free article: PMC1627554] [PubMed: 7092299]
  • Van de PP, Lepage P, Homsy J, et al. Mother-to-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus by breast milk: presumed innocent or presumed guilty? Clinical Infectious Diseases. 1992;15:502–7. [PubMed: 1445596]
  • van Zoeren-Grobben D, Schrijver J, van den BH, et al. Human milk vitamin content after pasteurisation, storage, or tube feeding. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 1987;62:161–5. [PMC free article: PMC1778245] [PubMed: 3103547]
  • Various Collecting and banking human milk. British Medical Journal. 1980;281:1350. [PMC free article: PMC1714727] [PubMed: 7437791]
  • Viazis S, Farkas BE, Allen JC. Effects of high-pressure processing on immunoglobulin A and lysozyme activity in human milk. Journal of Human Lactation. 2007;23:253–61.
  • Viazis S, Farkas BE, Jaykus LA. Inactivation of bacterial pathogens in human milk by high-pressure processing. Journal of Food Protection. 2008;71:109–18. [PubMed: 18236670]
  • Wardell JM, Hill CM, D'Souza SW. Effect of pasteurization and of freezing and thawing human milk on its triglyceride content. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica. 1981;70:467–71. [PubMed: 7315290]
  • Wardell JM, Wright AJ, Bardsley WG, et al. Bile salt-stimulated lipase and esterase activity in human milk after collection, storage, and heating: nutritional implications. Pediatric Research. 1984;18:382–6. [PubMed: 6718097]
  • Weaver G. Human milk banking: the case for a national strategy. MIDIRS Midwifery Digest. 2001;11:381–3.
  • Weaver G. The milk of human kindness. Practising Midwife. 2005;8:36–7. [PubMed: 16295576]
  • Welsh JK, Arsenakis M, Coelen RJ, et al. Effect of antiviral lipids, heat, and freezing on the activity of viruses in human milk. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 1979;140:322–8. [PubMed: 227969]
  • West PA, Hewitt JH, Murphy OM. Influence of methods of collection and storage on the bacteriology of human milk. Journal of Applied Bacteriology. 1979;46:269–77. [PubMed: 572360]
  • Wight NE. Donor human milk for preterm infants. Journal of Perinatology. 2001;21:249–54. [PubMed: 11533843]
  • Williams AF. Human milk banks. British Medical Journal. 1992;305:648–9. [PMC free article: PMC1883343] [PubMed: 1285769]
  • Williams AF, Kingdon CC, Weaver G. Banking for the future: investing in human milk. Archives of Disease in Childhood -- Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 2007;92:F158–F159. [PMC free article: PMC2675317] [PubMed: 17449849]
  • Williams FH, Pittard WB III. Human milk banking: practical concerns for feeding premature infants. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 1981;79:565–8. [PubMed: 7288064]
  • Williamson MT, Murti PK. Effects of storage, time, temperature, and composition of containers on biologic components of human milk. Journal of Human Lactation. 1996;12:31–5. [PubMed: 8715236]
  • Wills ME, Han VE, Harris DA, et al. Short-time low-temperature pasteurisation of human milk. Early Human Development. 1982;7:71–80. [PubMed: 6756884]
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  • Wojcik KY, Rechtman DJ, Lee ML, et al. Macronutrient analysis of a nationwide sample of donor breast milk. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2009;109:137–40. [PubMed: 19103335]
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  • Wright KC, Feeney AM. The bacteriological screening of donated human milk: laboratory experience of British Paediatric Association's published guidelines. Journal of Infection. 1998;36:23–7. [PubMed: 9515664]
  • Yamato K, Taguchi H, Yoshimoto S, et al. Inactivation of lymphocyte-transforming activity of human T-cell leukemia virus type I by heat. Japanese Journal of Cancer Research. 1986;77:13–5. [PubMed: 3007413]

Excluded studies

    323 references were excluded at the full-text stage.

  • Human milk for feeding premature infants: benefits, risks and precautions for a donor program. 1978. [PubMed: 10236788]

    EXC - not available.

  • The neonate: a day in the life of a wet nurse. 1979. [PubMed: 252732]

    EXC - historical article on wet nursing.

  • WHO/UNICEF joint statement: meeting on infant and young child feedings. 1980.

    EXC - reference. See also NICE PH11 on maternal and infant nutrition.

  • WHO/UNICEF meeting on infant and young child feeding. 1980.

    EXC - statement on need to provide human milk through banks. Not operation of services.

  • The collection and storage of human milk. Report of a Working Party on Human Milk Banks, Panel on Child Nutrition. Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy. 1981. [PubMed: 7268170]

    EXC - not available.

  • Human milk banks. 1981.

    EXC - editorial. No detailed reference to operation of milk banks.

  • Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis. 1982.

    EXC - cited in HMBANA for use in adults.

  • Milk banks: in the light of history. 1988.

    EXC - editorial. No detailed reference to operation of milk banks.

  • HIV infection, breastfeeding, and human milk banking. 1988.

    EXC - based on 1988 DHSS report, which is assumed to be no longer current.

  • HIV infection, breastfeeding and human milk banking in the United Kingdom. 1989.

    EXC - report no longer available, and assumed to be out-of-date.

  • Premature babies need breast-milk. 1991. [PubMed: 2030653]

    EXC - news article.

  • Nutrition during lactation. 1991.

    EXC - assumed no longer current. See NICE PH11 on maternal and infant nutrition.

  • American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Drugs: The transfer of drugs and other chemicals into human milk. 1994. [PubMed: 8265310]

    EXC - information on drugs in breast milk. Refer to latest BNF information.

  • Policy no 5: infant feeding policy. 1995.

    EXC - general statement on breast feeding. No specific reference to donor milk.

  • EASL International Consensus Conference on Hepatitis C. Paris, 26-28, February 1999 Consensus Statement. European Association for the Study of the Liver. 1999. [PubMed: 10365827]

    EXC - statement on screening for HepC. No specific reference to donor milk. Also assumed no longer current.

  • Guidelines for the establishment and operation of human milk banks in UK. 2. 1999.

    EXC - assumed to be UKAMB guidelines. Also no longer current.

  • WHO resolution. 2001.

    EXC - resolution on the benefits of breast feeding.

  • Infant and young child nutrition: global strategy on infant and young child feeding. 2002.

    EXC - global strategy. See also NICE PH11 on maternal and infant nutrition.

  • Guide for parents. The right way to store breast milk. 2002.

    EXC - basic information on storage. Noted that applies to milk for healthy infants only. Will refer to more current guidelines.

  • Ensuring the safety of stored breast milk. 2002.

    EXC - promotional article on a specific type of bottle. No references.

  • Kids' health & safety: borrowing breast milk. 2005.

    EXC - magazine article

  • Standards for blood banks and transfusion services. 2006.

    EXC - see UK standards, if relevant.

  • Handling of expressed breast milk (EBM) in acute care facilities: position statement Pediatric Interest Group, CHICA-Canada. 2006.

    EXC - relates to maternal milk in acute care facilities.

  • Neonatal intensive care feeding management system implemented. 2008.

    EXC - promotional article on a specific type of bottle. No references.

  • Donor breast milk service. 2008.

    EXC - news article on establishment of satellite service.

  • Donation of portable pumps to NICUs aims to reduce the number of babies missing out on breastmilk. 2008.

    EXC - magazine article

  • Acheson D. HIV infection, breastfeeding, and human milk banking. 1988. [PubMed: 2899260]

    EXC - based on 1988 DHSS report, which is assumed to be no longer current.

  • Afolabi OA, et al. A preliminary survey of aerobic bacteria in breast milk of mothers from the low-income group in Nigeria. 1985. [PubMed: 4071647]

    EXC - study to assess the quality of milk from a specific group of women. Not relevant to UK.

  • Agarwal R, et al. Effect of Fortification with Human Milk Fortifier (HMF) and other Fortifying Agents on the Osmolality of preterm Breast Milk. 2004. [PubMed: 14767087]

    EXC - aims to assess the safety of specific fortifiers. Not donor specific or related to the process.

  • Ajusi JD, et al. Bacteriology of unheated expressed breast milk stored at room temperature. 1989. [PubMed: 2791942]

    EXC - study to determine appropriate storage time for maternal milk for working mothers.

  • Al Naqeeb NA, et al. The introduction of breast milk donation in a Muslim country. 2000. [PubMed: 11155613]

    EXC - duplicate. See Al Naqeeb 2000 Currents…

  • Al Naqeeb NA, et al. Currents in human milk banking: the introduction of breast milk donation in a Muslim country. 2000. [PubMed: 11155613]

    EXC - specifically related to donor milk banking in a Muslim country.

  • Almroth S, Greiner T, Latham MC. Economic importance of breastfeeding. 1979. [PubMed: 540668]

    EXC - not donor specific.

  • American Academy of Pediatrics. Recommended standards for the operation of mothers' milk bureaus. 1943.

    EXC - assumed no longer current.

  • Anderson A, Arnold LDW. Use of donor breastmilk in the nutrition management of chronic renal failure: three case histories. 1993. [PubMed: 8260062]

    EXC - indications for donor milk.

  • Anderson JW, Johnstone BM, Remley DT. Breast-feeding and cognitive development: a meta-analysis. 1999. [PubMed: 10500022]

    EXC - rationale for breast feeding.

  • Arnold L, Erickson M. The early history of milk banking in the USA. 1988. [PubMed: 3075136]

    EXC - not available.

  • Arnold L. Milk bank screening procedures. 1993. [PubMed: 8489716]

    EXC - quoted HMBANA guideline recommendations.

  • Arnold L. Contamination in expressed breast milk: a non-issue. 1997. [PubMed: 9429359]

    EXC - duplicate. See Arnold 1997.

  • Arnold LD. Clinical uses of donor milk. 1990. [PubMed: 2400562]

    EXC - not available.

  • Arnold LD. The statistical state of human milk banking and what the future holds. 1991. [PubMed: 2006970]

    EXC - duplicate. See Arnold 1991 Currents…

  • Arnold LD, Asquith MT. Currents in human milk banking: the evolution of services in modern human milk banking. 1991. [PubMed: 2036162]

    EXC - historical article describing the evolution of services over time

  • Arnold LD. North American milk banks. 1992. [PubMed: 1288561]

    EXC - detailed description of services provided (not processes used). Assumed to be out-of-date.

  • Arnold LD. Human milk storage and preservation in the early 1900s. 1992. [PubMed: 1605848]

    EXC - descriptive historical article.

  • Arnold LD. HIV and breastmilk: what it means for milk banks. 1993. [PubMed: 8489725]

    EXC - quoted HMBANA guideline recommendations.

  • Arnold LD. HMBANA guidelines on breast pumps and human milk storage and handling. 1993. [PubMed: 8251081]

    EXC - quoted HMBANA guideline recommendations.

  • Arnold LD, Larson E. Immunologic benefits of breast milk in relation to human milk banking. 1993. [PubMed: 8267234]

    EXC - quoted HMBANA guideline recommendations.

  • Arnold LD, Courden M. The lactariums of France, Part 2: How association milk banks operate. 1994. [PubMed: 7619273]

    EXC - duplicate.

  • Arnold LD. Informal sharing of human milk: not-so-hypothetical questions, concrete answers. 1994. [PubMed: 7619246]

    EXC - quoted HMBANA guideline recommendations.

  • Arnold LD. Donor human milk for premature infants: the famous case of the Dionne quintuplets. 1994. [PubMed: 7619285]

    EXC - duplicate. See Arnold 1994 Currents…

  • Arnold LD. The lactariums of France: Part 1. The lactarium Docteur Raymond Fourcade in Marmande. 1994. [PubMed: 7619254]

    EXC - duplicate.

  • Arnold LD. Use of donor milk in the treatment of metabolic disorders: glycolytic pathway defects. 1995. [PubMed: 7718106]

    EXC - duplicate. See Arnold 1995 Currents…

  • Arnold LD. Use of donor human milk in the management of failure to thrive: case histories. 1995. [PubMed: 7619294]

    EXC - duplicate. See Arnold 1995 Currents…

  • Arnold LD. Storage containers for human milk: an issue revisited. 1995. [PubMed: 8634111]

    EXC- duplicate. See Arnold 1995 Currents…

  • Arnold LD. Possibilities for donor milk use in adult clinical settings--a largely unexplored area. 1996. [PubMed: 8715242]

    EXC - duplicate. See Arnold 1996 Currents…

  • Arnold LD. Donor milk banking in China: the ultimate step in becoming baby friendly. 1996. [PubMed: 9025450]

    EXC - duplicate. See Arnold 1996 Currents…

  • Arnold LD, Borman LL. What are the characteristics of the ideal human milk donor? 1996. [PubMed: 8932047]

    EXC - see Arnold 1996 Currents…

  • Arnold LD. Currents in human milk banking: how North American donor milk banks operate: results of a survey… part 2. 1997.

    EXC - survey of US services. Assumed no longer accurate description of services.

  • Arnold LD. A brief look at drip milk and its relation to donor human milk banking. 1997. [PubMed: 9429369]

    EXC - duplicate. See Arnold 1997 Currents…

  • Arnold LD. How to order banked donor milk in the United States: what the health care provider needs to know. 1998. [PubMed: 9543963]

    EXC - duplicate. See Arnold 1998 Currents…

  • Arnold LD. Cost savings through the use of donor milk: case histories. 1998. [PubMed: 10205440]

    EXC - duplicate. See Arnold 1998 Currents…

  • Arnold LD. Donor milk banking in Scandinavia. 1999. [PubMed: 10578777]

    EXC - duplicate. See Arnold 1999 Currents…

  • Arnold LD. Trends in donor milk banking in the United States. 2001.

    EXC - quoted HMBANA guideline recommendations. Also describes US services -assumed no longer accurate description.

  • Arnold LD. The cost-effectiveness of using banked donor milk in the neonatal intensive care unit: prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis. 2002. [PubMed: 12033080]

    EXC - cost effectiveness linked to health outcomes for pre-term babies (indications)

  • Arnold LD. The ethics of donor human milk banking. 2006. [PubMed: 17661555]

    EXC - discussion of the ethics using theoretical case studies and personal experiences

  • Arnold LD. Global health policies that support the use of banked donor human milk: a human rights issue. 2006. [PMC free article: PMC1766344] [PubMed: 17164001]

    EXC - discussion of the human rights issues. Not process specific.

  • Arnold LD. U.S. Health policy and access to banked donor human milk. 2008. [PubMed: 19086825]

    EXC - US health policies. Not UK relevant.

  • Arnold LDW. Currents in human milk banking: the statistical state of human milk banking and what the future holds. 1991. [PubMed: 2006970]

    EXC - quoted HMBANA guideline recommendations.

  • Arnold LDW. Human milk for premature infants: an important health issue. 1993. [PubMed: 8251075]

    EXC - not available.

  • Arnold LDW. The lactariums of France: the Lactarium Docteur Raymond Fourcade in Marmande… part 1. 1994. [PubMed: 7619254]

    EXC - survey of services in France. Assumed no longer accurate description of services.

  • Arnold LDW, Courden M. The lactariums of France: how association milk banks operate… part 2. 1994. [PubMed: 7619273]

    EXC - survey of services in France. Assumed no longer accurate description of services.

  • Arnold LDW. Currents in human milk banking: donor human milk for premature infants: the famous case of the Dionne quintuplets. 1994. [PubMed: 7619285]

    EXC - case report. Also quoted HMBANA guideline recommendations.

  • Arnold LDW. Currents in human milk banking: use of donor milk in the treatment of metabolic disorders: glycolytic pathway defects. 1995. [PubMed: 7718106]

    EXC - case report.

  • Arnold LDW. Currents in human milk banking: use of donor human milk in the management of failure to thrive: case histories. 1995. [PubMed: 7619294]

    EXC - case report. Also quoted HMBANA guideline recommendations.

  • Arnold LDW. Currents in human milk banking: storage containers for human milk: an issue revisited. 1995.

    EXC - not available.

  • Arnold LDW, Borman LL. Currents in human milk banking: what are the characteristics of the ideal human milk donor? 1996. [PubMed: 8932047]

    EXC -quoted HMBANA guideline recommendations.

  • Arnold LDW. Currents in human milk banking: possibilities for donor milk use in adult clinical settings -- a largely unexplored area. 1996. [PubMed: 8715242]

    EXC - indications for donor milk in adults.

  • Arnold LDW. Currents in human milk banking: how North American donor milk banks operate: results of a survey… part 1. 1997.

    EXC - survey of US services. Assumed no longer accurate description of services.

  • Arnold LDW. How North American donor milk banks operate: results of a survey, Part 1. 1997.

    EXC - duplicate. See Arnold 1997 Currents…

  • Arnold LDW. Currents in human milk banking: cost savings through the use of donor milk: case histories. 1998. [PubMed: 10205440]

    EXC - not available.

  • Arnold LDW. Currents in human milk banking: how to order banked donor milk in the United States: what the health care provider needs to know. 1998. [PubMed: 9543963]

    EXC - quoted HMBANA guidelines.

  • Asp K. Good health. Banking on breast milk. 2007.

    EXC - magazine article.

  • Asquith MT, et al. The bacterial content of breast milk after the early initiation of expression using a standard technique. 1984. [PubMed: 6694039]

    EXC - relates to the timing of expression of milk by mothers for their own pre-term babies.

  • Asquith MT. Human Milk Banking Association of North America. 1989. [PubMed: 2709145]

    EXC - statement of the aims of the HMBANA.

  • Atkinson A. Decontamination of breast milk collection kits: a change in practice. 2001.

    EXC - decontamination of breast pumps on the neonatal units for maternal milk. Not donor specific.

  • Atkinson HC, Begg EJ, Darlow BA. Drugs in human milk. Clinical pharmacokinetic considerations. 1988. [PubMed: 3292101]

    EXC - information on drugs in breast milk. Refer to latest BNF information.

  • Ball TM, Wright AL. Health care costs of formula-feeding in the first year of life. 1999. [PubMed: 10103324]

    EXC - rationale for breast feeding.

  • Balmer SE, Williams AF. Guidelines for the establishment and operation of human milk banks in the UK. 1995. [PMC free article: PMC1511365] [PubMed: 8554377]

    EXC - report of UK 1994 guidelines. Assumed no longer current.

  • Balmer SE, Williams AF. Guidelines for the establishment and operation of human milk banks in the UK. 1995. [PMC free article: PMC1511365] [PubMed: 8554377]

    EXC - report of UK 1994 guidelines. Assumed no longer current.

  • Balmer SE. Currents in human milk banking: donor milk banking and guidelines in Britain. 1995. [PubMed: 7669247]

    EXC - report of UK 1994 guidelines. Assumed no longer current.

  • Balmer SE. Donor milk banking and guidelines in Britain. 1995. [PubMed: 7669247]

    EXC - duplicate. See Balmer 1995 Currents…

  • Bank MR, et al. Effect of storage time and temperature on folacin and vitamin C levels in term and preterm human milk. 1985. [PubMed: 3969932]

    EXC - storage of milk in freezers for home use. No specific reference to donor milk.

  • Barness LA, Dallman PR, Anderson H. Human milk banking. 1980.

    EXC - not available.

  • Baron S, et al. Oral transmission of human immunodeficiency virus by infected seminal fluid and milk: a novel mechanism. 2000. [PubMed: 10669332]

    EXC - specific action of milk on HIV. Not related to processing of donor milk.

  • Barrie H. Human milk banks. 1982.

    EXC - letter explaining why donor milk should not be used. Supports the need for evidence based guidelines for donor milk, not the processes to be followed. Also assumed to refer to practices no longer current.

  • Bateman C. Another mother's milk saves AIDS babies. 2002. [PubMed: 11936001]

    EXC - news article on new service in South Africa.

  • Bateman C. Breastmilk banking regains vital expression. 2007. [PubMed: 17440658]

    EXC - news article on service in South Africa.

  • Bates CJ, et al. Susceptibility of riboflavin and vitamin A in breast milk to photodegradation and its implications for the use of banked breast milk in infant feeding. 1985. [PubMed: 3984726]

    EXC - related to the use of tubing when feeding premature babies to preserve nutrients.

  • Baum JD. Human milk banking. 1982. [PubMed: 7106932]

    EXC - duplicate. See Baum 1982 Donor…

  • Baumer JH. Guidelines for the establishment and operation of human milk banks in the UK. 2004.

    EXC - report of UKAMB guidelines 3rd edition.

  • Beckholt AP. Breast milk for infants who cannot breastfeed. 1990. [PubMed: 2193127]

    EXC - historical description of services, with some mention of the effect of HIV.

  • Berlin CM Jr, Yaffe SJ, Ragni M. Disposition of acetaminophen in milk, saliva, and plasma of lactating women. 1980. [PubMed: 7202185]

    EXC - drugs in breast milk. Refer to BNF.

  • Berlin CM Jr, et al. Disposition of dietary caffeine in milk, saliva, and plasma of lactating women. 1984. [PubMed: 6691042]

    EXC - drugs in breast milk. Refer to BNF.

  • Bernshaw N. Where can mothers donate excess milk? 1996. [PubMed: 9025424]

    EXC - organisation of HMBANA members in the US.

  • Bevinetto G. Nutrition now. Storing breast milk. 2002.

    EXC - magazine article

  • Biancuzzo M. The breastfeeding advisor. Using banked donor milk: a realistic option. 1998.

    EXC - magazine article

  • Binkiewicz A, Robinson MJ, Senior B. Pseudo-Cushing syndrome caused by alcohol in breast milk. 1978. [PubMed: 722441]

    EXC - maternal alcohol, not donor. Refer to latest guidance on alcohol and breast feeding.

  • Bishop NJ, et al. Early diet of preterm infants and bone mineralization at age five years. 1996. [PubMed: 8640056]

    EXC - indications for donor milk.

  • Blenkharn JI. Infection risks from electrically operated breast pumps. 1989. [PubMed: 2564015]

    EXC - related to use of equipment by several mothers, so specific to expression on neonatal unit. Not process of donor milk banking.

  • Boo N, et al. Contamination of breast milk obtained by manual expression and breast pumps in mothers of very low birthweight infants. 2001. [PubMed: 11740876]

    EXC - related to contamination of maternal milk for pre-term/LBW babies. Not donor specific.

  • Borman LL. Human milk bank. 1991. [PubMed: 1960586]

    EXC - reference to HMBANA.

  • Briggs E, Crandall M, Kelley M. Development of a breast milk banking program at a University Medical Center “nursing at a distance” 1985. [PubMed: 3849669]

    EXC - not available.

  • Briggs GG, Freeman RK, Yaffe SJ. Drugs in pregnancy and lactation. 1998.

    EXC - reference text. Assumed to be out-of-date.

  • Brink S. The successful use of human breast milk in a premature infant with the surgical short gut syndrome. 1977. [PubMed: 848470]

    EXC - indications for donor/breast milk.

  • Brown S. Milk for life… milk banks. 1981.

    EXC - magazine article.

  • Calvo EB, Galindo AC, Aspres NB. Iron status in exclusively breast-fed infants. 1992. [PubMed: 1518691]

    EXC - study on need for additional supplementation for breastfed babies.

  • Candelaria L. Got milk -- but what do I do with it? Teaching patients about the process of donating human milk. 2007.

    EXC - news article.

  • Candelaria L. Got milk -- but what do I do with it? Teaching patients about the process of donating human milk. 2007.

    EXC - news article.

  • Candelaria L. RN appreciates knowing where to donate breast milk… “Banking on breast milk”… September/October 2007. 2008.

    EXC - news article.

  • Casey CE, Neville MC, Hambidge KM. Studies in human lactation: secretion of zinc, copper, and manganese in human milk. 1989. [PubMed: 2718914]

    EXC - trace elements in breast milk. No effect of storage/treatment reported.

  • Chan MM, et al. Lecithin decreases human milk fat loss during enteral pumping. 2003. [PubMed: 12717084]

    EXC - fortification to minimise fat loss during enteral pump delivery.

  • Chaney NE, Franke J, Wadlington WB. Cocaine convulsions in a breast-feeding baby. 1988. [PubMed: 3335951]

    EXC - maternal drug use. Refer to latest guidance on drug use and breast feeding.

  • Chardigny JM, et al. Trans mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids in human milk. 1995. [PubMed: 7588503]

    EXC - fats in breast milk. No effect of storage/treatment reported.

  • Charnock J. RN appreciates breastmilk article… “Banking on breastmilk” (June issue) 2007.

    EXC - news article.

  • Cohen RS. Current issues in human milk banking. 2009.

    EXC - not available.

  • Corbett A. Banking on breast milk. 1992. [PubMed: 1635683]

    EXC - review/desription of other milk services.

  • Costa KM. A comparison of colony counts of breast milk using two methods of breast cleansing. 1989. [PubMed: 2738757]

    EXC - not donor specific. Assume will refer to latest guidance on breast feeding/expressing.

  • Coveney J. Is breast milk the best food for all infants? 1985. [PubMed: 4044284]

    EXC - review article on breast feeding. Not donor specific. Also refer to latest guidance on breast feeding for contraindications.

  • Cowan ST. Cowan and Steel's Manual for the identification of medical bacteria. 1981.

    EXC - reference text. Assumed out-of-date.

  • Crossley P. People to people ambassador programs: breastfeeding and human lactation delegation to the People's Republic of China. 2002.

    EXC - report of visit to China. No detailed report of donor milk processes.

  • Daley AJ. Breast milk and infection. 1998.

    EXC - not available.

  • DARE EG. The human milk bank. 1948. [PubMed: 18882735]

    EXC - service description of Queen Charlotte's milk bank. Old report, and newer descriptions available.

  • Davis MK. Breastfeeding and chronic disease in childhood and adolescence. 2001. [PubMed: 11236720]

    EXC - rationale for breast feeding.

  • Davis WE. Statistical comparison of the mortality of breast-fed and bottle-fed infants. 1913.

    EXC - rationale for breast feeding.

  • Davy ST. Human milk banks. 1975.

    EXC - service description of Sorrento milk bank. More recent report available.

  • de Louvois J. Laboratory monitoring of banked human milk. 1982. [PubMed: 7132594]

    EXC - service description of Queen Charlotte's milk bank. More recent report available.

  • de Louvois J. Milk banking at Queen Charlotte's. 1990.

    EXC - no details of process (overview only).

  • Department of Health. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy agents: safe working and the prevention of infection. Infection control of CJD and related disorders in the healthcare setting. 2003.

    EXC - no longer current. Latest guidance is at http://www​.advisorybodies​.doh.gov.uk/acdp/tseguidance/Index​.htm but does not appear to have any reference to breast milk.

  • Department of Health and Social Security. HIV infection, breastfeeding and human milk banking. Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy. 1989.

    EXC - report no longer available, and assumed to be out-of-date.

  • Dickens V. Every drop counts: report of a study day: understanding and supporting preterm breastfeeding for optimal nutrition, Bristol, 6 July 2007. 2007.

    EXC - report of a meeting describing the UK milk banking services.

  • Dickens V. Daisy or Doreen: choices for mothers where human milk is banked for donation: report from the United Kingdom Association for Milk Banking (UKAMB) Roadshow. 2007.

    EXC - report of a UKAMB workshop.

  • Dougherty D, Giles V. From breast to baby: quality assurance for breast milk management. 2000. [PubMed: 11949020]

    EXC - detailed process for management of maternal milk in the NICU, not donor milk.

  • Drenckpohl D, Bowers L, Cooper H. Use of the six sigma methodology to reduce incidence of breast milk administration errors in the NICU. 2007. [PubMed: 17521063]

    EXC - detailed process for management of maternal milk in the NICU, not donor milk.

  • Dunn DT, et al. Risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission through breastfeeding. 1992. [PubMed: 1355163]

    EXC - review of reports of maternal tranmission of HIV through breastfeeding. Not donor specific.

  • Dworsky M, et al. Cytomegalovirus infection of breast milk and transmission in infancy. 1983. [PubMed: 6310479]

    EXC - maternal transmission, not donor specific or treatment to prevent this.

  • Dyas A. Evaluation of the ‘NUK-2000 Steam Steriliser’, an alternative baby bottle disinfector. 1986. [PubMed: 2878038]

    EXC - baby bottle disinfection.

  • el Mohandes AE, et al. Bacterial contaminants of collected and frozen human milk used in an intensive care nursery. 1993. [PubMed: 8267232]

    EXC - maternal milk and related processes. Not donor specific.

  • el Mohandes AE, et al. Use of human milk in the intensive care nursery decreases the incidence of nosocomial sepsis. 1997. [PubMed: 9134512]

    EXC - rationale for human milk.

  • Fenton TR, Belik J. Routine handling of milk fed to preterm infants can significantly increase osmolality. 2002. [PubMed: 12352516]

    EXC - the effect of fortifiers on milk chemistry.

  • Fernandez A, Mondkar J, Vaz C. Experiences with milk banking in Bombay. 1990. [PubMed: 2228090]

    EXC - more current description included.

  • Ferreira CS, et al. Pasteurization of human milk to prevent transmission of Chagas disease. 2001. [PubMed: 11452325]

    EXC - not relevant to UK.

  • Fidler N, et al. Fat content and fatty acid composition of fresh, pasteurized, or sterilized human milk. 2001. [PubMed: 11787720]

    EXC - duplicate report of Fidler 1998.

  • Francis J, et al. Comparative analysis of ascorbic acid in human milk and infant formula using varied milk delivery systems. 2008. [PMC free article: PMC2526073] [PubMed: 18694505]

    EXC - methods of feeding.

  • Gartner LM, et al. Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. 2005. [PubMed: 15687461]

    EXC - rationale and policy on breast feeding. See also NICE PH11 on maternal and infant nutrition.

  • Garza C, Nichols BL. Studies of human milk relevant to milk banking. 1984. [PubMed: 6470353]

    EXC - report of previous study Garza 1984.

  • Gazzard J, Lee C. A “personalized” human milk bank. 1979.

    EXC - description of process for maternal ‘milk-bank’.

  • Geraghty. Erratum: “The development of a research human milk bank” 2005. [PubMed: 15681638]

    EXC - research milk bank, not ‘clinical’ milk bank.

  • Geraghty SR, et al. The development of a research human milk bank. 2005. [PubMed: 15681638]

    EXC - research milk bank, not ‘clinical’ milk bank.

  • Giacoia GP. Human breast milk banking in Oklahoma. 1980. [PubMed: 7381616]

    EXC - more current description included.

  • Gilks J, Gould D, Price E. Decontaminating breast pump collection kits for use on a neonatal unit: review of current practice and the literature. 2007.

    EXC - equipment for maternal expression in the NICU setting.

  • Goldblum RM, et al. Rapid high-temperature treatment of human milk. 1984. [PubMed: 6323663]

    EXC - not available.

  • Golden J. From wet nurse directory to milk bank: the delivery of human milk in Boston, 1909-1927. 1988. [PubMed: 3064835]

    EXC - historical article.

  • Golding J. Unnatural constituents of breast milk--medication, lifestyle, pollutants, viruses. 1997. [PubMed: 9363416]

    EXC - contaminants in breast milk. Refer to latest guidance on breast feeding. No effect of storage/treatment reported.

  • Goldman AS, et al. Immunologic factors in human milk during the first year of lactation. 1982. [PubMed: 6977634]

    EXC - milk composition. No effect of storage/treatment reported.

  • Goldman AS, et al. Immunologic protection of the premature newborn by human milk. 1994. [PubMed: 7701351]

    EXC - rationale for breast milk. Only very brief discussion of effect of storage on composition, with no specific mention of donor milk.

  • Greenough A. Antioxidant properties of human milk. 2007.

    EXC - brief review on the composition of milk, citing Hanna 2004.

  • Greer FR. Feeding the premature infant in the 20th century. 2001. [PubMed: 11160573]

    EXC - historical article.

  • Groh-Wargo S, et al. The utility of bilateral breast pumping system for mothers of premature infants. 1995. [PubMed: 8552014]

    EXC - maternal expression, not donor specific.

  • Gutierrez D, de Almeida JA. Human milk banks in Brazil. 1998.

    EXC - duplicate. See Gutierrez 1998 Currents…

  • Gyorgy P. Are human milk banks still necessary? 1962. [PubMed: 13903312]

    EXC - not available.

  • Hale T. Medications in mother's milk. 2002.

    EXC - reference text. Refer to latest BNF information.

  • Hamosh M, et al. Handling and storage of human milk specimens for research. 1984. [PubMed: 6538598]

    EXC - research milk bank, not ‘clinical’ milk bank.

  • Hamosh M, et al. Breastfeeding and the working mother: effect of time and temperature of short-term storage on proteolysis, lipolysis, and bacterial growth in milk. 1996. [PubMed: 8632934]

    EXC - storage for breast feeding mothers (upto 24 hours). Not donor specific.

  • Hamosh M, et al. Digestive enzymes in human milk: stability at suboptimal storage temperatures. 1997. [PubMed: 9093984]

    EXC - storage for breast feeding mothers (upto 24 hours). Not donor specific.

  • Hamosh M. Bioactive factors in human milk. 2001. [PubMed: 11236734]

    EXC - rationale for human milk.

  • Hamprecht K, et al. Cytomegalovirus transmission to preterm infants during lactation. 2008. [PubMed: 18243784]

    EXC - review of the process of transmission. Not focus on the treatment of milk to prevent transmission.

  • Hanson LA. Human milk and host defence: immediate and long-term effects. 1999. [PubMed: 10569222]

    EXC - rationale for human milk.

  • Henker J, Schmidt B. [History of the human milk collection bank of the Pediatric Department of the Dresden Medical Academy] 1989. [PubMed: 2689761]

    EXC - not English language.

  • Hernell O, et al. Killing of Giardia lamblia by human milk lipases: an effect mediated by lipolysis of milk lipids. 1986. [PubMed: 3950450]

    EXC - specific parasite. Not donor milk banking specific.

  • Hino S, et al. Mother-to-child transmission of human T-cell leukemia virus type-I. 1985. [PubMed: 2991060]

    EXC - not donor transmission. Refer to latest guidance on breast feeding.

  • Holland R. Donor human milk -- part 1: historical, national and international perspectives. 2005.

    EXC - historical review. Also compares international systems citing references - all of which are reviewed in this guideline.

  • Hopkinson J, Garza C, Asquith MT. Human milk storage in glass containers. 1990. [PubMed: 2400552]

    EXC - not available.

  • Hornby PJ, Abrahams TP. Pulmonary pharmacology. 1996.

    EXC - drugs in milk. Refer to BNF.

  • Hughes V. Guidelines for the establishment and operation of a human milk bank. 1990. [PubMed: 2271115]

    EXC - quoted HMBANA guidelines.

  • Hughes V. Testimony presented at public hearing on regulation of tissue and organ transplantation. 1992. [PubMed: 1558656]

    EXC - duplicate. See Hughes 1992 Currents…

  • Hughes V. Currents in human milk banking: testimony presented at public hearing on regulation of tissue and organ transplantation. 1992. [PubMed: 1558656]

    EXC - report of testimony to a Working Group on US policy. Assumed to be no longer current.

  • Hulme H. Midwives' Journal. Working mothers. (Expressing and storing breast milk) 1992.

    EXC - generic guidance to mothers. Not donor specific.

  • Human Milk Banking Association of North America. Guidelines for the establishment and operation of a human donor milk bank. 2000.

    EXC - see 2008 edition.

  • Hurst N, Myatt A, Schanler R. Growth and development of a hospital-based lactation program and mother's own milk bank. 1998. [PubMed: 9773362]

    EXC – mother's own milk bank. May be some relevant information, but not donor specific.

  • Hylander MA, Strobino DM, Dhanireddy R. Human milk feedings and infection among very low birth weight infants. 1998. [PubMed: 9724686]

    EXC - rationale for human milk.

  • Igumbor EO, et al. Storage of breast milk: effect of temperature and storage duration on microbial growth. 2000. [PubMed: 11320771]

    EXC - focus on storage of maternal milk. Not donor specific.

  • Jameson M. Feeding a need. 2005.

    EXC - news article.

  • Janjindamai W, Chotsampancharoen T. Effect of fortification on the osmolality of human milk. 2006. [PubMed: 17100376]

    EXC - assesses the effect of fortification on the osmolality of milk. Not donor specific, or about the process of fortification.

  • Jelliffe DB, Jelliffe EF. Breast milk banks: the new model. 1977. [PMC free article: PMC1879278] [PubMed: 861876]

    EXC - letter from authors offering to provide/collect information on milk banks. No primary information.

  • Jocson MA, Mason EO, Schanler RJ. The effects of nutrient fortification and varying storage conditions on host defense properties of human milk. 1997. [PubMed: 9240806]

    EXC - study on the fortification and use of milk on the NICU. Not process of donor milk banking.

  • Jones E, Dimmock PW, Spencer SA. A randomised controlled trial to compare methods of milk expression after preterm delivery. 2001. [PMC free article: PMC1721311] [PubMed: 11517200]

    EXC - not donor specific, or about the process of milk banking.

  • Jones F. Currents in human milk banking: history of North American donor milk banking: one hundred years of progress. 2003. [PubMed: 12931784]

    EXC - historical article. Also report of the 2003 HMBANA guidelines.

  • Jones F., Human Milk Banking Association of North America. History of North American donor milk banking: one hundred years of progress. 2003. [PubMed: 12931784]

    EXC - duplicate. See Jones 2003 Currents…

  • Jones L. Breast feeding. Mother's own expressed breast milk: guide-lines for storage. 1996. [PubMed: 8717659]

    EXC - duplicate. See Jones 1996.

  • Jones L. Mother's own expressed breast milk: guide-lines for storage. 1996. [PubMed: 8717659]

    EXC - maternal milk. Some reference to donor guidelines, but focus is not on donor milk banking.

  • Kerrey BT, et al. Breast milk as a source for acquisition of cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in a premature infant with sepsis syndrome: detection by real-time PCR. 2006. [PubMed: 16300992]

    EXC - report of maternal transmission, and exploration of tracking of viral load. Not related to process of donor milk banking.

  • Klein EB, Byrne T, Cooper LZ. Neonatal rubella in a breast-fed infant after postpartum maternal infection. 1980. [PubMed: 7431169]

    EXC - maternal transmission. Refer to latest guidance on breast feeding.

  • Koff RS. The low efficiency of maternal-neonatal transmission of hepatitis C virus: how certain are we? 1992. [PubMed: 1332563]

    EXC - maternal transmission. Not donor specific.

  • Krugman S. Letter: Vertical transmission of hepatitis B and breast-feeding. 1975. [PubMed: 53386]

    EXC - not donor specific, and no storage/treatment issues reported. Refer to latest guidance on breast feeding.

  • Labrecque M, et al. Feeding and urine cotinine values in babies whose mothers smoke. 1989. [PubMed: 2909980]

    EXC - maternal smoking. Refer to latest guidance on breast feeding.

  • Lal RB, et al. Evidence for mother-to-child transmission of human T lymphotropic virus type II. 1993. [PubMed: 8354900]

    EXC - maternal transmission. Refer to latest guidance on breast feeding.

  • Lal RB, et al. Mother-to-child transmission of human T-lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) 1994. [PubMed: 8291823]

    EXC - maternal transmission. Refer to latest guidance on breast feeding.

  • Lang S, Orme R, Lawrence C. A comparative study of hand and mechanically expressed human milk - nutritional content and effect on babies' weight and growth. 1993.

    EXC - assumed to be report of Lang 1994.

  • Lang S, et al. Sodium in hand and pump expressed human breast milk. 1994. [PubMed: 7851306]

    EXC - maternal milk. Not donor milk banking specific.

  • Larson E, et al. Storage of human breast milk. 1984. [PubMed: 6561179]

    EXC - related to maternal milk. Not specific to donor milk banking.

  • Lawrence RA. Milk banking: the influence of storage procedures and subsequent processing on immunologic components of human milk. 2001. [PubMed: 11795052]

    EXC - almost idential review to Lawrence 1999. No additional references.

  • Lee N. Donating milk… “Got milk -- but what do I do with it?” 2008.

    EXC - news article

  • Linnemann CC Jr, Goldberg S. Letter: HBAg in breast milk. 1974. [PubMed: 4135511]

    EXC - maternal transmission. Refer to latest guidance on breast feeding.

  • Liston J. Breastfeeding and the use of recreational drugs--alcohol, caffeine, nicotine and marijuana. 1998. [PubMed: 9849117]

    EXC - maternal use of drugs. Refer to latest guidance on breast feeding.

  • Little RE, et al. Maternal alcohol use during breast-feeding and infant mental and motor development at one year. 1989. [PubMed: 2761576]

    EXC - maternal alcohol. Refer to latest guidance on breast feeding.

  • Losonsky GA, et al. Effect of immunization against rubella on lactation products. II. Maternal-neonatal interactions. 1982. [PubMed: 7077090]

    EXC - maternal transmission. Refer to latest guidance on breast feeding.

  • Lucas A, et al. A human milk formula. 1980.

    EXC - method of adjusting the composition of human milk for feeding preterm neonates.

  • Lucas A, et al. Multicentre trial on feeding low birthweight infants: effects of diet on early growth. 1984. [PMC free article: PMC1628628] [PubMed: 6476868]

    EXC - rationale and indications for donor milk.

  • Lucas A, Cole TJ. Breast milk and neonatal necrotising enterocolitis. 1990. [PubMed: 1979363]

    EXC - indications for donor milk.

  • Lucas A, et al. Breast milk and subsequent intelligence quotient in children born preterm. 1992. [PubMed: 1346280]

    EXC - rationale for breast milk.

  • Lucas A, et al. A randomised multicentre study of human milk versus formula and later development in preterm infants. 1994. [PMC free article: PMC1061016] [PubMed: 8154907]

    EXC - indications for donor milk.

  • Luck W, Nau H. Nicotine and cotinine concentrations in serum and urine of infants exposed via passive smoking or milk from smoking mothers. 1985. [PubMed: 4056988]

    EXC - maternal smoking. Refer to latest guidance on breast feeding.

  • Luukkainen P, Salo MK, Nikkari T. Changes in the fatty acid composition of preterm and term human milk from 1 week to 6 months of lactation. 1994. [PubMed: 8057221]

    EXC - indications for donor milk.

  • Mascola MA, et al. Exposure of young infants to environmental tobacco smoke: breast-feeding among smoking mothers. 1998. [PMC free article: PMC1508233] [PubMed: 9618615]

    EXC - maternal smoking. Refer to latest guidance on breast feeding.

  • McGee DH. Mothers' milk bank at the Delaware Hospital. 1959. [PubMed: 13630074]

    EXC - not available.

  • McGuire W, Anthony MY. Donor human milk versus formula for preventing necrotising enterocolitis in preterm infants: systematic review. 2003. [PMC free article: PMC1756003] [PubMed: 12496220]

    EXC - indications for donor milk.

  • Mehta NR, Subramanian KN. Human milk banking: current concepts. 1990. [PubMed: 2228089]

    EXC - review of the HMBANA guidelines.

  • Merhav HJ, et al. Treatment of IgA deficiency in liver transplant recipients with human breast milk. 1995. [PubMed: 7546158]

    EXC - indications for donor/breast milk.

  • Mitoulas LR, et al. Efficacy of breast milk expression using an electric breast pump. 2002. [PubMed: 12449050]

    EXC - not specific to donor milk banking.

  • Mitoulas LR, et al. Effect of vacuum profile on breast milk expression using an electric breast pump. 2002. [PubMed: 12449051]

    EXC - not specific to donor milk banking.

  • Morley-Peet P. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. 1983.

    EXC - duplicate. See Morley-Peet 1983.

  • Morley R, Lucas A. Randomized diet in the neonatal period and growth performance until 7.5-8 y of age in preterm children. 2000. [PubMed: 10702179]

    EXC - indications for donor milk.

  • Narayanan I, et al. Partial supplementation with expressed breast-milk for prevention of infection in low-birth-weight infants. 1980. [PubMed: 6106740]

    EXC - indications for donor/breast milk.

  • Narayanan I, Prakash K, Gujral VV. The value of human milk in the prevention of infection in the high-risk low-birth-weight infant. 1981. [PubMed: 6790690]

    EXC - indications for donor/breast milk.

  • Narayanan I, et al. A planned prospective evaluation of the anti-infective property of varying quantities of expressed human milk. 1982. [PubMed: 7136659]

    EXC - indications for donor milk.

  • Navas SA, Sabino M, Rodriguez-Amaya DB. Aflatoxin M(1) and ochratoxin A in a human milk bank in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. 2005. [PubMed: 16019818]

    EXC - not relevant to UK [**TO check with GDG]

  • Nduati RW. Erratum: Postnatal transmission of HIV-1 through pooled breast milk. 1994. [PubMed: 7968088]

    EXC - erratum for Nduati 1994 (see annotated paper).

  • Nehlig A, Debry G. Consequences on the newborn of chronic maternal consumption of coffee during gestation and lactation: a review. 1994. [PubMed: 8157856]

    EXC - maternal caffeine intake. Refer to latest guidance on breast feeding.

  • Neville MC, et al. Lipoprotein lipase in human milk: compartmentalization and effect of fasting, insulin, and glucose. 1991. [PubMed: 2066661]

    EXC - description of effect of freezing and thawing, but had no reported link to infant nutrition or safety. Not related to the process of donor milk banking.

  • Newell ML, Gray G, Bryson YJ. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 infection. 1997. [PubMed: 9451981]

    EXC - maternal transmission. Refer to latest guidance on breast feeding.

  • Nicoll A, Moisley C. Antenatal screening for syphilis. 1994. [PMC free article: PMC2540217] [PubMed: 8205015]

    EXC - maternal transmission. Refer to latest guidance on breast feeding.

  • Nightingale S, et al. Antenatal survey for the seroprevalence of HTLV-1 infections in the West Midlands, England. 1993. [PMC free article: PMC2272267] [PubMed: 8472781]

    EXC - maternal prevalence, not donor specific. Refer to latest guidance on breast feeding.

  • Nwankwo MU, et al. Bacterial growth in expressed breast-milk. 1988. [PubMed: 2456737]

    EXC - not relevant to the UK.

  • O'Connor CJ, Longbottom JR, Walde P. Inactivation of bile-salt-stimulated human milk esterase: effect of storage and heat. 1986. [PubMed: 3735014]

    EXC - same study as O'Connor 1985.

  • Olowe SA, et al. Bacteriological quality of raw human milk: effect of storage in a refrigerator. 1987. [PubMed: 2449844]

    EXC - storage of milk for a mother's own baby. Not donor milk specific. Also study conducted in a tropical environment - not relevant to UK practice.

  • Olukunle OF, Adetuyi FC. Microbial growth in stored human breast milk. 2008.

    EXC - storage for only 6 hours maximum. Not relevant to donor milk banking.

  • Pagliuca A, Pawson R, Mufti GJ. HTLV-I screening in Britain. 1995. [PMC free article: PMC2551236] [PubMed: 7496265]

    EXC - maternal prevalence and transmission. Refer to latest guidance on breast feeding.

  • Parks YA, et al. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in milk. 1987. [PMC free article: PMC1778169] [PubMed: 3643785]

    EXC - report of infection on a SCBU, but neither infection route nor control measures specific to donor milk banking.

  • Parry-Hilhorst GM. The mothers' milkbank. 1968.

    EXC - not available.

  • Penc B. Organization and activity of a Human Milk Bank in Poland. 1996. [PubMed: 9025434]

    EXC - duplicate. See Penc 1996 Currents…

  • Philipp BL, Merewood A. A primer on breast pumps. 2002.

    EXC - not specific to donor milk banking.

  • Philipp BL, Merewood A. Encouraging patients to use a breast pump. 2003.

    EXC - duplicate. See Philipp 2002.

  • Picciano MF. Nutrient composition of human milk. 2001. [PubMed: 11236733]

    EXC - rationale for human milk.

  • Pierce KY, Tully MR. Mother's own milk: guidelines for storage and handling. 1992. [PubMed: 1418432]

    EXC - maternal milk only. No reference to donor milk banking.

  • Pittard WB III, et al. Bacteriostatic qualities of human milk. 1985. [PubMed: 3839527]

    EXC - related to 24h room temperature effect on maternal milk. Not relevant to donor milk banking.

  • Quan R, et al. Effects of microwave radiation on anti-infective factors in human milk. 1992. [PubMed: 1557249]

    EXC - related to the thawing of milk for feeding. Not donor milk banking.

  • Radcliffe A. Setting up a nursing mother's room. 1989. [PubMed: 2730769]

    EXC - duplicate. See Radcliffe 1989.

  • Radcliffe A. Milk banks and milk banking. Setting up a nursing mother's room. 1989. [PubMed: 2730769]

    EXC - not available.

  • Rangecroft L, de San Lazaro C, Scott JE. A comparison of the feeding of the postoperative newborn with banked breast-milk or cow's-milk feeds. 1978. [PubMed: 564948]

    EXC - indications for donor/breast milk.

  • Rees M. Breast pumps: the good, the bad and the noisy. 1999. [PubMed: 10427289]

    EXC - review of breast pumps. No specific mention of use for donor milk banking.

  • Renfrew MJ, et al. Assessing levels of contaminants in breast milk: methodological issues and a framework for future research. 2008. [PubMed: 18173786]

    EXC - process and rationale to ‘develop guidelines for the most effective way to establish and maintain a national archive of breast-milk samples.’ Not donor milk banking.

  • Reynolds G, Lewis-Jones DI. Simplified milk banking. 1982. [PubMed: 6122922]

    EXC - letter citing published paper. See Reynolds 1982.

  • Reynolds GJ, et al. Simplified banking of human milk. 1982. [PMC free article: PMC1496124] [PubMed: 6800544]

    EXC - report of published paper. See Reynolds 1982.

  • Ridell DG. Use of banked milk for feeding infants with abdominal wall defects. 1989.

    EXC - no published reference found.

  • Riordan JM. The cost of not breastfeeding: a commentary. 1997. [PubMed: 9233193]

    EXC - rationale for breast feeding.

  • Rozolen CD, Goulart AL, Kopelman BI. Is breast milk collected at home suitable for raw consumption by neonates in Brazilian public neonatal intensive care units? 2006. [PubMed: 17062787]

    EXC - evaluated maternal milk only.

  • Ryu JE. Caffeine in human milk and in serum of breast-fed infants. 1985. [PubMed: 4075932]

    EXC - maternal intake. Refer to latest guidance on breast feeding.

  • Sakaguchi M, Tomomasa T, Kuroume T. Cytolytic action of stored human milk on blood cells in vitro. 1995. [PubMed: 8537859]

    EXC - 24 hours storage only. No specific reference to donor milk banking.

  • Schanler RJ, Oh W. Composition of breast milk obtained from mothers of premature infants as compared to breast milk obtained from donors. 1980. [PubMed: 7359271]

    EXC - indications for donor milk.

  • Schanler RJ, Atkinson SA. Effects of nutrients in human milk on the recipient premature infant. 1999. [PubMed: 10527471]

    EXC - indications for donor/breast milk.

  • Schanler RJ, Shulman RJ, Lau C. Feeding strategies for premature infants: beneficial outcomes of feeding fortified human milk versus preterm formula. 1999. [PubMed: 10353922]

    EXC - indications for donor/breast milk.

  • Sibbald B. Canada's only human milk bank may close. 2000.

    EXC - news article.

  • Simmer K. Neonatology for the generalist: human milk banks and evidence-based medicine. 2000. [PubMed: 10760021]

    EXC - duplicate. See Simmer 2000.

  • Singhal A, Cole TJ, Lucas A. Early nutrition in preterm infants and later blood pressure: two cohorts after randomised trials. 2001. [PubMed: 11273059]

    EXC - rationale for human milk.

  • Singhal A, et al. Low nutrient intake and early growth for later insulin resistance in adolescents born preterm. 2003. [PubMed: 12672313]

    EXC - effect of diet. Not donor specific.

  • Slusher T, et al. Electric breast pump use increases maternal milk volume in African nurseries. 2007. [PubMed: 17409102]

    EXC - evaluating the effect of different breast pumps to increase maternal milk volume. Not donor specific.

  • Springer S. Human milk banking in Germany. 1997. [PubMed: 9233190]

    EXC - duplicate. See Springer 1997 Currents…

  • Springer S. News about human milk banking in Germany. 2000. [PubMed: 11065122]

    EXC - brief article. See Springer 1997 for a fuller description of practice.

  • Springer S. Donor milk for preterm and sick children: human milk banking in Germany. 2004. [PubMed: 15384634]

    EXC - brief article. See Springer 1997 for a fuller description of practice.

  • Stepans MB, Wilkerson N. Physiologic effects of maternal smoking on breast-feeding infants. 1993. [PubMed: 8347401]

    EXC - maternal smoking. Refer to latest guidance on breast feeding.

  • Stiehm ER, Keller MA. Breast milk transmission of viral disease. 2001. [PubMed: 11795036]

    EXC - maternal risk, no specific reference to donor milk. Refer to latest guidance on breast feeding.

  • Sunshine P. Human breast milk-storage and safety considerations: protective effects. 1980. [PMC free article: PMC1271945] [PubMed: 7376648]

    EXC - although some mention of milk banking, refers mainly to the process of storing maternal milk.

  • Tagge M, Lee N, Sakamoto P. Breast milk for all in need… “Got milk -- but what do I do with it?” Dec. 17. 2008.

    EXC - news article

  • Tagge ME. Donor human milk: a gift of life and health. 1995. [PubMed: 7585785]

    EXC - not available.

  • Taneja N, et al. Nosocomial outbreak of diarrhoea by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli among preterm neonates in a tertiary care hospital in India: pitfalls in healthcare. 2003. [PubMed: 12623320]

    EXC - infection not related to process or provision of donor milk.

  • Terry J. Teaching mothers to express and store breast milk. 2004. [PubMed: 15598009]

    EXC - guidance for maternal expression and storage/use of milk. Not specific to donor milk banking.

  • Thorley V. Sharing breastmilk: wet nursing, cross feeding, and milk donations. 2008. [PubMed: 18546574]

    EXC - historical review.

  • Tully MR. Banked human milk in the treatment of IgA deficiency and allergy symptoms. 1990. [PubMed: 2346605]

    EXC - indications for donor milk.

  • Tully MR. Human milk banking in Sweden and Denmark. 1991. [PubMed: 1764190]

    EXC - more recent service descriptions included. See Arnold 1999.

  • Tully MR. Is pasteurized mother's own or donor milk an answer to the HIV crisis? 1999. [PubMed: 10776185]

    EXC - duplicate. See Tully 1999 Currents…

  • Tully MR. Donating human milk as part of the grieving process. 1999. [PubMed: 10578791]

    EXC - duplicate. See Tully 1999 Currents…

  • Tully MR. Currents in human milk banking: is pasteurized mother's own or donor milk an answer to the HIV crisis? 1999. [PubMed: 10776185]

    EXC - focus on the use of donor milk for mothers with HIV or babies with HIV. Some mention of donor milk processes, but very general with no details.

  • Tully MR. Currents in human milk banking: recommendations for handling of mother's own milk. 2000.

    EXC - duplicate. See Tully 2000 Currents…

  • Tully MR. Recommendations for handling of mother's own milk. 2000.

    EXC - general paper on process for maternal milk.

  • Tully MR. A year of remarkable growth for donor milk banking in North America. 2000. [PubMed: 11153160]

    EXC - duplicate. See Tully 2000 Currents…

  • Tully MR. Cost of establishing and operating a donor human milk bank. 2000. [PubMed: 11138226]

    EXC - duplicate. See Tully 2000 Currents…

  • Tully MR. Excelencia em bancos de leite humano: uma visao do futuro--the First International Congress on Human Milk Banking. 2001. [PubMed: 11847853]

    EXC - duplicate. See Tully 2001 Currents…

  • Tully MR. Recipient prioritization and use of human milk in the hospital setting. 2002. [PubMed: 12449058]

    EXC - duplicate. See Tully 2002 Currents…

  • Tully MR, Lockhart-Borman L, Updegrove K. Stories of success: the use of donor milk is increasing in North America. 2004. [PubMed: 14974704]

    EXC - duplicate. See Tully 2004 Currents…

  • Tully MR, Lockhart-Borman L, Updegrove K. Currents in human milk banking: stories of success: the use of donor milk is increasing in North America. 2004. [PubMed: 14974704]

    EXC - article reporting three cases of recipient babies. Not process of donor milk banking.

  • Tully MR. Milk bank online resource… “Got milk -- but what do I do with it?” Dec. 17. 2008.

    EXC - news article

  • Tully MR. More on milk donation… “Got milk -- but what do I do with it?” Oct. 18, 2007. 2008.

    EXC - news article

  • United Nations. Convention on the rights of the child. 1989. [PubMed: 12344587]

    EXC - legal rights for highest standards of health care.

  • Updegrove K. Human milk banking in the United States. 2005.

    EXC - see more recent service description, Wilson-Clay 2006.

  • van Zoeren-Grobben D, et al. Lipid peroxidation in human milk and infant formula: effect of storage, tube feeding and exposure to phototherapy. 1993. [PubMed: 8374211]

    EXC - related to the handling of donor milk prior to feeding, not donor milk banking specific.

  • Voyer M, Nore R, Magny JF. Human milk banks organization in France: legal proceedings and their consequences on milk bank activities. 2000.

    EXC - magazine article.

  • Wallingford J. Effects of pasteurization on anti-infective agents and other proponents of human milk. Presentation at the HMBANA Annual Conference. 1989.

    EXC - no published reference found. See also Orloff 1993.

  • Wallis P. Baby milk storage advice is relevant. 2005.

    EXC - letter with no primary data or recommendations. Not donor specific.

  • Weaver G. The milky way: the remarkable history of the Queen Charlotte's and Chelsea Hospital Milk Bank. 1999.

    EXC - duplicate. See Weaver 1999 Good idea!…

  • Weaver G. Every drop counts: news from the United Kingdom Association for Milk Banking. 1999. [PubMed: 10578804]

    EXC - duplicate. See Weaver 1999 Currents…

  • Weaver G. Currents in human milk banking: every drop counts: news from the United Kingdom Association for milk banking. 1999. [PubMed: 10578804]

    EXC - report of UKAMB meeting.

  • Weaver G. Good idea! The milky way: the remarkable history of the Queen Charlotte's and Chelsea Hospital milk bank. 1999.

    EXC - history of a milk bank. Not service description.

  • Weaver G. UKAMB: celebrating ten years of ‘making every drop count’ 2007.

    EXC - magazine article

  • Wharton BA. Nutrition and feeding of the preterm infant. 1987.

    EXC - reference text. Assumed out-of-date.

  • Wiggins PK, Arnold LD. Clinical case history: donor milk use for severe gastroesophageal reflux in an adult. 1998. [PubMed: 9775849]

    EXC - indications for donor milk in adults.

  • Wight NE. Donor milk: down but not out. 2005. [PubMed: 16322197]

    EXC - discussion of Schanler 2005 paper on indications/use of donor milk.

  • Wilks S, Meier P. Helping mothers express milk suitable for preterm and high-risk infant feeding. 1988. [PubMed: 3128701]

    EXC - refers to maternal milk, and expressing at hospital. May have some relevance if no other data specific to donor milk banking available.

  • Williams AF, et al. Human milk banking. 1985.

    EXC - see Baum 1982. Although a more recent description of the John Radcliffe service, it is less descriptive and adds nothing to the older article.

  • Williams AF. Human milk and the preterm baby. 1993. [PMC free article: PMC1678104] [PubMed: 8324426]

    EXC - related to the use of milk, and fortification linked to indications. Not relevant to the process of donor milk banking.

  • Williams LS. Even milk banks for preemies have been affected by AIDS. 1992. [PMC free article: PMC1488268] [PubMed: 1544054]

    EXC - not available.

  • Williamson S, et al. Organisation of bank of raw and pasteurised human milk for neonatal intensive care. 1978. [PMC free article: PMC1602950] [PubMed: 624026]

    EXC - more recent service description. See Tomalin 1983.

  • Worden M. Food for thought? 2007.

    EXC - editorial on the need for donor milk. Not process or details of service operation.

  • Wright N. Donor human milk for preterm infants. 2001.

    EXC - duplicate. See Wight 2001.

References cited – selected citation mapping

As part of the final checking, we wished to see which references were cited most commonly in the included studies. We counted how many times and by whom these had been cited. This was to give an indication of how much weight had been placed on any single primary study. Due to the number of studies, we selected studies known to be cited multiple times.

AUTHORTOTAL NO OF PAPERS CITING AUTHORCITED BY
and in how many evidence records
COMMENTS
BJORKSTEN (1980)25OGUNDELE (2000)-14; TULLY (2001)-2; ASQUITH (1987)-1; AHLFORS (1985)-1; DEMPSTER (1982)-1; HOEY (1980)-2; KINSEY (1984)-2; OGUNDELE (2000)-1; OXTOBY (1988)-1
LEIBHABER (ANY)25DAVIDSON (1979)-1; ROY (1979)-1; KINSEY (1984)-1; AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS (1980)-1; CASH (1981)-2; BROMBERGER (1982)-1; DEMPSTER (1982)-1; TULLY (2001)-1; CANADIAN PAEDIATRIC SOCIETY (1985); KINSEY (1984)-2; OGUNDELE (2000)-6; AHLFORS (1985)-1; DEMPSTER (1982)-1; TULLY (2001)-2; BJORSTEN (1980)-2; BROMBERGER (1982)-1
FORD (ANY)20KINSEY (1984)-2; OGUNDELE (2000)-1; RYDER (1977)-1; ASQUITH (1987)-1; MCENERY 1978)-2; BROMBERGER (1982)-2; LAWRENCE (1999)-1; ROY (1979)-1; TULLY (2001)-4; WRIGHT (2001)-1; AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS (1980)-1; BJORSTEN (1980)-2; CASH (1981)-1
GIBBS (1977)7WILLIAMS (1981)-1; BAUM (1982)-1; ASQUITH (1987)-1; BAUM (1980)-1; BJORSTEN (1980)-2; DEMPSTER (1982)-1
HERNANDEZ (ANY)13BROMBERGER (1982)-3; KINSEY (1984)-1; OGUNDELE (2000)-5; CASH (1981)-2; ASQUITH (1987)-1; BJORSTEN (1980)-1
LAWRENCE (ANY)8CANADIAN PEDIATRIC SOCIETY (1985)-1; LAWRENCE (1999)-2; WRIGHT (2001)-2; MICHIE (2001)-1; TULLY (2001)-1; KINSEY (1984)-1WRIGHT (2001) CITES LAWRENCE (1999)TWICE FOR ONE QUOTE. LAWRENCE (1999)CITES HIMSELF
LUCAS (ANY)16SIMMER (2000)-1; TOMALIN (1983)-1; BROMBERGER (1982)-2; WILLIAMS (1981)-1; ASQUITH (1987)-2; LUCAS (1979)-1; SMITH (1984)-1; DAVIES (1982)-1; CANADIAN PAEDIATRIC SOCIETY (1985)-1; MCENERY (1978)-1; CHOTO (1990)-1; NARAYANAN (1989)-1; BJORSTEN (1980)-1; WILLIAMS (2007)-1LUCAS (1979) CITES HIMSELF
OGUNDELE (1999)3OGUNDELE (2000)-3
RYDER (ANY)6TYSON (1982)-1; ROY (1979)-1; BROMBERGER (1982)-1; AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS (1980)-1; CANADIAN PAEDIATRIC SOCIETY (1985)-1; MENON (2007)-1
STAGNO (ANY)6BROMBERGER (1982)-2; BRAUNE (1982)-1; STAGNO (2002)-1; CANADIAN PAEDIATRIC SOCIETY (1985)-1; ASQUITH (1987)-1
TULLY (ANY)7WOO (2007)-3; MODI (2006)-1; HOLLAND (2006)-1; FERNANDEZ (1993)-1; LORDING (2006)-1
WARDELL (ANY)5OGUNDELE (2000)-2; O'CONNOR (1985)-1; LAWRENCE (1999)-1; NARYANAN (1989)-1
WIGHT (2001)2WOO (2007)-1; LORDING (2006)-1
WILLIAMSON (1978)19MCENERY (1978)-2; IKONEN (1982)-1; KINSEY (1984)-3; OGUNDELE (2000)-2; WILLIAMS (1981)-1; ASQUITH (1987)-1; CARROL (1978)-1; BALMER (1992)-1; DEMPSTER (1982)-2; BROMBERGER (1982)-1; LAWRENCE (1999)-1; ROY (1979)-1; AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS (1980)-1; CASH (1981)-1BALMER (1992) CITES WILLIAMSON (1978) TWICE FOR ONE QUOTE.
YAMATO (1986)4VAN DE PERRE (1992)-2; OXTOBY (1988)-1; TULLY (2001)-1
Copyright © 2010, National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence.

All rights reserved. This material may be freely reproduced for educational and not-for-profit purposes. No reproduction by or for commercial organisations, or for commercial purposes, is allowed without the express written permission of NICE.

Cover of Donor Breast Milk Banks
Donor Breast Milk Banks: The Operation of Donor Milk Bank Services.
NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 93.
Centre for Clinical Practice at NICE (UK).

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