Table 20KQ3. A sample of summary prevalence information by region and subgroup

StudyPrevalenceSexPopulation and AgeSESRural / UrbanDiagnostic / Screening Instrument
Globally
Fayyad, J. et al., (2007)83.4%Male: OR 1.5 vs. Female: OR 1.0
p <0.05
18 to 44yGreater prevalence among adults with less than university level educationNRWMH ESEMeD
Simon, V. et al., (2009)92.5%gender proportions were neither balanced nor representative of larger populationsAdults (proportion of population with ADHD appears to decrease with age)NRNRDSM-IV
Polanczyk, G. et al., (2007)935.3%NRNRNRNRVariability results primarily from methodological differences
Europe
Belgium (2007)84.1%NR18 to 44yNRNRWMH ESEMeD
France (2007)87.3%NR18 to 44yNRNRWMH ESEMeD
Germany (2008)110,2344.8%Male: 7.8 %
Female: 1.8%
Preschool: 1.5y
Primary: 5.3y
Secondary: 7.1y
Possible decline in prevalence with age
Preschool: 6.4y
Primary: 5.0y
Secondary: 3.2y
Boys of low SES at greatest risk of Dx
NRFBB-HKS/ADHS
Germany (2007)83.1%NR18 to 44yNRNRWMH ESEMeD
Italy (2007)82.8%NR18 to 44yNRNRWMH ESEMeD
Netherlands (2007)85.0%NR18 to 44yNRNRWMH ESEMeD
Spain (2007)81.2%NR18 to 44yNRNRWMH ESEMeD
Russia (2008)2486.3%Male: 8.9%
Female: 3.6%
12 to 17yNRNRSNAP-IV; SDQ; teacher report
Sweden (1996)2824.0%NS6 to 7yNRChildren born in southern rural Sweden in 1986/87Parent and teacher interview using rating scale and parent interview
Other North American
Canada (1989)2835.8%Male: 9.0%
Female: 3.3%
ADHD more common in girls and adolescents than previously thought
4 to 16yNRNo significant differences by rural/urban statusSDI, with parents, teachers and subject informants
Quebec, Canada (1999)2048.9% teachers
5.0% parents
3.3% subjects
NS4 to 16yNRNRInterview
Puerto Rico (2007)2357.5%Male: 10.3%
Female: 4.7%
Highest prevalence in 6 to 8y age groupAssociation for ADHD and community population who live in poverty (OR 2.20, 95% CI, 1.29 to 3.76) while among those living in low income (the clinic-based association OR 1.45, 95% CI, 1.02 to 2.09)NRDISC-IV
Mexico (2007)8,2841.9%, 5.4%NR18 to 44yNRNRWMH, M-NCS, MINI-Plus
South America
Colombia (2007)81.9%NRAdultsNRNRNSMH
Venezuela (2008)236,23610.0%Male: 7.6%
Female: 2.4%
4 to 12yMore ADHD Dx in lower than in medium and high SESUrbanDISC-IV-P (parent report)
Salvador, Brazil (2007)2386.7%No differences noted by sex6 to 17yNRUrbanDAH
Buenos Aires, Argentina (2007)2379.0%No differences noted by sex6–12yPediatric outpatient in private hospitalsUrbanADHD Rating Scale–IV
Middle East
Lebanon (2007)81.8%NR18 to 44yNRNRWMH LEBANON
Mashhad, Iran (2007)24012.3%Male: 18.1%
Female: 6.2%
Kindergarten ageNRUrbanK-SADS-PL
Shiraz, Iran (2008)24110.1%Male: 13.6%
Female: 6.5%
7 to 12yNRUrbanCSI-4
Yemen (2008)2431.3%Male: 2.1%
Female: 0.5%
7 to 10yNRNo significant urban/rural differencesDAWBA-P; DAWBA-T; SDQ
Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Gaza, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Yemen (2009)2460.5 to 0.9 % community

vs

5.1 to 14.9 % school
VariousVariousVariousVariousStructured interview in community

vs.

Rating scales in school system

Various instruments
Africa
Nigeria (2007)2428.7%Male: 11.0%
Female 5.1%
Ages 6 to 12yVariousSemi-urban communityVADPRS; VARTRS
Asia
Mumbai, India (2009)23912.2%Male: 19.0%
Female: 5.8%
Ages 4 to 6yNRUrbanConnors + SADS + DSM-IV- based interview
Karachi Pakistan (2009)24417.0%Ratio of 3.1 Male to 1 FemalePrimarily among children ages 5 to 10yNRNRP-CHIPS
Taiwan, China (2005)2457.5%Greater likelihood of diagnosis in males than females7.5 % 7th grade
6.1 % 8th grade
3.3 % 9th grade
SES is higher in urban areas in TaiwanPrevalence is higher in rural than in urban youthChinese K-SADS-E + CBCL
Hong Kong, China (2008)2493.9%Male: 5.7%
Female 3.2%
Mean age 13.8yNRNRDSM - IV
Western Australia (2001)285Symptoms = 7.5%
Functional impairment = 6.8%
Tx 4 times more prevalent in males than in femalesChildren age 6 to 17NRNRInterview and rating scale Informant = parents
Australia (1999)2862.4% parent & teacher
9.9% parent
8.8% teacher
Male to female ratio is 5 to 1Children age 5 to 1147.4% maleNRLimited agreement between parent and teacher information
New Zealand (1993)2873.9% (parent report)
2.8% (subject report)
Male: 5.7%
Female: 2.7%
Ages 13 to 15yNRCohort of children born in 1977 in Christchurch urban regionAssessed by interview of parent and of subject using DSM-IIIR criteria

Abbreviations: CBCL = Child Behavior Check List; CSI – Child Symptom Inventory; DAH = Da escala de transtorno de déficit de atenção e hiperatividade; DAWBA = P or T – Development and Well-Being Assessment Parent or Teacher Report; DISC = Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Expressive; DISC-IV-P = Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV–Prevalence; Dx = Diagnosis; ESEMeD = European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders; FBB-HKS/ADHS = Fremdbeurteilungsbogen für Hyperkinetische Störungen/ Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit /Hyperaktivitätsstörungen; K-SADS-E = Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Epidemiologic Version; K-SADS-PL = Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime; LEBANON = Lebanese Evaluation of the Burden of Ailments and Needs of the Nation; MINI-Plus = Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview-Plus; NS = not specified; NSMH = National Survey of Mental Health; P-CHIPS = Child Interview for Psychiatric Syndrome – Parent version; SDI = Survey Diagnostic Instrument; SDQ = Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire; SES = Socio-economic Status; SNAP-IV = Swanson, Nolan and Pelham (SNAP) Questionnaire – 4th revision; VADPRS = Vanderbilt ADHD Diagnostic Parent Rating Scale; VARTRS = Vanderbilt ADHD Diagnostic Teacher Rating Scale; WMH = World Mental Health

From: Results

Cover of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Effectiveness of Treatment in At-Risk Preschoolers; Long-Term Effectiveness in All Ages; and Variability in Prevalence, Diagnosis, and Treatment [Internet].
Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 44.
Charach A, Dashti B, Carson P, et al.

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