Table 6-1Assessment papers – populations studied and tests used

AuthorTestTest detailsPopulation
Van Der Vismelsen (1992)44UrodynamicsMicturition, decreased bladder capacity, urine flow patterns, anatomical obstruction, functional disturbance, renography, vesico-renal reflux, dilated renal pelvis, parenchymal kidney damage, a-functional kidneyTreatment resistant children
Yeung (2004)45Urodynamics/ultrasoundBladder wall thickness and bladder volumePrimary monosymptomatic NE
Redman (1979)46RadiologicalIVP or cystographyNE population
Cutler (1978)47RadiographicIntravenous pyelogram and voiding cystourethrogramNE population, some also had diurnal enuresis
Yeung (1999)48CystometryDaytime and night time urinary output; functional bladder capacityMonosymptomatic NE treatment resistant children
Sujka (1991)49CystourethrogramPatients with refluxNE population
Tanaka (2003)50Reflux detectionVCUG, urological diseases, cystometry, intravenous pyelography or renal ultrasonographyNE population
Zink (2008)51RadiologicalA detailed history, paediatric examination (height, weight, head circumference, examination of chest organs, ears, nose, throat, blood pressure, abdomen, neurological investigation and genital examination), 24 to 48 hour voiding protocols, sonography (kidneys, urinary tract, bladder wall thickness, residual urine, rectal diameter), uroflowmetryMonosymptomatic NE and non- monosymptomatic NE
Cayan (2001)52ConstipationDiagnosis of constipation, by questionnaire, laboratory tests and physical examinationPrimary monosymptomatic NE
McGrath (2008)53ConstipationQuestionnaire and clinical examinationTertiary paediatric clinic
O'Regan (1986)54ConstipationAssessment and treatment for constipationNE population
Butler (2004)553 Systems approachThe three system approach was used to obtain information on 6 clinical signs – urgency, frequency, passes small voids, wakes after wetting, small or variable wet patches, wets soon after sleep; parents answered often or rarely to each signNo major daytime wetting
Siegel (1976)56Allergy, UTIThe number of children with persistent NE (night wetting every week) between children previously treated for UTI and children with allergiesYoung children
Robson (2005)57CharacteristicsQuestionnaire considering: age and gender, frequency of voiding, nocturia, urgency, squatting behaviour for girls, daytime wetting, UTI, constipation, ADHD, VUR, uroflow and post void residualPrimary and secondary NE
Nappo (2002)58CharacteristicsA questionnaire based on history, results of physical and diagnostic examinations and therapyNE population
Bladder Diaires
Kwak (2008)59Bladder diariesComparison of bladder diaries and non validated LUTS questionnaireTreatment resistant children
Psychological tests
Van Hoacke (2004)60Psychological testSocial anxiety scale for children, state trait anxiety inventory for children, shortened depression questionnaire for children, self perception scale for childrenNE population
Van Hoacke (2007)61Psychological testInternalising scale of CBCL, ADHD scales of DBDRS,Monosymptomatic NE and non- monosymptomatic NE

From: 6, Assessment for children with Bedwetting

Cover of Nocturnal Enuresis
Nocturnal Enuresis: The Management of Bedwetting in Children and Young People.
NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 111.
National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).
Copyright © 2010, National Clinical Guideline Centre.

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