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Eikeseth et al., 2007

Study DescriptionInterventionInclusion/Exclusion
Criteria/Population
Baseline MeasuresOutcomes
Author:
Eikeseth et al., 2002
Eikeseth et al., 2007†
Country:
Norway
Practice setting:
Academic
Intervention setting:
School
Enrollment period:
November 1995 to November 1998
Funding:
NIH†
Author industry relationship disclosures:
NR
Design:
Non randomized controlled trial

Intervention:
Behavioral treatment:
Lovaas treatment excluding aversive contingencies; progression from simple to complex tasks such as imitating verbal and nonverbal behavior, labeling objects, identifying actions, and abstract concepts.
Progression to answering questions, conversing and making friends with peers.
Also emphasized play and social skills. Based on operant conditioning principles such as shaping, chaining, discrimination training, and contingency management. Progressed from discrete trial to generalizing skills.
Eclectic treatment: best practices, including TEACCH, sensory-motor therapies, and ABA Treatment hours, mean ± SD (range):
G1: 28 ± 5.76 (20–35)
G2: 29.08 ± 8.05 (20–41)
Assessments:
ADI-R administered by independent child clinical psychologist prior to study Weekly, 2-hour meetings with child, primary caregiver, therapists, supervisor, and director; treatment program was modified based on data collected during the preceding week
Inclusion criteria:
  • Age 4–7 years at intake
  • Diagnosed with autism according to ADI-R administered by child clinical psychologist and clinical interview
  • Diagnosis established less than 6 months prior to study entrance for all participants
  • Deviation IQ of 50 or above on WPPSI-R or ratio IQ of 50 or above on BSID-R
  • No major medical conditions
Exclusion criteria:
  • See inclusion criteria
Age, months ± SD:
G1: 66.31 ± 11.31
G2: 65 ± 10.95
Mental age:
See IQ scores in baseline measures
Gender, n (%):
Male:
G1: 8 (62)
G2: 11 (92)
Female:
G1: 5 (38)
G2: 1 (8)
Race/ethnicity:
NR
SES:
Maternal education: NR
Household income: NR
Diagnostic approach:
In Study
Diagnostic tool/method:
ADI-R and clinical interview conducted by clinical psychologist independent of the investigation
Diagnostic category, n (%):
Autism: 25 (100)
Other characteristics:
NR
Educational/cognitive:
IQ, mean ± SD:
G1: 61.92 ± 11.31
G2: 65.17 ± 14.97
PIQ, mean ± SD:
G1: 77.54 ± 30.21
G2: 81.83 ± 21.05
Communication/language:
Language status, mean ± SD:
Comprehension:
G1: 49.03 ± 16.42
G2: 50.38 ± 15.46
Expressive:
G1: 45.12 ± 13.44
G2: 51.24 ± 19.24
Total:
G1: 51.83 ± 17.42
G2: 60.00 ± 24.22
VABS communication score, mean ± SD:
G1: 58.23 ± 9.21
G2: 63.17 ± 16.11
Adaptive behavior:
VABS daily living score, mean ± SD:
G1: 56.92 ± 9.8
G2: 57.00 ± 15.92
VABS composite score, mean ± SD:
G1: 55.77 ± 8.96
G2: 60.00 ± 13.2
Social skills:*
VABS socialization score, mean ± SD:
G1: 59.92 ± 7.19
G2: 62.17 ± 10.32
Educational/cognitive:
IQ, mean ± SD:
1 year:
G1: 79.08 ± 18.09
G2: 69.5 ± 18.38
G1/G2: P < 0.01
8 years:†
G1: 86.9 ± 25
G2: 71.9 ± 28.4
G1/G2: P < 0.05
PIQ, 1 year, mean ± SD:
G1: 95 ± 16.91
G2: 90.17 ± 19.97
Communication/language:
Language status, 1 year, mean ± SD:
Comprehension:
G1: 58.47 ± 17.11
G2: 47.55 ± 17.25
G1/G2: P < 0.05
Expressive:
G1: 67.39 ± 17.81
G2: 49 ± 18.69
G1/G2: P < 0.05
Total:
G1: 76.85 ± 26.67
G2: 61.58 ± 24.34
G1/G2: P < 0.05
VABS communication score, mean ± SD:
1 year:
G1: 73.93 ± 16.55
G2: 61.58 ± 13.37
G1/G2: P < 0.01
8 years:†
G1: 78.5 ± 22.3
G2: 56 ± 16.3
G1/G2: P < 0.01
Adaptive behavior:
VABS daily living score, mean ± SD:
1 year:
G1: 66.15 ± 16.55
G2: 62.5 ± 10.97
Child assessed at intake and 1 year after treatment began (follow-up conducted by licensed psychologist or examiner with Master’s in Special Education and license to administer tests); standardized tests of intelligence (WPPSI-R or WISC-R), visual-spatial skills (Merrill-Palmer Scale of Mental Tests), language (Reynell Developmental Language Scales), and adaptive functioning (VABS)
Groups:
G1: behavioral
G2: eclectic
Provider:
  • One or more aides
  • Special education teacher
Measure of treatment fidelity reported:
No
Co-interventions held stable during treatment:
Yes
Concomitant therapies:
NR
N at enrollment:
G1: 13
G2: 12
N at follow-up:
G1: 13
G2: 12
8 years:†
G1: 66.1 ± 18.1
G2: 50.4 ± 20.2
G1/G2: P < 0.05
VABS composite score, mean ± SD:
1 year:
G1: 67 ± 16.3
G2: 60.17 ± 11.69
G1/G2: P < 0.05
8 years:†
G1: 67.9 ± 17.1
G2: 49.5 ± 13
G1/G2: P < 0.01
Social Skills:
VABS socializetion score, mean ± SD:
1 year:
G1: 69.92 ± 17.26
G2: 70.67 ± 13.66
8 years:†
G1: 72.2 ± 14.4
G2: 58.1 ± 9.6
G1/G2: P < 0.01
VABS maladaptive behavior score, mean ± SD:
1 year:
G1: 4.29 ± 2.89
G2: 7.25 ± 2.99
G1/G2: P < 0.05
8 years:†
G1: 6.3 ± 4.1
G2: 11 ± 5.8
G1/G2: P < 0.05
Problem behavior:
Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist, 8 years, mean ± SD:†
Withdrawn:
G1: 59.4 ± 6.3
G2: 61.4 ± 5.3
Somatic:
G1: 55 ± 7
G2: 58 ± 9.6
Anxious/depresssed:
G1: 57.8 ± 6.1
G2: 57.1 ± 7.1
Social:
G1: 62.3 ± 6.3
G2: 67.2 ± 4.9
G1/G2: P < 0.05
Thought:
G1: 68.1 ± 9.6
G2: 68.5 ± 7
Attention:
G1: 59 ± 5.4
G2: 62.1 ± 6.1
Delinquent:
G1: 56 ± 5.2
G2: 59 ± 3.8
Aggressive:
G1: 57.3 ± 4.5
G2: 63.7 ± 4.6
G1/G2: P < 0.01
Harms:
NR
Modifiers:
G1: intake IQ correlated with change in language at one year follow-up (r = 0.59; P < 0.05) intake PIQ correlated with change in PIQ at one-year follow-up (r = −0.84; P < 0.01); intake VABS correlated with change in PIQ at one year follow-up (r = − 0.60; P < 0.05).
G2: age at intake correlated with change in VABS at one year follow-up (r = −0.65; P < 0.05) and change in VABS communication at eight-year follow-up (r = −0.64; P < 0.05);† intake PIQ correlated with change in IQ at one-year follow-up (r = 0.67; P < 0.05), intake VABS daily living and socialization correlated with change in IQ at eight-year follow-up (r = 0.58; P < 0.05),† VABS composite correlated with change in IQ at eight-year follow- up (r = 0.63; P < 0.05).†

Comments:

*

VABS maladaptive not given at baseline because it is normed for children 5 years and older.

VABS maladaptive not given at baseline because it is normed for children 5 years and older.

From: Appendix C, Evidence Tables

Cover of Therapies for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Therapies for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders.
Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 26.
Warren Z, Veenstra-VanderWeele J, Stone W, et al.

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