Quirmbach et al., 2009

Study DescriptionInterventionInclusion/Exclusion
Criteria/Population
Baseline MeasuresOutcomes
Author:
Quirmbach et al., 2009
Country:
US
Practice setting:
Academic
Intervention setting:
Clinic
Enrollment period:
NR
Funding:
NR
Author industry relationship disclosures:
NR
Design:
RCT
Intervention:
Two social stories training sessions one week apart. Baseline and four other trials were completed each day. The last trial was a generalization trial, where games were switched.
Assessments:
Observation/direct assessment (ADOS, WISC-IV, PIAT-R); observation (turn-taking games 5 times per day in play room): total game playing skill score 0–8, 2 points per skill (greeting behaviors, requesting to play a game, asking another person what they want to play, accepting another’s choice of game)
Groups:
G1: social story, standard condition (both training days)
G2: social story, directive condition (both training days)
G3: control story condition unrelated to social skills (control story first day, randomly assigned to either standard or directive story on the second day)
G1a: G1 with VCI > 68
G2a: G2 with VCI > 68
G3a: G3 with VCI > 68
G3s: G3a with standard second day
G3d: G3a with directive second day
Provider:
Research assistant
Treatment manual followed:
NR
Defined protocol followed:
NR
Inclusion criteria:
  • ASD diagnosis
Exclusion criteria:
  • Insufficient reading skills (less than first grade level on PIAT-R)
Age, yrs ± SD (range):
G1: 9.49 ± 2.09 (7–12)
G2: 10.33 ± 2.53 (7–14)
G3: 8.85 ± 1.59 (7–12)
G1a: 9.49 ± 2.04 (7–12)
G2a: 9.72 ± 2.61 (7–14)
G3a: 8.79 ± 1.38 (7–11)
Mental age:
See IQ under baseline
Gender, n (%):
Male:
G1: 14 (93)
G2: 14 (93)
G3: 14 (93)
Female:
G1: 1 (7)
G2: 1 (7)
G3: 1 (7)
Race/ethnicity:
NR
SES:
Maternal education: NR
Household income: NR
Diagnostic approach: NR
Diagnostic tool/method: ADOS
Diagnostic category, n (%):
Autism: 42 (93)
ASD: 3 (7)
Other characteristics:
NR
Overall ratings:
ADOS score, mean ± SD:
G1: 15.00 ± 4.99
G2: 14.40 ± 3.81
G3: 15.60 ± 4.87
G1a: 11.90 ± 2.42
G2a: 12.60 ± 3.20
G3a: 13.20 ± 2.94
Educational/cog- nitive/academic attainment:
WISC-IV score, mean ± SD:
FSIQ:
G1: 86.20 ± 22.80
G2: 81.00 ± 20.26
G3: 79.47 ± 22.68
G1a: 98.80 ± 16.25
G2a: 91.70 ± 14.87
G3a: 91.50 ± 16.47
VCI:
G1: 82.07 ± 28.04
G2: 79.33 ± 24.85
G3: 78.80 ± 27.86
G1a: 98.70 ± 17.32
G2a: 93.50 ± 16.34
G3a: 95.10 ± 17.92
PRI:
G1: 99.47 ± 13.83
G2: 95.20 ± 13.18
G3: 90.67 ± 18.89
G1a: 103.20 ± 14.64
G2a: 100.90 ± 8.49
G3a: 97.80 ± 17.12
PIAT-R score, mean ± SD:
Reading recognition:
G1: 4.09 ± 3.55
G2: 3.66 ± 3.00
G3: 2.49 ± 1.41
G1a: 5.36 ± 3.76
G2a: 4.29 ± 3.51
G3a: 2.96 ± 1.51
Reading comprehension:
G1: 3.82 ± 3.72
G2: 3.81 ± 3.72
G3: 2.85 ± 2.50
G1a: 5.00 ± 4.10
G2a: 4.68 ± 4.35
G3a: 3.66 ± 2.74
Social skills:
Total game playing skills score, mean ± SD:
Day 1, trial 2:
G1: 4.53 ± 3.48
G2: 3.73 ± 2.96
G3: NR
G1a: 6.30 ± 2.83
G2a: 5.10 ± 2.60
G3a: NR
G3s: 2.40 ± 1.14
G3d: 2.40 ± 1.14
Day 1, trial 3:
G1: 4.53 ± 3.25
G2: 4.87 ± 2.90
G3: NR
G1a: 6.40 ± 2.07
G2a: 6.30 ± 2.45
G3a: NR
G3s: 2.80 ± 1.30
G3d: 2.20 ± 0.84
Day 1, trial 4:
G1: 4.07 ± 3.17
G2: 5.07 ± 2.84
G3: NR
G1a: 5.90 ±2.03
G2a: 6.40 ± 2.27
G3a: NR
G3s: 2.40 ± 1.67
G3d: 2.20 ± 0.84
ANOVA (only trials 1–4):
G1/G3: P < 0.05
G2/G3: P < 0.05
Improvement across trials:
P < 0.001
G1a/G3a:
P < 0.001
G2a/G3a:
P < 0.001
Improvement across trials:
P < 0.001
Measure of treatment fidelity reported:
No
Co-interventions held stable during treatment:
NR
Concomitant therapies:
NR
N at enrollment:
G1: 15
G2: 15
G3: 15
G1a: 10
G2a: 10
G3a: 10
G3s: 5
G3d: 5
Total game playing skills score, trial 1, mean ± SD:
G1: 1.87 ± 1.30
G2: 2.40 ± 1.18
G3: NR
G1a: 2.50 ± 0.97
G2a: 2.90 ± 0.88
G3a: NR
G3s: 2.80 ± 0.84
G3d: 2.40 ± 0.89
Day 1, trial 5 (generalization):
G1: 3.67 ± 2.82
G2: 4.33 ± 2.66
G3: NR
G1a: 5.30 ± 1.77
G2a: 5.70 ± 2.06
G3a: NR
G3s: 2.20 ± 1.48
G3d: 2.40 ± 1.14
Day 2, trial 6:
G1: 4.53 ± 3.27
G2: 3.93 ± 1.94
G3: NR
G1a: 6.50 ± 1.84
G2a: 4.70 ± 1.95
G3a: NR
G3s: 3.00 ± 0.71
G3d: 3.00 ± 1.00
Day 2, trial 7:
G1: 5.20 ± 3.28
G2: 4.93 ± 3.13
G3: NR
G1a: 7.20 ± 1.69
G2a: 6.40 ± 2.63
G3a: NR
G3s: 4.80 ± 3.03
G3d: 5.60 ± 1.82
Day 2, trial 8:
G1: 5.07 ± 3.31
G2: 4.93 ± 2.99
G3: NR
G1a: 7.10 ± 1.66
G2a: 5.90 ± 2.64
G3a: NR
G3s: 6.40 ± 2.19
G3d: 4.80 ± 2.17
Day 2, trial 9:
G1: 5.07 ± 3.17
G2: 5.80 ± 2.57
G3: NR
G1a: 7.00 ± 1.70
G2a: 6.40 ± 1.78
G3a: NR
G3s: 6.40 ± 2.19
G3d: 4.60 ± 2.30
Day 2, trial 10 (generalization):
G1: 4.80 ± 3.36
G2: 5.20 ± 2.73
G3: NR
G1a: 6.80 ± 1.93
G2a: 6.50 ± 2.27
G3a: NR
G3s: 5.40 ± 1.95
G3d: 6.60 ± 1.67
ANOVA (only groups G1 & G2, trials 1–10):
G1/G2: P = NS
Improvement across trials:
P < 0.001
Harms:
NR
Modifiers:
Condition-trial interaction (G1 and G2 improve across trials 1–4, G3 no improvement): P < 0.001 Condition-trial interaction (G1a and G2a improve across trials 1–4, G3a no improvement): P < 0.001
WISC-IV VCI:
P < 0.001

From: Appendix C, Evidence Tables

Cover of Therapies for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Therapies for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders.
Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 26.
Warren Z, Veenstra-VanderWeele J, Stone W, et al.

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