Hartshorn et al., 2001

Study DescriptionInterventionInclusion/Exclusion
Criteria/Population
Baseline MeasuresOutcomes
Author:
Hartshorn et al., 2001
Country:
US
Practice setting:
Academic
Intervention setting:
School for children with autism
Enrollment period:
NR
Funding:
NIH, Johnson and Johnson
Author industry relationship disclosures:
NR
Design:
Non randomized controlled trial
Intervention:
30 minute movement sessions held twice a week for two months Controls matched on age and developmental level
Assessments:
Behavior coded in 10-second time sample units for 6 one-minute periods during the first 18 minutes of first and last sessions; controls observed during two sessions two months apart
Groups:
G1: intervention
G2: controls
Provider:
  • Sessions given by trained movement therapists.
  • Behaviors observed and coded by psychology graduate students with prior training to 80% reliability
Measure of treatment fidelity reported: No
Co-interventions held stable during treatment:
NR
Concomitant therapies:
NR
N at enrollment:
G1: 38
G2: 38
N at follow-up:
G1: 38
G2: 38
Inclusion criteria:
  • From a school for children with autism
  • Control group matched on age and development level with movement therapy group (from same school)
Exclusion criteria:
  • See inclusion criteria
Age, years (range):
G1: 5 (3–7)
G2: NR
Mental age:
NR
Gender:
NR
Race/ethnicity, %:*
White:
G1: 80
Hispanic:
G1: 10
Black:
G1: 10
SES:
Maternal education: NR
Household income:*
G1: “Middle SES”
Diagnostic approach:
In Study/Referral
Diagnostic tool/method:
NR
Diagnostic category:
See inclusion criteria
Other characteristics:
NR
Percentage of time behavior observed in session, mean ± SD:
Adaptive behavior:
Stereotypical behaviors:
G1: 2.0 ± 0.5
G2: 3.0 ± 0.4
Wandering:
G1: 14.0 ± 2.4
G2: 16.0 ± 2.8
Social skills:
Responding to touch negatively:
G1: 5.0 ± 8
G2: 4.0 ± 0.9
On-task passive:
G1: 16.0 ± 4.3
G2: 15.0 ± 5.9
On-task active:
G1: 77.0 ± 15.6
G2: 9.0 ± 13.2
Eye contact:
G1: 9.0 ± 2.5
G2: 11.0 ± 3.1
Social relatedness toward teacher:
G1: 28.0 ± 9.3
G2: 25.0 ± 11.2
Resisting teacher:
G1: 9.0 ± 1.7
G2: 12.0 ± 1.5
Percentage of time behavior observed in session, mean ± SD:
Adaptive behavior:
Stereotypical behaviors:
G1: 2.0 ± 0.7
G2: 4.0 ± 1.2
G1/G2: P = NS
Wandering:
G1: 10.0 ± 3.1
G2: 15.0 ± 2.9
G1/G2: P < 0.05
Social skills:
Responding to touch negatively:
G1: 1.0 ± 2
G2: 3.0 ± 0.5
G1/G2: P < 0.01**
On-task passive:
G1: 37.0 ± 116
G2: 19.0 ± 7.3
G1/G2: P < 0.001**
On-task active:
G1: 76.0 ± 19.1
G2: 67.0 ± 16.3
G1/G2: P = NS
Eye contact:
G1: 7.0 ± 1.9
G2: 9.0 ± 2.4
G1/G2: P = NS
Social relatedness toward teacher:
G1: 25.0 ± 7.9
G2: 21.0 ± 8.3
G1/G2: P = NS
Resisting teacher:
G1: 4.0 ± 1.5
G2: 10.0 ± 1.3
G1/G2: P < 0.05**
Harms:
NR
Modifiers:
NR

Comments:

*

This measure for G2 is described as “similar” to G1 but otherwise not reported.

**

The p-values for three behaviors were different in the table (reported above) and the text: responding to touch negatively (text P < 0.005; table P < 0.01), on-task passive (text P < 0.05; table P < 0.001), and resisting teacher (text: P < 0.01; table: P < 0.05).

This measure for G2 is described as “similar” to G1 but otherwise not reported.

The p-values for three behaviors were different in the table (reported above) and the text: responding to touch negatively (text P < 0.005; table P < 0.01), on-task passive (text P < 0.05; table P < 0.001), and resisting teacher (text: P < 0.01; table: P < 0.05).

From: Appendix C, Evidence Tables

Cover of Therapies for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Therapies for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders.
Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 26.
Warren Z, Veenstra-VanderWeele J, Stone W, et al.

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