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Table 8Summary of the number of studies reporting statistically significant process changes in studies of prescribing by process for hospital and ambulatory based studies

Process CategoryRCTsCohort and Case- Control StudiesObservational StudiesMixed Methods Studies
Change in Prescribing (85 of 104 showed benefit)
Hospital Studies11+
2=
2+
0
40+
6=
0
0
Ambulatory24+
5=
1+
2=
7+
4=
0
0
Errors in Prescribing (17 of 24 showed benefit)
Hospital Studies2+
0
0
0
13+
6=
0
1=
Ambulatory0
0
0
0
2+
0
0
0
Time Considerations (6 of 12 showed benefit)
Hospital Studies0
0
0
0
2+
4=
1487
0
0
Ambulatory1+
1=
1+
0
2+
0
0
0
Compliance witd Guidelines, Reminders, and Recommended Practice (28 of 37 showed benefit)
Hospital Studies4+
1=
1+
0
14+
3=
1422
0
0
Ambulatory5+
2=
1=4+
0
0
1=
Workflow in Prescribing (1 of 2 showed benefit)
Hospital Studies0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Ambulatory0
1=
0
0
1+
1=
0
0

+ indicates that half or more of the main endpoints were shown to be statistically significant.

= indicates that at least half of the main endpoints were statistically not significant.

− indicates that the main endpoints were statistically significant in the opposite direction projected at study start.

The citations to the studies listed above are in the text preceding this table.

Ambulatory studies included those that were done outside hospitals including homes and communities.

+ indicates that half or more of the main endpoints were shown to be statistically significant.

= indicates that at least half of the main endpoints were statistically not significant.

− indicates that the main endpoints were statistically significant in the opposite direction projected at study start.

From: Results

Cover of Enabling Medication Management Through Health Information Technology
Enabling Medication Management Through Health Information Technology.
Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 201.
McKibbon KA, Lokker C, Handler SM, et al.

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