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Table 8Possible sources of heterogeneity in external validation studies

Different equations being assessed
-

Cohort examination

-

Predictive model

-

Method of derivation

Definition of outcomes:
-

All coronary heart disease events

-

All cardiovascular disease events

-

Coronary heart disease mortality

-

Cardiovascular disease mortality

-

’Hard’ coronary heart disease (coronary death and myocardial infarction)

-

Fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction

Population
-

Geographical region of test population characteristics:

-

Inclusion/exclusion criteria e.g. previous history of coronary heart disease

-

Observed disease risk

-

Comorbidity

-

Previous history of cardiovascular disease

-

Diabetes

-

Hypertension

-

Hyperlipidaemia

-

Types of population

-

Community-based and screening

-

Occupational

-

Randomised controlled trials

-

Specific patient groups

-

Baseline date

-

Male/female proportion

-

Age

-

Socio-economic status

-

Ethnicity

From: External validation of cardiovascular risk scores to evaluate the generalisability of risk scoring methods in different populations

Cover of A Systematic Review of Risk Scoring Methods and Clinical Decision Aids Used in the Primary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease (Supplement)
A Systematic Review of Risk Scoring Methods and Clinical Decision Aids Used in the Primary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease (Supplement) [Internet].
NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 67S.
Beswick AD, Brindle P, Fahey T, et al.
Copyright © 2008, Royal College of General Practitioners.

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