Environment

SourceReason for exclusion
Allan (1988)Study excluded on the basis of research design.
Caplan (1993)Study excluded on the basis of research design.

Although comparing two groups, the study does not meet the inclusion criteria for the present guideline (for example, before-and-after comparison, or comparison over multiple time intervals).
Delaney (1994)Study excluded on basis of study design and population group.
Flannery (1997)Study excluded on the basis of research design.
Authors of study acknowledge methodological limitations of the study.
Lack of generalisability of the findings.
Gray (1998)The aims/outcomes of three of the studies included in the review are not compatible with the scope of the present guideline (for example, freedom for service users to leave the unit, rehabilitation outcomes).
The one qualitative study included in the literature review is expected to be included in the ‘restraint/seclusion’ evidence review for the present guideline.
Hodges (1986)Study not included because there were no reported outcomes that were directly related to violent or aggressive incidents. Otherwise very well designed and reported study.
Katz (1990)Study excluded on the basis on study design.
Kumar (2001)The methodological quality of this review is extremely poor. With the exception of the abstract, there is no information on how the searches were conducted, how the articles were reviewed or why the authors have included 32 references when they state that only six articles were reviewed.
Authors state that only Medline was searched using the terms violence and crowding, which is insufficient searching criteria for this to be viewed as a report of any quality.
Lanza (1994)Study excluded on the basis of research design.
Although comparing two groups, the study does not meet the inclusion criteria for the present guideline (for example, before-and-after comparison or comparison over multiple time intervals).
McMinn (2000)Study excluded on the basis of population group.
Middelboe (2001)Study excluded on basis of study design.
Omerov (1997)Study excluded due to outcomes.
Primarily concerned with evaluation of staff training programme in a new ward in comparison to rates of violence in previous ward.
This study is expected to be included in the ‘training’ evidence review for the present guideline.
Rosenbaum (1991)Study excluded on the basis of research design.
Snyder III (1994)Study excluded on the basis of research design.
Lack of generalisability of the findings.
Wilson (1992)Study excluded on the basis of study design.
No information provided on age of adolescents or indeed any other demographic variables.

From: Appendix 6, Evidence tables - excluded studies

Cover of Violence
Violence: The Short-Term Management of Disturbed/Violent Behaviour in In-Patient Psychiatric Settings and Emergency Departments.
NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 25.
National Collaborating Centre for Nursing and Supportive Care (UK).
Copyright © 2006, Royal College of Nursing.

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