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Study IDCountryPopulationAge of recruitment to follow-upRisk factorsOutcome
BABINSKI1999

Quality assessed: +
US, San FranciscoN = 360; male and female

Selection criteria: All the public and private schools were listed, 40 schools each were randomly selected, one sample for each grade level up to grade 5 was selected
9 – 26 yearsChild factors:
-

Conduct problems

-

Hyperactive-impulsive behaviour

-

Conduct problems + hyperactive-impulsive behaviour

Offending behaviour:
-

Official records

-

Self-report

BIEDERMAN1996

Quality assessed: +
USN = 260; male

Selection criteria: Children with and without ADHD (DSM-III-R)
Recruited from ages 6 – 17 years

Followed up between ages 16 and 27 years
Child factors:
-

ADHD

-

Oppositional defiant disorder

-

Conduct disorder

Diagnosis (DSM- IV):
-

ADHD

-

Oppositional defiant disorder

-

Conduct disorder

BOR2004

(The Mater University Study of Pregnancy)

Quality assessed: +
Australia, BrisbaneN = 5278; male and female

Selection criteria: Women in 1981 who gave birth to a live, singleton baby and completed postnatal surveys 3 to 5 days after the birth
Prenatal to 14 yearsChild factors at 5 years:
-

Behaviour problems (parent- rated/CBCL)

-

Academic (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised)

Family factors from prenatal to 5 years:
-

Harsh discipline

Social factors from prenatal to 5 years:
-

Family income

-

Perinatal factors

Behaviour problems:
-

Parent-rated (CBCL)

FARAONE1997

Quality assessed: +
USN = 260; female

Selection criteria: Psychiatrically referred females from lists of consecutive ADHD patients from paediatric psychopharmacology clinics. Controls from lists of outpatient at paediatric medical clinics
Age at recruitment: 6 – 17 years

Age at follow-up: 10 and 21 years
Family factors:
-

Parents who had oppositional defiant disorder

-

Parents who had conduct disorder

-

Parent who had/have ADHD

Diagnosis:
-

ADHD + conduct disorder

-

ADHD + oppositional defiant disorder

-

ADHD only

FARMER2004

Quality assessed: +
US, North CarolinaN = 475; male and female

Selection criteria: Participants in 7th grade from three schools in North Carolina
13 – 24 yearsChild factors:
-

Aggression

Offending behaviour:
-

Official arrests

FARRINGTON1989

(Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development)

Quality assessed: +
UK, LondonN = 411; males

Selection criteria: Living in a working class area of London, 8 years of age and on the registers of six state primary schools within a one-mile radius of the research office
8 – 32 yearsChild factors:
-

Impulsivity: at ages 8–10

-

IQ: at ages 8–10

Social factors:
-

Family income: at age 8

-

Social class: ages 8–10

Family factors:
-

Harsh discipline: at age 8

-

Parental disagreement: at age 8

-

Divorce: by age 10

Behaviour problems:
-

Teacher reports

-

Self-report

Offending behaviour
-

Official offences/convictions

Diagnosis:
-

Antisocial personality disorder

FERGUSSON1994

(Christchurch Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study)

Quality assessed: +
New Zealand, ChristchurchN = 1265

Selection criteria: Birth cohort
Birth to 16 yearsChild factors (between 7 and 9 years):
-

Behaviour problems (parent- and teacher-rated)

-

Reading ability: at age 8

-

Academic ability

Social factors (between 7 and 9 years):
-

Family and childhood adversity

Family factors:
-

Parental separation: between the ages of 0 – 5; 5 – 10; 10 – 15 years

Behaviour problems:
-

Self-report

-

Parent-report (Revised Behaviour Problem Checklist)

-

Teacher-report

-

Self-report

Diagnosis:
-

Conduct disorder (DSM-III-R)

HELGELAND2005

Quality assessed: +
Norway, OsloN = 148; males and females

Selection criteria: Consecutive admissions of patients to the adolescent unit of the National Centre for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
15 – 43 yearsChild factors:
-

Any personality disorder

-

Any cluster A

-

Any cluster B

-

Any cluster C

Diagnosis (DSM-IV):
-

Any personality disorder

-

Any cluster A

-

Any cluster B

-

Any cluster C

HERRENKOHL2000

(Seattle Social Development Project)

Quality assessed: +
US, SeattleN = 808; male and female

Selection criteria: 5th graders from 18 Seattle public elementary schools serving high crime areas
10 – 18 yearsChild factors:
-

Hyperactivity (parent- and teacher-rated): at age 10, 14 and 16 years

-

Behaviour problems (teacher-rated): at age 10, 14 and 16 years

Social factors:
-

Peer delinquency: at age 10, 14 and 16 years

-

Socioeconomic status (community): at age 10, 14 and 16 years

Family factors:
-

Parent conflict: at age 10, 14 and 16 years

-

Parent criminality: at age 10, 14 and 16 years

Behaviour problems:
-

Self-report (violence)

KLEIN1997

Quality assessed: +
USN = 132; male and female

Selection criteria: Local newspapers and advertisement requesting mothers and adolescents to participate in parent-adolescent interaction study
14 – 20 yearsFamily factors:
-

Single parents

-

Parent conflict

Behaviour problems:
-

Self-report (National Youth Survey)

Offending Behaviour:
-

Self report (arrests/convictions)

KOSKINEN2001

Quality assessed: +
FinlandN = 5589; male

Selection criteria: Birth cohort of 1966
Prenatal to 14 yearsFamily factors:
-

Single parent: throughout

-

Single parent: at birth but remarried

-

Divorced/separated: at any point between birth and 14 years

Offending behaviour:
-

Official offences

KRATZER1997

Quality assessed: +
Sweden, StockholmN = 12, 717; male and female

Selection criteria: Unselected birth cohort
Prenatal to 30 yearsChild factors:
-

Conduct problems at school: ages 12 – 13 and 15 – 16 years and/or in the community: before age 15

Social factors:
-

Social class

Offending behaviour:
-

Official records

LOEBER1991

(Pittsburgh Youth Study)

Quality assessed: +
USN = 205 males

Selection criteria: 4th, 7th and 10th graders from 21 schools
Age at recruitment: 10 – 16 years

Age at follow-up: 15 – 21 years
Child factors:
-

Behaviour problems (parent- rated/retrospective): between ages 1 – 5 years

-

Behaviour problems (parent- rated): between ages 10 and 16 years

-

Aggression/hyperactivity

Social factors:
-

Deviant peers

Family factors:
-

Discipline (inconsistent)

Behaviour problems:
-

Aggression (self-report)

Offending behaviour:
-

Official arrests - any

-

Self-report - theft

LOEBER1995

Quality assessed: +
USN=96; all male

Selection criteria: Disruptive behavior disorder
Age at recruitment: Mean of 10 years (range: 7 – 12 years)

Age at follow up: 16 years
Child factors:
-

Behavioural problems

-

ADHD

-

oppositional defiant disorder

Family factors:
-

Parent with antisocial personality disorder

-

Parental substance misuse

-

Poor communication

-

Poor marital relations

Behaviour problems: Conduct disorder
LUNTZ1994

Quality assessed: +
USN = 699; male and female

Selection criteria: Abused and/or neglected children and a comparison group
20 years after their childhood victimisation

Age at follow-up: ages 18 – 35 years
Family and/or social factors:
-

Physical/sexual abuse

-

Neglect from parents

Diagnosis:
-

Antisocial personality disorder

MANNUZZA1998

Quality assessed: +
USN = 158; males

Selection criteria: ADHD participant recruited from psychiatric research clinic and a comparison group recruited from a non- psychiatric outpatient clinic
7 – 24 yearsChild factors:
-

ADHD

-

Conduct disorder

-

Oppositional defiant disorder

Diagnosis:
-

Antisocial personality disorder (DSM-III-R)

-

Conduct disorder

MCCABE2005

(Patterns of Youth Mental Health Care in Public Service Systems Study)

Quality assessed: +
US, CaliforniaN = 423; male and female

Selection criteria: Sub-sample from Patterns of Care study of participants who were 12 or older at baseline and 17 or younger at follow-up
12 – 17 yearsChild factors:
-

Behaviour problems (CBCL)

-

Conduct disorder (DSM-IV)

Social factors:
-

Income

Behaviour problems:
-

Parent-report (CBCL)

Diagnosis:
-

Conduct disorder (DSM-IV)

MOFFITT2002

(Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study)

Quality assessed: +
New Zealand, DunedinN = 1037; male and female

Selection criteria: Dunedin birth cohort of all births between 1 April 1972 and 31 March 1973
3 – 32 yearsChild factors (between ages 7 and 9 years):
-

Behaviour problems (Rutter)

-

Reading ability (Burt Reading Test)

Behaviour problems:
-

Self-report

-

Parent-report (Revised Behaviour Problem Checklist)

PAKIZ1997

Quality assessed: +
USN = 375; male and female

Selection criteria: in public kindergarten in the north-eastern US in 1977
5 – 21 yearsChild factors:
-

Behaviour problems (teacher-report/Kindergarten Behaviour Questionnaire): at age 5 years

-

Behaviour problems (teacher-report/Child and Adolescent Adjustment Profile): at age 9 years

-

Behaviour problems (self-report/CBCL-YSR): at ages 15 and 18 years

Diagnosis:
-

Antisocial personality disorder (DSM-III-R)

RAINE1994

Quality assessed: +
Denmark, CopenhagenN = 4269; males

Selection criteria: All male consecutive births in a state university hospital between 1959 and 1961
Prenatal to 17 – 19 yearsSocial factors:
-

Peer rejection: at age 1 year

-

Birth complications

Offending behaviour:
-

Official violent offences

RITTER2002

Quality assessed: +
USN = 109; 48 males; 61 females (results analysed separately by gender)

Selection criteria: Participant not exposed to familial alcoholism and those who are exposed
15 – 21 yearsChild factors:
-

Conduct disorder (DSM-II-R/DSM-IV)

Family factors:
-

Conflict

Behaviour problems:
-

Conduct disorder (DSM-II-R/DSM-IV)

SATTERFIELD1997

Quality assessed: +
US, CaliforniaN = 254; males only

Selection criteria: Consecutive referrals of hyperactive boys to psychiatric outpatient clinics and boys from public schools matched to the at-risk group
7 – 37 yearsChild factors:
-

ADHD (DSM-III)

Offending behaviour:
-

Official arrests

-

Official incarcerations

SOURANDER2006

(Epidemiological Multicentre Child Psychiatry study in Finland)

Quality assessed: +
FinlandN = 2713; male

Selection criteria: Finnish birth cohort born during 1981
8 years to late adolescenceChild factors:
-

Behaviour problems: parent- and teacher-report (Rutter Scale)

Family factors:
-

Single family

Offending behaviour
-

Official offences

STEVENSON2001

Quality assessed: +
UK, LondonN = 828; male and female

Selection criteria: One-in-four random sample of cohort of children born in 1969 – 1970 living in borough of London
3 – 23/24 yearsChild factors:
-

Behaviour problems

Offending behaviour:
-

Official offences

TREMBLAY1994

(Montreal Longitudinal Study)

Quality assessed:+
Canada, QuebecN = 957 males; 645 females

Selection criteria: Schools with the lowest socioeconomic index, both biological parents were born in Canada and their mother tongue was French
6 – 17 yearsChild factors:
-

Impulsivity: at age 6 years

-

Behaviour problems: at age 6 years

-

IQ (verbal): at age 13 years

Social factors:
-

Family income: 10 to 16 years

Family factors:
-

Divorce: between 6 and 11 years and 12 and 15 years

Behaviour problems:
-

Self-report

Diagnosis (DSM-III-R):
-

Conduct disorder

WALKER1997

(Oregon Youth Study)

Quality assessed: +
USN = 80

Selection criteria: Sub-sample of antisocial adults and control group from the Oregon Youth study (WIESNER2003A)
10 – 17 yearsChild factors:
-

Antisocial personality disorder construct

-

Delinquency

-

Academic skills

Social factors:
-

Deviant peers

Offending behaviour:
-

Official arrests

WHITE2001

Quality assessed: +
USN=698; all male

Selection criteria: Representative sample of New Jersey adolescents
Age at recruitment: 12 – 18 years

Age at follow up: 25 – 31 years
Child factors:
-

Neuropsychological risk (low birth weight, premature birth)

-

Verbal ability/executive functioning

-

Impulsivity

Family factors:
-

Single parent

-

Parent hostility

Social factors
-

Socioeconomic status

Offending behaviour:
-

Self-report

WIESNER2003A

(Oregon Youth Study)

Quality assessed: +
USN = 206; males

Selection criteria: Two successive grade 4 (age 9–10 years) recruited from 1983 to 1985 from schools in the higher crime areas of a medium-sized metropolitan region
9/10 to 23/24 yearsChild factors:
-

Behaviour problems (combined parent-, teacher- and self-report)

Family factors:
-

Harsh/inconsistent discipline

-

Parent’s offending behaviour

-

Single parent

Social factors:
-

Deviant peers

Offending behaviour:
-

Self-report of arrests (Elliot Delinquency Scale)

-

Official arrests

WIESNER2003B

Quality assessed: +
GermanyN = 318; male and female

Selection criteria: Representative sample of East and West German children
Age at recruitment: 10 – 13 years (mean = 11)

Age at follow-up: 13 – 17 years (mean = 15)
Child factors:
-

Behaviour problems (self-report)

Social/family factors:
-

Early adversities

Offending behaviour:
-

Self-report

From: APPENDIX 17, STUDY CHARACTERISITCS OF RISK FACTORS FOR DEVELOPING ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDER

Cover of Antisocial Personality Disorder
Antisocial Personality Disorder: Treatment, Management and Prevention.
NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 77.
National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).
Leicester (UK): British Psychological Society; 2010.
Copyright © 2010, The British Psychological Society & The Royal College of Psychiatrists.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. Enquiries in this regard should be directed to the British Psychological Society.

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