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NAgeDentition** D, M, PRecruitmentDental check:
Boehmer et al., 2001Cross-sectional (CS)United States (Boston)April 1996 – May 199753862 (mean) SD 11.9PMen who are participants in the Veterans Health Study – a longitudinal study of the health and functional status of male Veterans Administration ambulatory care patients.Not stated(Subjective measure of dental check frequency)
Self-reported time of last dental visit:
For analysis purposes, this was divided into 3 categories:

  1. During the last year
  2. Between 1 and 2 years ago
  3. More than 2 years ago
Mucosa score

Number of teeth

Decayed coronal surfaces

Root caries

Periodontal treatment need
Title of Study: Oral Health of Ambulatory Care Patients
Aim of Study: To assess Veterans Administration patients' clinical oral health status and its associations with sociodemographic characteristics and use of dental care.
Bullock et al., 2001Case-control studyStoke-on-Trent, North
Staffordshire. UK.
Not statedCases (Ca)
Controls (Co)





(28) (23)

(45) (43)

(24) (22)

(3) (12)
PConsecutive patients (18+ yrs) attending a general dental practice were recruited into the two study groups as they presented themselves for dental examination or for treatment in response to a dental problem.Mixed private/NHS practice(Objective measure of dental check frequency)

Regular Attenders (Controls): Adult patients, aged 18 years or over, who had attended for at least two dental examinations in the course of the past two years

Casual Attenders (Cases): Adult patients, aged 18 years or over, who had not had a dental examination during the course of the past two years and who had attended in response to a dental problem
Primary outcome:
Subjects with dentinal caries on bitewing radiograph.

Secondary Outcomes:
Subjects with visual caries causing cavitation.

Subjects with >30% tooth-bone loss

Subjects with mobile teeth.
Title of Study: A case-control study of differences between regular and casual adult attenders in General Dental Practice.
Aim of Study: To assess whether adults attending a dental practice for regular dental care have better oral health than adults attending casually in response to a dental problem and to explore the barriers to asymptomatic attendance.
Campus et al., 2001CSSardinia, ItalyDec.1997 to March 199840312 yr oldsPSystematic cluster sampling of 1,250
12 yr old children attending school in study area. Excluded children without consent, those with fixed appliances
Italian population has access to dental care only on a private basis.(Subjective measure of dental check frequency)
Reported dental check-ups:
Less than once a year
Once a year
Twice a year
More than twice a year

Mean no. of decayed surfaces

Mean no of filled surfaces

CPITN: healthy, bleeding, calculus
Title of Study: Socio-economic and behavioural factors related to caries in twelve-year-old Sardinian children.
Aim of Study: 1) to determine caries prevalence among 12-year-old Sardinian children and 2) to investigate the relationships between oral clinical indices and various behavioural and social-demographic factors. A questionnaire concerning oral hygiene habits, the onset of toothbrushing habits, frequency of dental check-ups, sweet food and soft drink consumption and socio-economic background was filled out by children and parents/guardians.
Carvalho et al., 2001CSBelgium1983


12 year oldsPTwo samples were drawn in connection with children's compulsory regular medical check-up at the University School Health Centre in Brussels, responsible for 17 secondary schools. Eight out of these 17 schools were randomly selected to participate in the sample in 1983. Children from the same schools sampled in 1998.In Belgium a partial public subsidy for health care is available. Partial refunds for dental and medical expenses are available for a list of selected treatments. In 1989, ‘preventive procedures’ included in list of reimbursable treatments included one annual clinical examination, one annual topical fluoride application and one sealant application on permanent teeth.(Subjective measure of dental check frequency)
Reason for making dental appointment:
  1. Never
  2. discomfort or pain
  3. Control visit at least once per year
Comparisons made (in multiple linear regression model):

Appointment on pain (no =0; yes =1)

Regular appointment (no = 0; yes =1).
Title of Study: The decline in dental caries among Belgian children between 1983 and 1998.
Aim of Study: To investigate cross-sectionally a possible dental caries decline among Belgian 12-yr-old children from 1993 to 1998 and to analyse some factors that may be related to dental caries during the study period.
Chavers et al., 2002Longitudinal Study (LS)United States (Florida)Baseline (August 1993-April 1994)

Telephone interview at 6,12, 18 months.
Personal interview and clinical examination at 24 months (August 1995)
873 (by 24 months, 764 persons remained in study, of whom 723 participated in a clinical examination)45 yrs or olderPSampling designed to ensure that a large no. of persons at hypothesized increased risk for oral health decrements would be included (namely African Americans, rural residents, persons 45 yrs or older & the poor). Random sample of dentate respondents stratified by nonmetropolitan and metropolitan countiesNot stated(Subjective measure of dental check frequency)
Problem oriented attenders (POA)
Classified as POA if respondent described their approach to dental care as: “I never go to a dentist” and/or “I go to a dentist when I have a problem or when I know I need to get something fixed”

Regular attenders (RA)

Classified as RA if respondent described their approach to dental care as “I go to a dentist occasionally, whether or not I have a problem” or “I go to a dentist regularly”
Oral Disadvantage due to:
  1. Disease/Tissue damage
  2. pain
  3. function
Telephone interview at 6,12, 18 months.
Personal interview and clinical examination at 24 months
Title of Study: Racial and socio-economic disparities in oral disadvantage, a measure of oral health-related quality of life: 24 month incidence.
(NOTE: Oral disadvantage is one component of ‘oral health-related quality of life’ (OHRQOL) and connotes a psychosocial state in which persons affected by oral disease, tissue damage, or functional limitation do not perform normal social activities, such as interpersonal contacts or employment, because of their mouth).
Aim of Study: To estimate the incidence of oral disadvantage based on the subject's approach to dental care, sex, race, and financial status; to identify demographic and socio-economic characteristics associated with oral disadvantage; and to determine if these characteristics are differentially associated with the three domains of oral disadvantage.
Freire et al., 2002Cross-sectional (CS)BrazilNot Stated66415 yr olds & their mothersPRandomly selected from public and private schools in a fluoridated area of BrazilNot stated(Subjective measure of dental check frequency)
Pattern of dental attendance:
Check-ups mainly
In trouble mainly
No dental visit
Do not know
Caries severityNot applicable
Title of Study: Mothers' sense of coherence and their adolescent children's oral health status and behaviours.
Aim of Study: To investigate the relationship between mothers' sense of coherence (SOC) and their adolescent children's oral health.
Lissowska et al., 2003Case-control studyPolandMarch 1997-June 2000Cases 122 (78 males, 44 females)

Controls 124 (72 males, 52 females)
23-80 yearsPMen and women, aged 23 –80 yrs, diagnosed with histologically confirmed incident cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx in one of the biggest maxillofacial surgery clinics in the province of Warsaw.
Controls were patients admitted for acute illnesses to major hospitals serving the same areas where the cases lived.
Not stated(Subjective measure of dental check frequency)

Every year

Every 2-5 years

<once every 5 years

Oral cavity and pharynx cancerNA
Title of Study: Smoking, alcohol, diet, dentition and sexual practices in the epidemiology of oral cancer in Poland
Aim of Study: The study was conducted within the framework of an international multicentre case-control study, coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, to assess risk factors for oral cancer, including the potential impact of HPV infection on oral cancer. The aim of the study was to assess a variety of lifestyle risk factors in Poland.
Locker 2001Longitudinal studyOntario, CanadaData collection at baseline (1989) and after 3 years907 (baseline)
611 (follow-up)
Mean age at baseline 63 yrsPRandomly selected sample of adults aged 50 years and over living independently in four Ontario communities.Not stated(Objective measure of dental check frequency) Number of dental visits in the previous three years:

Reported oral health

3 years after baseline
Title of Study: Does dental care improve the oral health of older adults?
Objective of the study: To assess the relationship between self-perceived change in oral health status and the provision of dental treatment in an older adult population.
Petersen et al., 2001Cross sectionalSouthern ThailandSurvey completed by 19971156 Grade I children

1116 Grade VI children
6 yrs

12 yrs

Two stage random sampling of primary schools (urban and rural).Not stated(Subjective measure of dental check frequency)
Annual Dental Visit:


(12 yr olds only)
Title of Study: Oral health status and oral health behaviour of urban and rural school children in Southern Thailand
Aim of Study: To describe the level of oral disease in urban and rural school-children in Southern Thailand; to analyse self-care practices and dental visiting habits of 12-year-olds, and to assess the effect of socio-behavioural factors on dental caries experience
Richards and Ameen 2002Case controlSwansea, South WalesDecember 1998 – June 199964318 years or older (Average age 41.3 years with standard deviation of 13.82.)POpportunistic recruitment of consecutive patients (aged 18+ years) attending a general dental practice in an urban area of SwanseaNot stated(Objective measure of dental check frequency)

Regular attenders
Last attendance ≤ 24 months

Irregular attenders
Last attendance >24 months
SOHSI variables;
Overall description of oral health;
Toothloss; mean number of teeth;
(SOHSI = Subjective Oral Health Status Indicators – an oral health quality of life measure).
Title of Study: The impact of attendance patterns on oral health in a general dental practice.
Aim of Study: To examine the impact of attendance patterns on oral health in the context of government policy on dental care and registration in the UK.
Thomson 2001Longitudinal studyNew ZealandNot stated1037 in original cohort
Dental exam data at age 26 available for 930.
748 of these living in NZ.
Analyses based on sample of 748.
26 year oldsPLongitudinal study of a cohort of children born at a hospital in Dunedin, New Zealand between 1st April 1972 and 31st March 1973. Periodic collections of health and developmental data, including dental examinations, undertaken since then. Data presented in this paper uses data collected at ages 5, 15,18 and 26.School Dental Service up until age of 12-13 (free access). Transfer to General Dental Benefit (GDB) Scheme at age 12 or 13 – no out of pocket charge to the user of GDB care (nevertheless, transfer to GDB scheme associated with drop in utilisation from over 95 percent to less than 75 percent). Role of State in provision of dental care generally ceases at age 18.(Subjective measure of dental check frequency)
Dental visit pattern:

Regular GDB user at age 15


(Regular GDB user identified as those who reported being on the Dental Benefit Scheme, had visited the dentist within the previous 18 months and reported that their most recent visit was for a check-up).

Usual reason for dental visit at age 26:


Oral health at age 26 rated ‘among the worst/below average

Number with 1+ teeth lost due to caries by age 26

Number with 1+ third molars removed by age 26

Mean DMFS at age 26

Mean DFS increment between aged 18 and 26

Mean plaque score at age 26
Title of Study: Use of dental services by 26-year-old New Zealanders
Aim of Study: To describe the current characteristics of use of dental services and their oral health associations at age 26 among New Zealand-domiciled participants in a long-standing cohort study.
Ugur et al., 2002Cross SectionalWitten, Germany

(Study of Turkish population)
1997532Older than 12 years of age (age groups studied:
PNot random sample. Three stage sampling process.
1) sampling of Turkish clubs in city 2) schools with Turkish students 3) Residential area with large number of Turkish residents
Not stated(Subjective measure of dental check frequency) Use of dental services:

Regular: People who made regular visits every year to have their teeth examined

Irregular: People going to the dentist only if there was a ‘tooth problem’
PT (periodontally involved teeth)
Title of Study: Utilisation of dental services among a Turkish population in Witten, Germany
Aim of Study: To describe the oral health status and the dental service use pattern of a Turkish population in Witten, Germany, and to assess the factors affecting this use pattern.
Ullah et al., 2002Cross sectionalBangladesh200063112 yr oldsPStratified random sample on basis of urban, semi-urban and rural residence. 14 schools selected to obtain a representative national sample.Not stated(Subjective measure of dental check frequency)
Dental visit pattern:

Regular (> once a year)
Irregular (< once a year)
Do not remember
OHI-S scores
Title of Study: Oral health of 12 year old Bangladeshi children.
Aim of Study: To describe the experience of dental caries among 12-year-olds in Bangladesh 2) to assess their oral hygiene and periodontal conditions 3) to collect representative data on oral health habits and 4) to relate dental caries data, oral hygiene, and periodontal conditions to sex, residence (urban, semi-urban and rural), tooth cleaning habits and social factors.

D=deciduous dentition, M= Mixed dentition, P = Permanent dentition

D=deciduous dentition, M= Mixed dentition, P = Permanent dentition

From: Appendix D, HTA Update Key Study Characteristics

Cover of Dental Recall
Dental Recall: Recall Interval Between Routine Dental Examinations.
NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 19.
National Collaborating Centre for Acute Care (UK).
Copyright © 2004, National Collaborating Centre for Acute Care.

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