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C16HYPNOTHERAPY

StudyParticipantsInterventions
Forbes 2000; Trial held in UK; parallel; trial; Setting: secondary careInclusion & Exclusion criteria: IBS>6 months; failure to respond adequately to conventional uses of fibre, antispasmodics and dietary manipulation. Patients who had failed trials of antidepressants were eligible. Type of IBS: Mixed; IBS definition: Rome I; Severity of IBS symptoms: Not stated; Bloating/flatus: Some patients; Post infective: not stated Age (range): Median 37yr (19–71); Gender (M/F): 15:37; Comorbidities: 19/52 patients considered to be psychiatric cases under GHQ. Continuation of pre-existing therapy for IBS was permitted (including antispasmodics & antidepressants).
  1. Gut-directed hypnotherapy (hypnotherapy); duration: 12 weeks; frequency: every 2 weeks; amount total 6 sessions (n=25)
  2. Audiotape including info on IBS; routes to reducing Stress, structured relaxation + 2 consultations (relaxation); duration: 12 weeks; frequency: once daily; amount 30 minutes (n=27). Audiotape from same therapist as delivered hypnotherapy.
Galovski 1998; Trial held in USA; parallel; trial; Setting: secondary careInclusion & Exclusion criteria: At least 3 days GI distress/week for at least 6 months; Biplor disorder with current manic state excluded Type of IBS: Mixed; IBS definition: ‘Had IBS’; Severity of IBS symptoms: Not stated; Bloating/flatus: Some patients; Post infective: not stated Age (range): mean 38.8 yr (23–58yr); Gender (M/F): 2:10; Comorbidities: 67% axis I diagnosis duration of symptoms mean 6 yr (range 0.5–17yr)
  1. Gut-directed hypnotherapy (hypnotherapy); duration: 12 weeks; frequency: weekly; amount half- to one-hour sessions (n=6)
  2. Symptom monitoring waiting list control (symptom monitoring); duration: 6 weeks (n=6)
Harvey 1989; Trial held in UK; parallel; trial; Setting: secondary careInclusion & Exclusion criteria: refractory IBS; none had responded to standard medical therapy with bulking agents/antispasmodic drugs Type of IBS: Unclear; IBS definition: ‘Had IBS’; Severity of IBS symptoms: Not stated; Bloating/flatus: Not stated; Post infective: not stated Age (range): not stated; Gender (M/F): 9:27; Comorbidities: 8/22 had psychological problems (GHQ≥5)
  1. Gut-direct hypnotherapy (group) (hypnotherapy); duration: 7 weeks; amount 4x 40-minute sessions (n=18)
  2. Gut-direct hypnotherapy (individual) (hypnotherapy); duration: 7 weeks; amount 4x 40-minute session s (n=18)
Palsson 2002; Trial held in USA; parallel; trial; Setting: secondary careInclusion & Exclusion criteria: IBS at least 1 year; pain at least weekly for 1 month; excluded if other GI disorder or abdominal surgery (excl appendectomy, hysterectomy, negative laparoscopy), psychotropic drugs or IBS drugs Type of IBS: Unclear; IBS definition: Rome I; Severity of IBS symptoms: Not stated; Bloating/flatus: Not stated; Post infective: not stated Age (range): Mean age 39.1yr; Gender (M/F): 9:15 completed; Comorbidities: not stated 6 dropped out after enrolment (all in waiting list group). All had symptoms refractory to standard medical management.
  1. Hypnotherapy (individual) (hypnotherapy); duration: 12 weeks; amount 7x 45- minute sessions (n=15)
  2. Waiting list control group (waiting list control); duration: 12 weeks (n=15)
Roberts 2006; Trial held in UK; parallel; trial; Setting: primary careInclusion & Exclusion criteria: IBS>6weeks; failed conventional management; excluded if atypical symptoms (e.g. blood in stools) Type of IBS: Unclear; IBS definition: ‘Had IBS’; Severity of IBS symptoms: Not stated; Bloating/flatus: Not stated; Post infective: not stated Age (range): Mean age 41.6yr (18–65yr); Gender (M/F): 12:69; Comorbidities: not stated. Study underpowered.
  1. Gut-directed hypnotherapy (hypnotherapy); duration: probably 5 weeks; frequency/day: weekly; amount 5 half-hour sessions (n=40)
  2. Usual management only (usual management); (n=41)
Whorwell 1984; Trial held in UK; parallel; trial; Setting: secondary careInclusion & Exclusion criteria: Severe refractory IBS; had not responded over at least 1 yr Type of IBS: Unclear; IBS definition: Authors’ def; Severity of IBS symptoms: Not stated; Bloating/flatus: Not stated; Post infective: not stated Age (range): 24–53yr; Gender (M/F): 4:26; Comorbidities: not stated Short report; little detail; no SDs given
  1. Gut-directed hypnotherapy (hypnotherapy); duration: 3 months; amount 7x half-hour sessions (n=15)
  2. Supportive listening (“psychotherapy”); duration: 3 months; amount 7x half-hour sessions (n=15)

From: Appendix C, Characteristics of included studies

Cover of Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Adults
Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Adults: Diagnosis and Management of Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Primary Care [Internet].
NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 61.
National Collaborating Centre for Nursing and Supportive Care (UK).
Copyright © 2008, Royal College of Nursing.

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