Home > References - The Management of Pressure...

PubMed Health. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.

Royal College of Nursing (UK). The Management of Pressure Ulcers in Primary and Secondary Care: A Clinical Practice Guideline [Internet]. London: Royal College of Nursing (UK); 2005 Sep 22. (NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 29.)

  • This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.


  1. Adeoke BOA, Badmos KA. Acceleration of pressure ulcer healing in spinal cord injured patients using interrupted direct current. Afr J Med Sci. 2001;30:195–197. [PubMed: 14510128]
  2. Agren MS, Stromberg HE. Topical treatment of pressure ulcers. A randomized comparative trial of Varidase and zinc oxide. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg. 1985;19:97–100. [PubMed: 3895409]
  3. Aguilo Sanchez S, Figueiras Mareque L, Quintilla Gatnau A, Veiga Bogo L. Traditional dressings or cures in a moist environment? (Spanish) Revista Rol de Enfermeria. 2001;2:4, 50–54.
  4. AHCPR. Treatment of pressure ulcers, clinical practice guideline No 15 USA. Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville; USA: 1994.
  5. Alarcon T, Barcena A, et al. Factors predictive of outcome on admission to an acute geriatric ward. Age & Ageing. 1999;28(5):429–32. [PubMed: 10529035]
  6. Allman RM, Walker JM, Hart MK, Laprade CA, Noel LB, Smith CR. Air-fluidized beds or conventional therapy for pressure sores. A randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1987;107(5):641–8. [PubMed: 3310792]
  7. Allman RM, Goode P, Patrick M, Burst N, Bartolucci AA. Pressure ulcer risk factors among hospitalised patients with activity limitation. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1995;273(11):865–70. [PubMed: 7869557]
  8. Allman RM. Pressure ulcer prevalence, incidence, risk factors, and impact. Clinical Geriatric Medicine. 1997;13:421–36. [PubMed: 9227937]
  9. Alm A, Hornmark AM, Fall PA, et al. Care of pressure sores: a controlled study of the use of a hydrocolloid dressing compared with wet saline gauze compresses. Acta Derm Venereol Suppl (Stockh) 1989;149:1–10. [PubMed: 2694713]
  10. Altman DG, Schulz KF, Moher D, et al. The revised CONSORT statement for reporting randomized trials: explanation and elaboration. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2001;134:663–694. [PubMed: 11304107]
  11. Alvarez OM, Childs EJ. Pressure ulcers. Physical, supportive and local aspects of management. Clin Podiatr Med Surg. 1991;8:869–90. [PubMed: 1933737]
  12. Alvarez OM, Fernandez-Obregon A, Rogers RS, Bergamo L, Masso J, Black M. A prospective, randomized, comparative study of collagenase and papain-urea for pressure ulcer debridement. Wounds-A Compendium of Clinical Research & Practice. 2002;14(8):293–301.
  13. Amundson JA, Sherbondy A, et al. Early identification and treatment necessary to prevent malnutrition in children and adolescents with severe disabilities. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 1994;94(8):880–883. [PubMed: 7519203]
  14. Andersen KE, Kvorning SA. Medical aspects of the decubitus ulcer. International Journal of Dermatology. 1982;21(5):265–270. [PubMed: 7095957]
  15. Andrychuk MA. Orthopaedic essentials. Pressure ulcers: causes, risk factors, assessment, and intervention. Orthopaedic Nursing. 1998;17(4):65–83. [PubMed: 9814339]
  16. Andrychuk MA. Pressure ulcers: causes, risk factors, assessment, and intervention. Orthopaedic Nursing. 1998;17(4):65–81. quiz 82–3. [PubMed: 9814339]
  17. Argenta LC, Morykwas MJ. Vacuum-assisted closure: a new method for wound control and treatment: clinical experience. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1997;38:563–576. [PubMed: 9188971]
  18. Avanzi A, Martinelli R, Accardi S, et al. Adhesive hydrocellular dressing vs hydrocolloid dressing in the treatment of pressure sores. First World Wound Healing Congress; 2000; 2000. p. 90.
  19. Ayello E. Teaching the assessment of patients with pressure ulcers. Decubitus. 1992;5(7):53–4. [PubMed: 1497808]
  20. Ayello E. Keeping pressure ulcers in check. (Assessment tool) Nursing. 1996;26(10):62–3. [PubMed: 8975197]
  21. Ayello EA. Assessment of pressure ulcer healing. Advances in Wound Care. 1997;10(5):10. [PubMed: 9362570]
  22. Ayello EA, Mezey M, et al. Educational assessment and teaching of older clients with pressure ulcers. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine. 1997;13(3):483–96. [PubMed: 9227940]
  23. Ayello EA, Thomas DR, et al. Nutritional aspects of wound healing. Home Healthcare Nurse. 1999;17(11):719–29. quiz 730. [PubMed: 10855131]
  24. Azad S, Nishokawa H. Topical negative pressure may help chronic wound healing. Bmj. 2002;3247:345–1100. [PMC free article: PMC1123044] [PubMed: 11991928]
  25. Baggerly J, DiBlasi M. Pressure sores and pressure sore prevention in a rehabilitation setting: building information for improving outcomes and allocating resources. Rehabilitation Nursing. 1996;21(6):321–5. [PubMed: 9087103]
  26. Baker P, Haig G. Metronidazole in the treatment of chronic pressure sores and ulcers: a comparison with standard treatments in general practice. Practitioner. 1981;225:569–73. [PubMed: 7024971]
  27. Bale S, Banks V, Harding KG. A 100 patient cost-effectiveness trial of a hydrocellular and hydrocolloid dressing. Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Advances in Wound Management; 21–24 Nov 1995; Macmillan Magazines: Harrogate, London, UK; 1996. p. 294.
  28. Bale S, Squires D, Varnon T, Walker A, Benbow M, Harding KG. A comparison of two dressings in pressure sore management. Journal of Wound Care. 1997;6:463–6. [PubMed: 9455271]
  29. Bale S, Banks V, Haglestein S, Harding KG. A comparison of two amorphous hydrogels in the debridement of pressure sores. Journal of Wound Care. 1998;7:65–8. [PubMed: 9543975]
  30. Bale S, Hagelstein S, Banks V, Harding KG. Costs of dressings in the community. Journal of Wound Care. 1998;7:327–30. [PubMed: 9791356]
  31. Bale S. The preliminary results of a comparative study of performance characteristics and safety of a foam dressing Biatain Adhesive versus Tielle on pressure sores. 9th European Conference on Advances in Wound Management; Harrogate, UK. 1999. p. 8.
  32. Banks V, Bale S, Harding K. The use of two dressings for moderately exuding pressure sores. J Wound Care. 1994;3:132–4.
  33. Banks V, Bale S, Harding KG. Superficial pressure sores: comparing two regimes. J Wound Care. 1994;3:8–10.
  34. Banks V, Bale S, Harding KG. Comparing two dressings for exuding pressure sores in community patients. J Wound Care. 1994;4:175–178.
  35. Banks V, Riggs R, Bale S, Harding K. Comparison of an absorbent semi-permeable polyurethane dressing (Spyrosorb/Mitraflex) and a hydrocolloid dressing (Granuflex E) for the treatment of moderately exuding pressure sores in community patients. In: Harding Kg DCCGGF, editor. Proceedings of the 3rd European Conference on Advances in Wound Management; 19-22 Oct 1993; Harrogate, London, UK: Macmillan Magazines; 1994. p. 159.
  36. Banks V, Fear M, Orpin J, et al. A comparative open multi-centre trial of hydroploymer dressing and hydrocolloid. Proceedings of the symposium on Advanced Wound Care and Medical Research Forum on Wound Repair; 20–24 Apr 1996; Atlanta GA. Wayne GA: Health Management Publication; 1996. p. 113.
  37. Banks V, Hagelstein S, Bale S, Harding KG. A comparison of a new polyurethane dressing versus a hydrocellular dressing in the treatment of moderate to heavily exudating wounds. Proceedings of Symposium on Advanced Wound Care & Medical Research Forum on Wound Repair; 1996. p. 113.
  38. Banks V, Bale S, Harding K, Harding EF. Evaluation of a new polyurethane foam dressing. Journal of Wound Care. 1997;6:266–9. [PubMed: 9274262]
  39. Banks V. Nutrition and pressure area management. Journal of Wound Care. 1998;7(6):318–9. [PubMed: 9697469]
  40. Banwell PE, Holten IW, Martin DL. Negative pressure therapy: clinical applications and experiences with 200 cases. Wound Repair and Regeneration. 1998;8(6):A460.
  41. Banwell PE. Topical negative pressure therapy in wound care. Journal of Wound Care. 1999;8:79–84. [PubMed: 10232203]
  42. Banwell PE, Teot L. Topical negative pressure (TNP): the evolution of a novel wound therapy. J Wound Care. 2003;12:22–28. [PubMed: 12572233]
  43. Baranoski S, Thimsen K. OASIS skin and wound integumentary assessment items: applying the WOCN guidance document. Home Healthcare Nurse. 2003;(suppl):3–13. [PubMed: 12717081]
  44. Barbenel JC. A technique for the routine assessment of elderly patients while in bed. 1st annual report. Bioengineering Unit, Glasgow: University of Strathclyde; 1981.
  45. Barbenel JC. A technique for the routine assessment of the mobility of elderly patients while in bed. Final report. Bioengineering Unit, Glasgow: University of Strathclyde; 1982.
  46. Barrois B. Comparison of Granuflex and medicated paraffin gauze in pressure sores. Proceedings of the 2nd European Conference on Advances in Wound Management; 20–23 Oct 1992; Harrogate, London, UK: Macmillan Magazines; 1992. p. 209.
  47. Barton AA, Barton M. The clinical and thermographical evaluation of pressure sores. Age & Ageing. 1973;2(1):55–9. [PubMed: 4776360]
  48. Bates-Jensen BM. The Pressure Sore Status Tool: An outcome measure for pressure sores. Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation. 1994;9(4):17–34.
  49. Bates-Jensen B, McNees P. The Wound Intelligence System: early issues and findings from multi-site tests. Ostomy Wound Management. 1996;42(10A Suppl):53S–61S. [PubMed: 9397883]
  50. Bates-Jensen BM. Indices to include in wound healing assessment. Advances in Wound Care. 1995;8(4, suppl):25–33. [PubMed: 7627400]
  51. Bates-Jensen BM, McNees P. Toward an intelligent wound assessment system. Ostomy Wound Management. 1995;41(7A Suppl):80S–86S. discussion 87S. [PubMed: 7669204]
  52. Bates-Jensen BM, Alessi CA, et al. The effects of an exercise and incontinence intervention on skin health outcomes in nursing home residents. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2003;51(3):348–55. [PubMed: 12588578]
  53. Baxandall T. Healing cavity wounds with negative pressure. Elderly Care. 1997;9:20–22. [PubMed: 9180449]
  54. Baumgarten M, Margolis D, Berlin JS, et al. Risk factors for pressure ulcers amoung elderly hip fracture patients. Wound Repair and Regeneration. 2003;11:96–103. [PubMed: 12631296]
  55. Bedi A. A tool to fill the gap. Developing a wound risk assessment chart for children. Professional Nurse. 1993;9(2):112–20. [PubMed: 8234378]
  56. Begg C, et al. Improving the quality of reporting of randomised controlled trials: the CONSORT statement. Jama. 1996;276:637–9. [PubMed: 8773637]
  57. Belmin J, Meaume S, Rabus MT, Bohbot S. Investigators of the sequential treatment of the elderly with pressure sores T. Sequential treatment with calcium alginate dressings and hydrocolloid dressings accelerates pressure ulcer healing in older subjects: a multicenter randomized trial of sequential versus nonsequential treatment with hydrocolloid dressings alone. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2002;50:269–74. [PubMed: 12028208]
  58. Benati G, Delvecchio S, Cilla D, Pedone V. Impact on pressure ulcer healing of an arginine-enriched nutritional solution in patients with severe cognitive impairment. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2001 Jan;33(Suppl 1):43–7. [PubMed: 11431045]
  59. Benbo M. Pressure sore guidelines: patient/carer involvement and education. British Journal of Nursing. 1996;5(3):182, 184–7. [PubMed: 8696130]
  60. Bendy R, Nuccio P, Wolfe E, Collins B, Tamburro C, Glass W, et al. Relationship of quantitative wound bacterial counts to healing decubiti: effect of topical gentamycin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1964;4:147–55. [PubMed: 14287920]
  61. Bennett G, Moody M. Wound care for health professionals. London: Chapman and Hall; 1995.
  62. Bennett G, Dealey C, Posnett J. The cost of pressure ulcers in the UK. Age and Aging. 2004;33:230–235. [PubMed: 15082426]
  63. Bennett RG, Baran PJ, DeVone LV, Bacetti H, Kristo B, Tayback M, Greenough WB. Low air loss hydrotherapy versus standard care for incontinent hospitalized patients. J Am Ger Soc. 1998;46(5):569–76. [PubMed: 9588369]
  64. Belmin J, Meaume S, Rabus MT, Bohbot S. Investigators of the sequential treatment of the elderly with pressure sores T. Sequential treatment with calcium alginate dressings and hydrocolloid dressings accelerates pressure ulcer healing in older subjects: a multicenter randomized trial of sequential versus nonsequential treatment with hydrocolloid dressings alone. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2002;50:269–74. [PubMed: 12028208]
  65. Bergemann R, et al. Economic evaluation of the treatment of chronic wounds: hydroactive wound dressings in combination with enzymatic ointment versus gauze dressings in patients with pressure ulcer and venous leg ulcer in Germany. PharmacoEconomics. 1999;16:367–77. [PubMed: 10623365]
  66. Bergquist S. Pressure ulcer prediction in older adults receiving home health care: implications for use with the OASIS. Advances in Skin and Wound Care. 2003;16(3):132–139. [PubMed: 12789035]
  67. Bergstrom N, Braden B, Milne D. Are dietary and serum zinc and copper factors in the development of pressure sores in institutionalized elderly. Federation Proceedings. 1987;46:902.
  68. Bergstrom N, Braden B. A prospective study of pressure sore risk among institutionalized elderly. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1992;40(8):747–758. [PubMed: 1634717]
  69. Bergstrom N, Allman RM, et al. Pressure ulcer treatment: quick reference guide for clinicians. Advances in Wound Care. 1995;8(2 part 1):22.
  70. Bergstrom N, Braden B, Kemp M, et al. Multi-site study of incidence of pressure ulcers and the relationship between risk level, demographic characteristics, diagnosis and prescription of preventive interventions. Journal of American Geriatrics Society. 1996;44:22–30. [PubMed: 8537586]
  71. Bergstrom N, Demuth PJ, Braden BJ. A clinical trial of the Braden scale for predicting pressure sore risk. Nursing Clinics of North America. 1998;22:417–428. [PubMed: 3554150]
  72. Berlowitz DR, Wilkin SVB. Risk factors for pressure sores: a comparison of cross-sectional and cohort derived data. Journal of American Geriatrics Society. 1990;37(11):1043–1050. [PubMed: 2809051]
  73. Berlowitz DR, Wilkin SV. The short-term outcome of pressure sores. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1990;38(7):748–52. [PubMed: 2370394]
  74. Berlowitz DR, Brandeis GH, et al. Predictors of pressure ulcer healing among long-term care residents. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1997;45(1):30–4. [PubMed: 8994484]
  75. Berlowitz DR, Brandeis GH, et al. Effect of pressure ulcers on the survival of long-term care residents. Journals of Gerontology Series A-Biological Sciences & Medical Sciences. 1997;52(2):M106–10. [PubMed: 9060978]
  76. Bianchetti A, Zanetti O, et al. Risk factors for the development of pressure sores in hospitalized elderly patients: results of a prospective study. Archives of Gerontology & Geriatrics. 1993;16(3):225–232. [PubMed: 15374336]
  77. Bo M, Massaia M, et al. Predictive factors of in-hospital mortality in older patients admitted to a medical intensive care unit. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2003;51(4):529–33. [PubMed: 12657074]
  78. Bohanannon RW, Pfaller BA. Documentation of wound surface area from tracings of wound perimeter: clinical report on three techniques. Physical Therapy. 1983;63(10):1622–1624. [PubMed: 6622538]
  79. Bonnefoy M, Coulon L, et al. Implication of cytokines in the aggravation of malnutrition and hypercatabolism in elderly patients with severe pressure sores. Age & Ageing. 1995;24(1):37–42. [PubMed: 7539207]
  80. Bourdel-Marchasson I, Dumas F, Pinganaud G, Emeriau JP, Decamps A. Audit of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in long-term enteral feeding in a nursing home. Int J Qual Health Care. 1997 Aug;9(4):297–302. [PubMed: 9304429]
  81. Bourdel-Marchasson I, Barateau M, Rondeau V, Dequae-Merchadou L, Salles-Montaudon N, Emeriau JP, Manciet G, Dartigues JF. A multi-center trial of the effects of oral nutritional supplementation in critically ill older inpatients. GAGE Group. Groupe Aquitain Geriatrique d’Evaluation. Nutrition. 2000 Jan;16(1):1–5. [PubMed: 10674226]
  82. Boyle M, Green M. Pressure sores in intensive care: defining their incidence and associated factors and assessing the utility of two pressure sore risk assessment tools. Australian Critical Care. 2001;14(1):24–30. [PubMed: 11899757]
  83. Boynton PR, Paustian C. Wound assessment and decision-making options. Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America. 1996;8(2):125–39. [PubMed: 8716382]
  84. Bradley M, Cullum N, Sheldon T. The debridement of chronic wounds: a systematic review. Health Technology Assessment. 1999a;17(pt 1) [PubMed: 10492854]
  85. Bradley M, Cullum N, Nelson E, et al. Systematic reviews of wound care management: (2) dressings and topical agents use in the healing of chronic wounds. Health Technology Assessment. 1999b;3(17 pt2) [PubMed: 10683589]
  86. Brandeis GH, Ooi WL, Hossain M, et al. A longitudinal study of risk factors associated with the formation of pressure ulcers in nursing homes. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1994;42(4):388–393. [PubMed: 8144823]
  87. Breslow RA, Hallfrisch J, Goldberg AP. Malnutrition in tubefed nursing home patients with pressure sores. J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1991 Nov-Dec;15(6):663–8. [PubMed: 1766057]
  88. Breslow RA, Hallfrisch J, Guy DG, Crawley B, Goldberg AP. The importance of dietary protein in healing pressure ulcers. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1993 Apr;41(4):357–62. [PubMed: 8463519]
  89. Brewer RD Jr, Mihaldzic N, Dietz A. The effect of oral zinc sulfate on the healing of decubitus ulcers in spinal cord injured patients. Proceedings of the Annual Clinical-Spinal Cord Injury Conference; 1967. pp. 70–2. [PubMed: 4887340]
  90. British Medical Association (BMA) British National Formulary. London: BMA and The Pharmaceutical Press; 1999. Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain.
  91. Brod M, McHenry E, Plasse TF, Fedorczyk D, Trout JR. A randomized comparison of polyhema and hydrocolloid dressings for treatment of pressure sores [letter] Arch Dermatol. 1990;126:969–70. [PubMed: 2193631]
  92. Brooks R, Semylen A. Economic appraisal in pressure sore management. Journal of Wound Care. 1997;6:10, 491–494. [PubMed: 9455275]
  93. Brown-Etris M, Fowler E, Papen J, et al. Comparison and evaluation of the performance characteristics, usability and effectiveness on wound healing of Transorbent versus Duoderm CGF. In: Negus DJG, editor. Proceedings of 5th European Conference on Advances in Wound Management; 21–24 Nov 1995; Harrogate, UK: Macmillan Magazines; 1996. pp. 151–5.
  94. Brown-Etris M, Bateman D, Shields D, et al. Final report of a clinical study designed to evaluate and compare a collagen alginate dressing and a calcium-sodium alginate dressing in pressure ulcers. Proceedings of European Wound Conference.1992.
  95. Bulstrode CJK, et al. Measurement and prediction of progress in delayed wound healing. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 1987;80:210–212. [PMC free article: PMC1290760] [PubMed: 3585886]
  96. Burgos A, Gimenez J, Moreno E, et al. Collagenase ointment application at 24- versus 48-hour intervals in the treatment of pressure ulcers. A randomised multi-centre study. Clinical Drug Investigation. 2000;19:399–407.
  97. Burgos A, Gimenez J, Moreno E, et al. Cost, efficacy, efficiency and tolerability of collagenase ointment versus hydrocolloid occlusive dressing in the treatment of pressure ulcers. A comparative, randomised, multicentre study. Clinical Drug Investigation. 2000;19:357–365.
  98. Burr RG, Rajan KT. Leucocyte ascorbic acid and pressure sores in paraplegia. British Journal of Nutrition. 1972;28(2):275–81. [PubMed: 4561112]
  99. Burr HS, Taffel M, Harvey SC. An electrometric study of the healing wound in man. Yale J Biol Med. 1940;12:483–5. [PMC free article: PMC2602323] [PubMed: 21433903]
  100. Caley L, Jones S, Freer J, et al. Randomised prospective trial of two types of low air loss therapy. 1994
  101. Capillas PR, Cabre AV, Gil CAM, Gaitano GAG, Torra iBJE. A comparison of the effectiveness and cost of moist environment dressings treatment as compared to traditional dressings treatment: randomized clinical trial on patients suffering venous leg ulcers or pressure ulcers treated by primary health care nurses. Revista Rol de Enfermeria. 2000;23:17–24. [PubMed: 10788945]
  102. Capillas Perez R, Cabre Aguilar V, Gil Canedo-Dorantes L, Garcia-Cantu R, Barrera R, Mendez-Ramirez I, Navarro VH, Serrano G. Healing of chronic arterial and venous leg ulcers with systemic electromagnetic fields. Arch Med Res. 2002;33:281–289. [PubMed: 12031635]
  103. Casey G. Nutrition helps wound healing. Nursing New Zealand (Wellington) 1997;3(11):19. [PubMed: 9464060]
  104. Casey G. Three steps to effective wound care. Nursing Standard. 1998a;12(49):43–4. [PubMed: 9823194]
  105. Casey G. Tissue viability supplement. The importance of nutrition in wound healing. Nursing Standard. 1998b;13(3):51–2. [PubMed: 9847810]
  106. Cassino R, Veroni C, Ricci E, Carusone A, Mercanti A. Vacuum assisted closure therapy in pressure ulcer management. European Wound Management Association Conference 1997; London: European Wound Management Association; 1997. p. 39.
  107. Chang KW, Alsagoff S, Ong KT, Sim PH. Pressure ulcers – randomised controlled trial comparing hydrocolloid and saline gauze dressings. Medical Journal of Malaysia. 1998;53:428–31. [PubMed: 10971989]
  108. Chantelau E, Tanudjaja T, Altenhofer F, Ersanli Z, Lacigova S, Metzger C. Antibiotic treatment for uncomplicated neuropathic forefoot ulcers in diabetes: a controlled trial. Diabetic Med. 1996;13:156–9. [PubMed: 8641121]
  109. Cheneworth CC, Hagglund KH, Valmassoi B, Brannon C. Portrait of practice: healing heel ulcers. Adv Wound Care. 1994;7:44–48. [PubMed: 7812583]
  110. Chernoff RS, Milton KY, Lipschitz DA. The effect of a very high-protein liquid formula on decubitus ulcers healing in long-term tube-fed institutionalized patients. J Am Diet Assoc. 1990;90:A-130.
  111. Clark M, Donald IP. A randomised controlled trial comparing the healing of pressure sores upon two pressure-redistributing seat cushions. Proceedings of the 7th European Conference on Advances in Wound Management; London: Macmillan Magazines Ltd; 1999. pp. 122–125.
  112. Clark M, Kadhon HM. The nursing prevention of pressure sores in hospital and community patients. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 1988;13(3):365–373. [PubMed: 3417931]
  113. Clark M, Watts S. The incidence of pressure sores in a National Health Service Trust hospital during 1991. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 1994;20:33–36. [PubMed: 7930124]
  114. Clarke M, Oxman AD, editors. Cochrane reviewers’ handbook version 420 in Review Manager (RevMan 422) Oxford, UK: Update Software; 2003.
  115. Clough NP. The cost of pressure area management in an intensive care unit. Journal of Wound Care. 1994;3:33–35.
  116. Coggrave M, et al. Topical negative pressure for pressure ulcer management. Br J Nurs. 2002;116(suppl):S29–36. [PubMed: 11979189]
  117. Colome AM, Gaitano Garcia A, Torra I, Bou JE. Comparison of the effectiveness and cost of treatment with humid environment as compared to traditional cure. Clinical trial on primary care patients with venous leg ulcers and pressure ulcers. [Spanish] Revista de Enfermeria. 2000;23:17–24. [PubMed: 10788945]
  118. Cooper DM. Indices to include in wound assessment. Adv Wound Care. 1995;8:15s. [PubMed: 7627398]
  119. Colin D, Kurring PA, Quinlan D, Yvon C. Managing sloughy pressure sores. J Wound Care. 1996;5:444–6. [PubMed: 9117814]
  120. Collier J. A moist, odour-less environment. A multicentered trial of a foamed gel and a hydrocolloid dressing. Professional Nurse. 1992;7:804–808. [PubMed: 1513833]
  121. Collier ME. Pressure ulcer development and principles for prevention. In: Miller M, Glover D, editors. Wound management theory and practice. London: NTBooks Emap; 1999.
  122. Colwell JC, Foreman MD, Trotter JP. A comparison of the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of two methods of managing pressure ulcers. Decubitus. 1993;6:28–36. [PubMed: 8297488]
  123. Coutts P, Sibbald RG, Inman K, Maltby-Stephens N. The use of an adhesive hydrocellular foam compared to a hydrocolloid dressing for the treatment of Stage II and III pressure ulcers. The 13th Annual Symposium on Advanced Wound Care & 10th Annual Medical Research Forum on Wound Repair; 2000. p. D7.
  124. Crim JR, Seeger LL. Imaging evaluation of osteomyelitis. Critical Reviews in Diagnostic Imaging. 1994;35(3):201–56. [PubMed: 8086108]
  125. Cruse JM, Lewis RE, et al. Review of immune function, healing of pressure ulcers, and nutritional status in patients with spinal cord injury. Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine. 2000;23(2):129–35. [PubMed: 10914354]
  126. Cruse JM, Lewis RE, et al. Facilitation of immune function, healing of pressure ulcers, and nutritional status in spinal cord injury patients. Experimental & Molecular Pathology. 2000;68(1):38–54. [PubMed: 10640453]
  127. Cruse JM, Wang H, et al. Cellular and molecular alterations in spinal cord injury patients with pressure ulcers: a preliminary report. Experimental & Molecular Pathology. 2002;72(2):124–31. [PubMed: 11890721]
  128. Culley F. Clinical. Nursing aspects of pressure sore prevention and therapy. British Journal of Nursing. 1998;7(15):879–80. [PubMed: 9849152]
  129. Cullum NA, Deeks JJ, Fletcher AW, et al. Preventing and treating pressure sore. Quality in Health Care. 1995;4:289–297. [PMC free article: PMC1055341] [PubMed: 10156400]
  130. Cullum NA. Pressure ulcer prevention and treatment: A synopsis of the current evidence. Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America. 2001;13(4):547–554. [PubMed: 11778342]
  131. Cullum N, Nelson E, Flemming K, et al. Systematic review of wound care management: (5) beds; (6) compression; (7) laser therapy, therapeutic ultrasound, electrotherapy and electromagnetic therapy. Health Technology Assessment. 2001;5:9. [PubMed: 11368833]
  132. Cullum N, Nelson EA, Nixon J. Pressure sores. Clinical Evidence. BMJ Publishing Group; 2003.
  133. Cullum N, Deeks J, Sheldon TA, Song F, Fletcher AW. The Cochrane Library. Vol. 1. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2004. Beds, mattresses and cushions for pressure sore prevention and treatment (Cochrane Review) [PubMed: 10796662]
  134. Cutler NR, et al. Comparison of quantitative methodologies to define chronic pressure ulcer measurement. Decubitus. 1993;6(6):22–30. [PubMed: 8286024]
  135. Dallam L, Smyth C, et al. Pressure ulcer pain: assessment and quantification. Journal of Wound, Ostomy, & Continence Nursing. 1995;22(5):211–5. discussion 217–8. [PubMed: 7550776]
  136. Danielson JR, Tasche C. Pressure sores: evaluating quality of care. QA Review. 1990;2(9):5. [PubMed: 10114852]
  137. Darkovich SL, Brown E, Spencer M. Biofilm hydrogel dressing: a clinical evaluation in the treatment of pressure sores. Ostomy Wound Manag. 1990;29:47–60. [PubMed: 2202317]
  138. Darouiche RO, Landon GC, et al. Osteomyelitis associated with pressure sores. Archives of Internal Medicine. 1994;154(7):753–758. [PubMed: 8147679]
  139. Das Gupta R, Twyman L, Morgan B, McGrouther DA. An introduction to VAC therapy in the treatment of chronic wounds. European Tissue Repair Society. 1996;3
  140. David JA, Chapman RG, et al. An Investigation of the current methods used in nursing for the care of patients with established pressure sores. DOH Stationary Office; London: 1983. Funded by the DHSS.
  141. Day A, Leonards F. Seeking quality care for patients with pressure ulcers. Decubitus. 1993;6(1):32–43. [PubMed: 8427642]
  142. Davidson M. Sharpen your wound assessment skills: learn how impeccable assessment and documentation can help your patient heal. Hospital Nursing. 2002;32(10):1–2.
  143. Davydov Iu A, Larichev AB, Abramov A. Wound healing after vacuum drainage. Khirurgiia Mosk. 1992;7:21–26. [PubMed: 1469864]
  144. Davydov Iu A, Abramov A, Darichev AB. Regulation of wound process by the method of vacuum therapy in middle-aged and aged patients. Khirurgiia Mosk. 1994;9:7–10. [PubMed: 7837756]
  145. Day A, Leonard F. Seeking quality care for patients with pressure ulcers. Decubitus. 1993;6(1):32–8. [PubMed: 8427642]
  146. De Lange MY, Schasfoort RA, Obdeijn MC, Van der Werff JFA, Nicolai JPA. Vacuum-assisted closure: indications and clinical experience. European Journal of Plastic Surgery. 2000;23:178–182.
  147. Dealey C. The care of wounds. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1994.
  148. Dealey C, Keogh A. A randomized, controlled, parallel-group clinical trial of a new polyurethane foam island dressing versus a hydrocolloid island dressing in the treatment of grade II and III pressure sores. 6th European Conference on Advances in Wound Management; 1997. pp. 94–95.
  149. Dealey C. The care of wounds – a guide for nurses. Oxford: Blackwell Science; 1999.
  150. Deeks JJ. Pressure sore prevention: Using and evaluating risk assessment tolls. British Journal of Nursing. 1996;5:313–20. [PubMed: 8715749]
  151. Deeks J. Odds ratios should be used only in case control studies and logistic regression analyses. BMJ. 1998;317:1155–1156. [PMC free article: PMC1114127] [PubMed: 9784470]
  152. Defloor T. Do pressure relief cushions really relieve pressure? Western Journal of Nursing Research. 2000;22(3):335–350. [PubMed: 10804896]
  153. Defloor T. Does turning patients really prevent pressure ulcers? PhD Thesis. Ghent University; Ghent: 2000.
  154. Defloor T. The effects of position and mattress on interface pressure. Applied Nursing Research. 2000;13:1, 2–11. [PubMed: 10701278]
  155. Defloor T. Manual repositioning of patients. Journal of Tissue Viability. 2001;11(3):117.
  156. Defloor T. Wisselhouding, Minder frequent en toch minder decubitus. Tijdschrift Gerontol Geriatr. 2001;32:174–7. [PubMed: 11565421]
  157. Defloor T, Grypdonck MHF. Sitting posture and prevention of pressure ulcers. Applied Nursing research. 1999;12:3, 136–142. [PubMed: 10457624]
  158. Department of Health. Pressure sores: a key quality indicator. London: Department of Health; 1993.
  159. Della Marchina M, Renzi G. Disinfezione di piaghe e ferite del paziente anziano con un nuovo preparato antisettico. Chron Dermatol. 1997;7:873–885.
  160. Delmi M, Rapin CH, Bengoa JM, Delmas PD, Vasey H, Bonjour JP. Dietary supplementation in elderly patients with fractured neck of the femur. Lancet. 1990 Apr 28;335(8696):1013–6. [PubMed: 1970070]
  161. Dennis M. Poor nutritional status on admission predicts poor outcomes after stroke observational data from the food trial. Stroke. 1989;34(6):1450–1455. [PubMed: 12750536]
  162. Deva AK, Buckland GH, Fisher E, et al. Topical negative pressure in wound management. Medical Journal of Australia. 2000;173:128–131. [PubMed: 10979377]
  163. Devine B. Alternating pressure air mattresses in the management of established pressure sores. Journal of Tissue Viability. 1995;5:94–98.
  164. Drummond M. Economic analysis alongside controlled trials: an introduction for clinical researchers. London: Department of Health; 1994.
  165. Drummond MF, Jefferson TO. Guidelines for authors and peer reviewers of economic submissions to the BMJ. British Medical Journal. 1996;313:275–283. [PMC free article: PMC2351717] [PubMed: 8704542]
  166. Drummond M, O’Brien B, Stoddart G, Torrance G. Methods for the economic evaluation of health care programmes. 2. Oxford University Press; Oxford; 1997.
  167. Dyson M. Non-thermal cellular effects of ultrasound. British Journal of Cancer Supplement. 1982;45:165–71. [PMC free article: PMC2149297] [PubMed: 6950755]
  168. Dyson M. Mechanisms involved in therapeutic ultrasound. Physiotherapy. 1987;73:116–20.
  169. Dzwierzynski WW, Spitz K, et al. Improvement in resource utilization after development of a clinical pathway for patients with pressure ulcers. Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery. 1998;102(6):2006–11. [PubMed: 9810998]
  170. Eccles M, Mason J. How to develop cost conscious guidelines. Health Technology Assessment. 2001;5:16. [PubMed: 11427188]
  171. Edsberg LE, Brogan MS, Jaynes D, Fries K. Topical hyperbaric oxygen and electrical stimulation: exploring possible synergy. Ostomy Wound Management. 2002;48:42–50. [PubMed: 12426451]
  172. Ek AC, Unosson M, et al. The modified Norton scale and the nutritional state. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences. 1989;3(4):183–7. [PubMed: 2602728]
  173. Ek AC, Larsson J, et al. The correlation between anergy, malnutrition and clinical outcome in an elderly hospital population. Clinical Nutrition. 1990;9(4):185–189. [PubMed: 16837354]
  174. Ek AC, Unosson M, et al. The development and healing of pressure sores related to the nutritional state. Clinical Nutrition. 1991;10(5):245–250. [PubMed: 16839927]
  175. Elliott TR. Social problem-solving abilities and adjustment to recent-onset spinal cord injury. Rehabilitation Psychology. 1999;44(4):315–332.
  176. Elliott TR, Shewchuk RM, et al. Caregiver social problem-solving abilities and family member adjustment to recent-onset physical disability. Rehabilitation Psychology. 1999;44(1):104–123.
  177. Emflorgo CA. The assessment and treatment of wound pain. Journal of Wound Care. 1999;8(8):384–5. [PubMed: 10808849]
  178. Eriksson G. An environment for healing: the role of occlusion. Vol. 88. London: Royal Society of Medicine; 1984. Bacterial growth in venous leg ulcers – its clinical significance in the healing process. pp. 45–9. (Royal Society of Medicine International Congress and Symposium Series).
  179. Evans D, Land L, Geary A. A clinical evaluation of the Nimbus 3 alternating pressure mattress replacement system. Journal of Wound Care. 2000;9(4):181–186. [PubMed: 11933303]
  180. Evans D, Land L. Topical negative pressure for treating chronic wounds. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2001;(1) [PubMed: 11279736]
  181. Evans D, Land L. Topical negative pressure for treating chronic wounds: a systematic review. British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 2001;54:238–242. [PubMed: 11254418]
  182. Ewing MR, Garrow C, Presley TA, Ashley C, Kinsella NM. Further experiences in the use of sheep skins as an aid in nursing. The Australian Nurses’ Journal. 1964 Sept:215–219. [PubMed: 14176462]
  183. Fabian TS, Kaufman HJ, Lett ED, et al. The evaluation of submatmospheric pressure and hyperbaric oxygen in ischemic full thickness wound healing. The American Surgeon. 2000;66:1136–1143. [PubMed: 11149585]
  184. Fader M, Clarke-O’Neill S, et al. Management of night-time urinary incontinence in residential settings for older people: an investigation into the effects of different pad changing regimes on skin health. Journal of Clinical Nursing. 2003;2(3):374–86. [PubMed: 12709112]
  185. Fay MF. Drainage systems. Their role in wound healing. Aornj. 1987;46:442–455. [PubMed: 3307625]
  186. Ferguson M, Cook A, et al. Pressure ulcer management: the importance of nutrition. MEDSURG Nursing. 2000;9(4):163–75. quiz 176–7. [PubMed: 11040658]
  187. Ferrell BA, Osterweil D, Christenson P. A randomised trial of low air loss beds for treatment of pressure ulcers. JAMA. 1993;269:494–497. [PubMed: 8338511]
  188. Ferrell BA, Artinian BM, et al. The Sessing scale for assessment of pressure ulcer healing. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1995;43(1):37–40. [PubMed: 7806737]
  189. Fischer H, Gilliet F, Hornemann M, et al. Enzymatische Wundreinigung beim venosen Ulcus cruris Bericht uber eine multzentrische klinische Vergleichsstudie mit. verschiedenen Enzympraparaten. Fortschr Med. 1984;102:281–283. [PubMed: 6325313]
  190. Fishman TD. Wound assessment and evaluation. Dermatology Nursing. 1999;11(3):201–2. [PubMed: 10670336]
  191. Fishman TD. Wound assessment and evaluation. Unstageable pressure ulcer due to eschar formation. Dermatology Nursing. 1999;11(3):201–2. [PubMed: 10670336]
  192. Fleischmann W, Becker U, Bischoff M, Hoekstra H. Vacuum sealing: indication, technique and results. Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol. 1995;5:37–40. [PubMed: 24193271]
  193. Fishman TD. Wound assessment and evaluation... pressure ulcer. Dermatology Nursing. 2001;13(1):59–60. [PubMed: 11917301]
  194. Fleischmann W, Strecker W, Bombelli M, Kinzl L. Vacuum sealing as treatment of soft tissue damage in open fractures. Unfallchirurg. 1993;96:488–492. [PubMed: 8235687]
  195. Flemming K, Cullum N. Therapeutic ultrasound for pressure sores. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2000;(4) [PubMed: 11034707]
  196. Flemming K, Cullum N. Electromagnetic therapy for treating pressure sores. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2001;(1) [PubMed: 11279778]
  197. Flock P. Pilot study to determine the effectiveness of diamorphine gel to control pressure ulcer pain. Journal of Pain & Symptom Management. 2003;25(6):547–54. [PubMed: 12782435]
  198. Ford CN, Reinhard ER, Yeh D, et al. Interim analysis of a prospective, randomized trial of vacuum-assisted closure versus the healthpoint system in the management of pressure ulcers. Ann Plast Surg. 2002;491:55–61. discussion 61. [PubMed: 12142596]
  199. Fowler EM. New once-daily pressure sore dressing speeds healing. Registered Nurse. 1983;46:56–57. [PubMed: 6344183]
  200. Fox JW, Golden GT. The use of drains in subcutaneous surgical procedures. Am J Surg. 1976;132:673–674. [PubMed: 984318]
  201. Franks PJ, Moffatt CJ. Focus on wound management. Quality of life issues in chronic wound management. British Journal of Community Nursing. 1999;4(6):283–4.
  202. Franks PJ, Winterberg H, et al. Health-related quality of life and pressure ulceration assessment in patients treated in the community. Wound Repair & Regeneration. 2002;10(3):133–40. [PubMed: 12100374]
  203. Freeman K, Smyth C, et al. Pain measurement scales: a comparison of the visual analogue and faces rating scales in measuring pressure ulcer pain.[comment] Journal of Wound, Ostomy, & Continence Nursing. 2001;28(6):290–6. [PubMed: 11707761]
  204. Fu X, Shen Z, Guo Z, Zhang M, Sheng Z. Healing of chronic cutaneous wounds by topical treatment with basic fibroblast growth factor. Chinese Medical Journal. 2002;115:331–5. [PubMed: 11940357]
  205. Gallagher SM. Morbid obesity: a chronic disease with an impact on wounds and related problems. Ostomy Wound Management. 1997;43(5):18–24. [PubMed: 9233236]
  206. Gallagher J, Gray M. Is aloe vera effective for healing chronic wounds. J WOCN. 2003;30:68–71. [PubMed: 12658233]
  207. Gardner SE, Frantz RA, Schmidt FL. Effect of electrical stimulation on chronic wound healing: a meta-analysis. Wound Repair and Regeneration. 1999;7(6):495–503. [PubMed: 10633009]
  208. Gardner SE, Frantz RA, et al. A tool to assess clinical signs and symptoms of localized infection in chronic wounds: development and reliability. Ostomy Wound Management. 2001;47(1):40–7. [PubMed: 11889655]
  209. Garrigues NN. Pressure ulcers: current concepts in wound care. Journal of Wound Care. 1987;10(1):4.
  210. Genecov DG, Schneider AM, Morykwas MJ, Parker D, White WL, Argenta LC. A controlled subatmospheric pressure dressing increases the rate of skin graft donor site reepithelialisation. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1998;40:219–225. [PubMed: 9523602]
  211. Gentzkow GD, Pollack SV, Kloth LC, Stubbs HA. Wounds: A Compendium Of Clinical Research And Practice. 1991;3:158–170.
  212. Gerding GA, Browning JS. Oxyquinoline-containing ointment vs standard therapy for stage I and stage II lesions. Dermatol Nurs. 1992;4:389–398. [PubMed: 1482629]
  213. Gilchrist B, Reed C. The bacteriology of chronic venous ulcers treated with occlusive hydrocolloid dressings. Br J Dermatol. 1989;121:337–44. [PubMed: 2803959]
  214. Gilmore SA, Robinson G, et al. Clinical indicators associated with unintentional weight loss and pressure ulcers in elderly residents of nursing facilities. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 1995;95(9):984–92. [PubMed: 7657913]
  215. Giovannini UM, DeMaria R, Chaptal PA, Teot L. The role of aspiration therapy for the non healing wounds in cardiac surgery. First World Wound Healing Congress 2000: Australian Wound Management Association; 2000. p. 114.
  216. Gorse GJ, Messner RL. Improved pressure sore healing with hydrocolloid dressings. Arch Dermatol. 1987;123:766–71. [PubMed: 3555355]
  217. Gosnell DJ. Assessment and evaluation of pressure sore. Nursing Clinics of North America. 1987;22:399–416. [PubMed: 3646668]
  218. Granick MS, McGowan E, et al. Outcome assessment of an in-hospital cross-functional wound care team. Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery. 1998;101(5):1243–7. [PubMed: 9529208]
  219. Graumlich JF, Blough LS, McLaughlin RG, et al. Healing pressure ulcers with collagen or hydrocolloid: a randomized, controlled trial. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2003;51:147–54. [PubMed: 12558709]
  220. Gray M. Does oral supplementation with vitamins A or E promote healing of chronic wounds? Journal of Wound, Ostomy & Continence Nursing. 2003;30(6):290–4. [PubMed: 14615755]
  221. Gray M. Does oral zinc supplementation promote healing of chronic wounds? (Review) (36 refs) Journal of Wound, Ostomy & Continence Nursing. 2003 Nov;30(6) [PubMed: 14615757]
  222. Does vitamin C supplementation promote pressure ulcer healing? Journal of Wound, Ostomy & Continence Nursing. 30(5):245–247. [PubMed: 14560282]
  223. Greer SE, Longaker MT, Margiotta M. Preliminary results from a multicentre randomised controlled study of the use of subatmospheric pressure dressing for pressure ulcer healing. Wound Repair and Regeneration. 1999;7:A255.
  224. Greer SE. Whither sub-atmospheric pressure dressing. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 2000;45:332–4. [PubMed: 10987538]
  225. Griffin JW, Tooms RE, Mendius RA, Clifft JK, Vander Zwaag R, el-Zeky F. Efficacy of high voltage pulsed current for healing of pressure ulcers in patients with spinal cord injury. Physical Therapy. 1991;71:433–442. discussion 442–4. [PubMed: 2034707]
  226. Griffin, et al. Comparison of photographic and transparency-based methods for measuring wound surface area. Physical Therapy. 1993;73(2):117–122. [PubMed: 8421717]
  227. Groen HW, Groenier KH, Schuling J. Comparative study of a foam mattress and a water mattress. Journal of Wound Care. 1999;8(7):333–335. [PubMed: 10776222]
  228. Gunningberg L, Lindholm C, et al. Risk, prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers – nursing staff knowledge and documentation. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences. 2001;15(3):257–263. [PubMed: 11564234]
  229. Guralnik JM, Harris TB, White LR, et al. Occurrence and prediction of pressure sores in the national health and nutrition examination survey follow-up. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1988;36(9):807. [PubMed: 3411064]
  230. Hagelstein SM, Banks V. Maintaining quality of life for elderly patients in residential care. Journal of Wound Care. 1995;4(8):347–8. [PubMed: 7553184]
  231. Halbert AR, Stacey MC, Rohr JB, Jopp-McKay A. The effect of bacterial colonization on venous ulcer healing. Australas J Dermatol. 1992;33:75–80. [PubMed: 1294056]
  232. Halfens RJG, Van Achterberg T, Bal RM. Validity and reliability of the Bradeb scale and the influence of other risk factors: a multi-centre prospective study. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 2000;37(4):313–319. [PubMed: 10760538]
  233. Halfens RJ, Bours GJ, et al. Relevance of the diagnosis ‘stage 1 pressure ulcer’: an empirical study of the clinical course of stage 1 ulcers in acute care and long-term care hospital populations. Journal of Clinical Nursing. 2001;10(6):748–57. [PubMed: 11822846]
  234. Hanan K, Scheele L. Albumin vs. weight as a predictor of nutritional status and pressure ulcer development. Ostomy Wound Management. 1991;33:22–7. [PubMed: 2018614]
  235. Harding K, Cutting K, Price P. The cost-effectiveness of wound management protocols of care. British Journal of Nursing. 2000;9:S6–S8. S10–20. [PubMed: 12271239]
  236. Harding K, Cutting K, Price P. Wound management protocols of care. British Journal of Health Care Management. 2001;7:191–197.
  237. Hardy MA. Biology of scar formation. Physical Therapy. 1989;69:1014–1024. [PubMed: 2479956]
  238. Hartgrink HH, Wille J, Konig P, Hermans J, Breslau PJ. Pressure sores and tube feeding in patients with a fracture of the hip: a randomized clinical trial. Clin Nutr. 1998 Dec;17(6):287. [PubMed: 10205352]
  239. Hartmann D. Considerations in the choice of inter-observer reliability estimates. J Appl Behav Anal. 1977;10:103–116. [PMC free article: PMC1311156] [PubMed: 16795538]
  240. Hartman D, Coetzee JC. Two US practitioners’ experience of using essential oils for wound care. J Wound Care. 2002;11(8):317–20. [PubMed: 12360766]
  241. Healy M. Wound care and pain. World of Irish Nursing. 2003;11(5):39–40.
  242. Heath T, Moisidis E, Deva A. A prospective controlled trial of vacuum assisted closure (VAC) in the treatment of acute surgical wounds requiring split skin grafting. Fourth Australian Wound Management Association Conference 2002; Adelaide, South Australia. 2002.
  243. Hefley ML, Radcliffe J. The 1988–1989 decubitus study. Can a standardization of treatment be set for the elderly patient with decubiti ulcers stage III? Hawaii Medical Journal. 1990;49(9):346, 349–50. [PubMed: 2246125]
  244. Heissing R, Kirschner P, Romer H. Wound drainage with continuous high vacuum vs variable vacuum suction drainage. Unfallchirurg. 1995;98:525. [PubMed: 7502086]
  245. Hewitt GK. Chronic leg ulcers. Physiotherapy. 1956;42:43–45. [PubMed: 13349471]
  246. Hess CL, Howard MA, Attinger CE. A review of mechanical adjuncts in wound healing: hydrotherapy, ultrasound, negative presure therapy, hyperbaric oxygen, and electrostimulation. Ann Plast Surg. 2003;51:210–218. [PubMed: 12897528]
  247. Holmich LR, Sim E, Krag C, Dahlfeldt H, Norden A. Vacuum assisted wound closure clinical experience. Wound Repair and Regeneration. 1998;6:A470.
  248. Honde C, Derks C, Tudor D. Local treatment of pressure sores in the elderly: amino acid copolymer membrane versus hydrocolloid dressing. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1994;42:1180–3. [PubMed: 7525682]
  249. Hoshowsky, Schramm CA. Intraoperative pressure prevention: an analysis of bedding materials. Research in Nursing in Health. 1994;17(5):333–339. [PubMed: 8090944]
  250. Houghton PE, et al. Photographic assessment of the appearance of pressure and leg ulcers. Ostomy Wound Management. 2000;46(4):20–30. [PubMed: 10788924]
  251. House A, House B, Campbell M. Measures of inter-observer agreement. Journal of Behavioural Assessment. 1981;3:1, 37–57.
  252. Houwing R, Rozendaal M, Wouters-Wesseling W, Beulens JWJ, Buskens E, Haalboom J. A randomised, double-blind assessment of the effect of nutritional supplementation on the prevention of pressure ulcers in hip-fracture patients. Clinical Nutrition. 2003;22(4):401–405. [PubMed: 12880608]
  253. Huchon D. Comparison between granuflex and parrafin-impregnated medical gauze in the treatment of pressure sores. Eurosci Commun. 1992:23–26.
  254. Huck SW, Cormier WH. Reading Statistics and Research. New York: Harper Collins; 1996.
  255. Huovinen S, Kotilainen P, Jarvinen H, Malanin K, Sarna S, Helander I, et al. Comparison of ciprofloxacin or trimethoprim therapy for venous leg ulcers: results of a pilot study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1994;31:279–81. [PubMed: 8040418]
  256. Isago T, Nozaki M, Kikuchi Y, Honda T, Nakazawa H. Negative-pressure dressings in the treatment of pressure ulcers. Journal of Dermatology. 2003;30:299–305. [PubMed: 12707466]
  257. Jackobs MK. The cost of medical nutrition therapy in healing pressure ulcers. Topics in Clinical Nutrition. 1999;14(2):41–7.
  258. Jones I, Tweed C, et al. Pressure area care in infants and children: Nimbus Paediatric System. British Journal of Nursing. 2001;10(12):789–95. [PubMed: 11972123]
  259. Joseph E, Hamori CA, Bergman S, Roaf E, Swann NF, Anastasi GW. A prospective randomised trial of vacuum assisted closure versus standard therapy of chronic nonhealing wounds. Wounds. 2000;12:60–67.
  260. Karba R, Semarov D, Vodovnik L, Benko H, Savrin R. DC electrical stimulation for chronic wound healing enhancement. Part 1. Clinical study and determination of electrical field distribution in the numerical wound model. Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics. 1997;43:265–270.
  261. Kartes SK. A team approach for risk assessment, prevention, and treatment of pressure ulcers in nursing home patients. Journal of Nursing Care Quality. 1996;10(3):34–45. [PubMed: 8634469]
  262. Keogh A, Dealey C. Profiling beds versus standard hospital beds: effects on pressure ulcer incidence outcomes. Journal of Wound Care. 2001;10(2):15–19. [PubMed: 12964222]
  263. Kemp MG, Keithley JK, Smith DW, et al. Factors that contribute to pressure sores in surgical patients. Research in Nursing and Health. 1990;13(5):293–301. [PubMed: 2236652]
  264. Kerstein MD, Gemmen E, Van Rijswijk L, Lyder CH, Phillips T, Xakellis G, et al. Cost and cost-effectiveness of venous and pressure ulcer protocols of care. Disease Management & Health Outcomes. 2001;9:651–663.
  265. Kim YC, Shin JC, Park CI, Oh SH, Choi SM, Kim YS. Efficacy of hydrocolloid occlusive dressing technique in decubitus ulcer treatment: a comparative study. Yonsei Medical Journal. 1996;37:181–5. [PubMed: 8826783]
  266. Kloth L, Feedar J. Acceleration of wound healing with high voltage, monophasic, pulsed current. Phys Ther. 1988;68:503–508. [PubMed: 3258429]
  267. Kloth LC, Berman JE, Dumit-Minkel S, Sutton CH, Papanek PE, Wurzel J. Effects of a normothermic dressing on pressure ulcer healing. Advances in Skin & Wound Care. 2000;13:69–74. [PubMed: 11074989]
  268. Kloth LC, Berman JE, Nett M, Papanek PE, Dumit-Minkel S. A randomized controlled clinical trial to evaluate the effects of noncontact normothermic wound therapy on chronic full-thickness pressure ulcers. Advances in Skin & Wound Care. 2002;15:270–6. [PubMed: 12477979]
  269. Kraft MR, Lawson L, Pohlmann B, Reid-Lokos C, Barder L. A comparison of Epi-Lock and saline dressings on the treatment of pressure ulcers. Decubitus. 1993;6:42–8. [PubMed: 8286026]
  270. Krainski MM. Pressure ulcers and the elderly. Ostomy Wound Management. 1992;38(5):22. [PubMed: 1622536]
  271. Krasner D. Wound healing scale, version 1.0: a proposal. Advances in Wound Care. 1997;10(5):82–85. [PubMed: 9362587]
  272. Krause JS. Skin sores after spinal cord injury: relationship to life adjustment. Spinal Cord. 1997;36(1):51–6. [PubMed: 9471139]
  273. Kucan JO, Robson MC, Heggers JP, Ko F. Comparison of silver sulfadiazine, povidone-iodine and physiologic saline in the treatment of chronic pressure ulcers. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1981;29:232–5. [PubMed: 7014694]
  274. Ladin D, Hou Z, Philbeck TE. Vacuum assisted closure in the management of lower-extremity wounds. Advances in Wound Care. 2000 (submitted)
  275. Lamond DFS. The treatment of pressure sores: a comparison of novice and expert nurses’ knowledge, information use and decision accuracy. J Advanced Nursing. 1998;27(2):280–6. [PubMed: 9515637]
  276. Landi F, Aloe L, Russo A, et al. Topical treatment of pressure ulcers with nerve growth factor: a randomized clinical trial. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2003;139:635–41. [PubMed: 14568851]
  277. Langer G, Schloemer G, Knerr A, Kuss O, Behrens J. The Cochrane Library. Vol. 3. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2004. Nutritional interventions for preventing and treating pressure ulcers (Cochrane Review)
  278. Langkamp-Henken B, Herrlinger-Garcia KA, Stechmiller JK, Nickerson-Troy JA, Lewis B, Moffatt L. Arginine supplementation is well tolerated but does not enhance mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation in elderly nursing home residents with pressure ulcers. J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2000 Sep-Oct;24(5):280–7. [PubMed: 11011783]
  279. Larsson J, Unosson M, Ek AC, Nilsson L. Effect of dietary supplement on nutritional status and clinical outcome in 501 geriatric patients: a randomized study. Clinical Nutrition. 1990;9:179–84. [PubMed: 16837353]
  280. Lazzara DJ, Buschmann MBT. Prevention of pressure ulcers in elderly nursing home residents: are special support surfaces the answer. Decubitus. 1991;4:42–26. [PubMed: 1760125]
  281. Lee LK, Ambrus JL. Collagenous therapy for decubitus ulcers. Geriatrics. 1975;30:91–8. [PubMed: 163782]
  282. LeVasseur SA, Helme RD. A double-blind clinical trial to compare the efficacy of an active based cream F14001 against a placebo non-active based cream for the treatment of pressure ulcers in a population of elderly subjects. J Adv Nurs. 1991;16:952–6. [PubMed: 1779084]
  283. Lewis B. Protein levels and the aetiology of pressure sores. Journal of Wound Care. 1996;5(10):479–82. [PubMed: 9117822]
  284. Ljungberg S. Comparison of dextranomer paste and saline dressings for management of decubital ulcers. Clinical Therapeutics. 1998;20:737–43. [PubMed: 9737833]
  285. Lookingbill DP, Miller SH, Knowles RC. Bacteriology of chronic leg ulcers. Arch Dermatol. 1978;114:1765–8. [PubMed: 367280]
  286. Lucas C, Coenen CHM, de Haan RJ. The effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT) on Stage III decubitis ulcers (pressure ulcers); a prospective randomised single blind, multicentre pilot study. Lasers Med Sci. 2000;14:94–100.
  287. Lum CC, Cheung W, Chow PM, Woo J, Hui E, Or KH. Use of a hydrogel in pressure sore management A randomised controlled clinical trial. Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Advances in Wound Management; London: Macmillan Ltd; 1996. p. 283.
  288. Lundhus E, Gjode F, Holm CN, Terpling S. Bacterial antimicrobial cover in primary suture of perianal or pilonidal abscess. A prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Acta Chirurg Scand. 1989;155:351–4. [PubMed: 2683535]
  289. Lyder CH. Pressure ulcer prevention and management. Jama. 2003;289:223–226. [PubMed: 12517234]
  290. Maas-Irslinger R, Hensby CN, Farley KL. Efficacy and safety of XENADERM ointment: a novel formulation for treatment of injured skin due to pressure ulcers. Wounds: A Compendium of Clinical Research & Practice. 2003;15(3 suppl):2S–8S.
  291. Macario A, Dexter F. Is noncontact normothermic wound therapy cost-effective for the treatment of stages 3 and 4 pressure ulcers? Wounds-A Compendium of Clinical Research & Practice. 2002;14(3):93–106.
  292. Maklebust J. Pressure ulcers: aetiology and prevention. Nursing Clinics of North America. 1987;22(2):359–377. [PubMed: 3554149]
  293. Maklebust J. Policy implications of using reverse staging to monitor pressure ulcer status. Advances in Wound Care. 1997;10(5):32–5. [PubMed: 9362575]
  294. Maklebust J. Pressure ulcer assessment. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine. 1997;13(3):455–81. [PubMed: 9227939]
  295. Maklebust J, Magnan MA. Approaches to patient and family education for pressure ulcer management. Decubitus. 1992;5(7):18–20. 24–26. passim. [PubMed: 1497805]
  296. Maklebust J, Magnan MA. Risk factors associated with having a pressure ulcer: a secondary data analysis. Advances in Wound Care. 1994;7(6):25, 27–8. Passim. [PubMed: 7795863]
  297. Maklebust J, Margolis D. Session I: pressure ulcers: definition and assessment parameters. Advances in Wound Care. 1995;8(4):28/6–28/7. [PubMed: 7627407]
  298. Maklebust J, Sieggreen MY. Attacking on all fronts: how to conquer pressure ulcers. Nursing. 1996;26(12):34–40. [PubMed: 8971240]
  299. Malone C. Pressure sores in the labour ward. RCM Midwives Journal. 2000;3(1):20–3.
  300. Malone ML, Rosen LB, et al. Complications of acute myocardial infarction in patients. American Journal of Cardiology. 1998;81(5):638–41. [PubMed: 9514465]
  301. Manfredi PL, Breuer B, et al. Pain assessment in elderly patients with severe dementia. Journal of Pain & Symptom Management. 2003;25(1):48–52. [PubMed: 12565188]
  302. Marchand AC, Lidowski H. Reassessment of the use of genuine sheepskin for pressure ulcer prevention and treatment. Decubitus. 1993;6(1):44–47. [PubMed: 8427643]
  303. Marchette L, Arnell I, Redick E. Skin ulcers of elderly surgical patients in critical care units. Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing. 1991;10(6):321–329. [PubMed: 1935528]
  304. Matthews Kirk P. Pressure ulcer management following spinal cord injury. Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation. 1996;2(1):9–20.
  305. Matzen S, Peschardt A, Alsbjorn B. A new amorphous hydrocolloid for the treatment of pressure sores: a randomised controlled study. Scandinavian Journal of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery & Hand Surgery. 1999;33:13–5. [PubMed: 10207960]
  306. McCallon SK, Knight CA, Valiulus JP, Cunningham MW, McCulloch JM, Farinas LP. Vacuum assisted closure vs saline-moistened gauze in the healing of postoperative diabetic foot wounds. Ostomy/Wound Management. 2000;46:28–32. 34. [PubMed: 11189545]
  307. McDiarmid T, Burns PN, Lewith GT, Machin D. Ultrasound in the treatment of pressure ulcers. Physiotherapy. 1985;71:66–70.
  308. Meaume S. A randomized controlled study to compare a sequential treatment using alginate-CMC and hydrocolloid dressing or hydrocolloid dressing alone in decubitus ulcer management. 9th European Conference on Advances in Wound Management; Harrogate, UK. 9–11 Nov, 1999; 1999. p. 11.
  309. Meaume S, Van de Looverbosch D, Heyman H, Romanelli M, Ciangherotti A, Charpin S. A study to compare a new self-adherent soft silicone dressing with a self-adherent polymer dressing in stage II pressure ulcers. Ostomy Wound Management. 2003;49:44–51. [PubMed: 14581709]
  310. Melhuish, et al. Circumference, area and volume of the healing wound. Journal of Wound Care. 1994;3(8):380–384.
  311. Mendez-Eastman S. When wounds won’t heal. Rn. 1998;61:20–24. [PubMed: 9481369]
  312. Meraviglia M, Becker H, et al. Maintenance of skin integrity as a clinical indicator of nursing care. Advances in Skin & Wound Care. 2002;15(1):24–9. [PubMed: 11902357]
  313. Milward P, Siddle H, Bridgewater A. A user evaluation on the Triple Care cleanser and cream system examining impact on pressure ulcer incidence in a long term care centre. Proceedings of 5th European Conference on Advances in Wound Management; Nov 21–24; Harrogate, UK. 1995. 1995.
  314. Minassian M, Lewis D, Chattopadhyay D, Bovill B, Duckworth G, Williams J. A comparison between single-dose fosfomycin trometamol (Monuril) and a five day course of trimethoprim in the treatment of uncomplicated lower urinary tract infection in women. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 1998;10:39–47. [PubMed: 9624542]
  315. Moberg S, Hoffman L, Grennert ML, Holst A. A randomized trial of cadexomer iodine in decubitus ulcers. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1983;31:462–5. [PubMed: 6688261]
  316. Mooney JF, Argenta LC, Marks MW, Morykwas MJ, DeFranzo AJ. Treatment of soft tissue defects in pediatric patients using the V.A.C. system. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. 2000;376:26–31. [PubMed: 10906854]
  317. Morgan D. Is there still a role for antiseptics? J Tissue Viability. 1993;3:80–4.
  318. Morison M, Moffatt C, Bridel-Nixon J, Bale S. Nursing management of chronic wounds. 2nd edition . London: Mosby; 1997.
  319. Morykwas MJ. Effect of VAC therapy on total charge and length of stay of patients in DRG 263: a 21 month analysis. 27th Annual Conference, Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurses; 1995.1995.
  320. Morykwas MJ, Argenta LC. Use of negative pressure to increase the rate of granulation tissue formation in chronic open wounds. Annual Meeting: Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology; 1993.1993.
  321. Morykwas MJ, Argenta LC, Shelton-Brown EI, Wyman McGuirt W. Vacuum-assisted closure: a new method for wound control and treatment: animal studies and basic foundation. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1997;38:553–562. [PubMed: 9188970]
  322. Morykwas MJ. External application of sub-atmospheric pressure and healing: mechanisms of action. Wound Healing Society Newsletter. 1998;8
  323. Mosher BA, Cuddigan J, Thomas DR, Boudreau DM. Outcomes of 4 methods of debridement using a decision analysis methodology. Advances in Wound Care. 1999;12:81–8. [PubMed: 10326360]
  324. Motta G, Dunham L, Dye T, Mentz J, O’Connell-Gifford E, Smith E. Clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a new synthetic polymer sheet wound dressing. Ostomy/Wound Management. 1999;45:41–49. [PubMed: 10687651]
  325. Mulder GD, Altman M, Seeley JE, Tintle T. Prospective randomized study of the efficacy of hydrogel, hydrocolloid, and saline solution-moistened dressings on the management of pressure ulcers. Wound Repair Regen. 1993;1:213–18. [PubMed: 17166097]
  326. Mulder GD, Taro N, Seeley J, Andrews K. A study of pressure ulcer response to low air loss beds vs. conventional treatment. J Geriatr Dermatol. 1994;2(3):87–91.
  327. Muller E, van Leen MWF, Bergemann R. Economic evaluation collagenase-containing ointment and hydrocolloid dressing in the treatment of pressure ulcers. PharmacoEconomics. 2001;19:1209–16. [PubMed: 11772156]
  328. Mullner T, Mrkonjic O, Vecsei V. The use of negative pressure to promote the healing of tissue defects: a clinical trial using the vacuum sealing technique. British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1997;50:194–199. [PubMed: 9176007]
  329. Munro BH, Brown L, Heitman BB. Pressure ulcers: one bed or another. Geriatric Nursing. 1989;10:190–2. [PubMed: 2777121]
  330. Murdoch V. Pressure care in the paediatric intensive care unit. Nursing Standard. 2002;17(6):71–6. [PubMed: 12434752]
  331. Mustoe TA, Cutler NR, Allman RM, et al. A phase II study to evaluate recombinant platelet-derived growth factor-BB in the treatment of stage 3 and 4 pressure ulcers. Arch Surg. 1994;129:213–19. [PubMed: 8304833]
  332. Myers SA, Takiguchi S, Slavish S, Rose CL. Consistent wound care and nutritional support in treatment. Decubitus. 1990 Aug;3(3):16–28. [PubMed: 2119183]
  333. Nasar MA, Morley R. Cost-effectiveness in treating deep pressure sores and ulcers. Practitioner. 1982;226:307–10. [PubMed: 6178103]
  334. National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Clinical Guideline 7; Pressure ulcer prevention. NICE. 2003;2003
  335. Naylor IL. Ulcer care in the Middle Ages. Journal of Wound Care. 1999;8:4, 208–212. [PubMed: 10455638]
  336. Nelson M. Pressure ulcer assessment and documentation: the beginning of a plan of care. Journal of Legal Nurse Consultants. 2001;12(4):22–5.
  337. Nesselroth SM, Gahtan V. Management of pressure ulcers in the home care setting. Home Healthcare Consultant. 2000;7(4):34–42.
  338. Newton C. On-line assessment. Nursing Times. 1993;89(25):62. Wound Care. [PubMed: 8321699]
  339. NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Improving access to cost-effectiveness information for health care decision-making. CRD6 Report. 2. 2001.
  340. Nixon J, Smye S, et al. The diagnosis of early pressure sores: report of the pilot study. Journal of Tissue Viability. 1999;9(2):62–6. [PubMed: 10480973]
  341. Nixon J, Brown J, McElvenny D, et al. Prognostic factors associated with pressure sore development in the immediate post-operative period. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 2000;37(4):279–289. [PubMed: 10760535]
  342. Norris JR, Reynolds RE. The effect of oral zinc sulfate therapy on decubitus ulcers. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1971;19:793–7.
  343. North G, Booth A. Why appraise the evidence? A case study of vitamin C and the healing of pressure sores. Journal of Human Nutrition & Dietetics. 1999;12(3):237–244.
  344. Norton D, McLaren R, Exon-Smith A. An investigation of geriatric nursing problems in hospital. 1. London: Churchill Livingstone; 1962.
  345. Nussbaum EL, Biemann I, Mustard B. Comparison of ultrasound/ultraviolet-C and laser for treatment of pressure ulcers in patients with spinal cord injury. Physical Therapy; 1994;74:812–825. [PubMed: 8066108]
  346. Ohura T, Sanada H, Mino Y. Clinical activity-based cost-effectiveness of traditional versus modern wound management in patients with pressure ulcers. Wounds – A Compendium of Clinical Research & Practice. 2004:157–163.
  347. Oke S, Davies S. A holistic approach to pressure sore management. British Journal of Nursing. 1995;4322(6):319–20. 339–40. [PubMed: 7727949]
  348. Oleske DM, Smith XP, White P, Pottage J, Donovan MI. A randomized clinical trial of two dressing methods for the treatment of low-grade pressure ulcers. J Enterostomal Ther. 1986;13:90–8. [PubMed: 3519718]
  349. O’Meara S, Cullum N, Majid M, Sheldon T. Systematic reviews of wound care management: (3) antimicrobial agents for chronic wounds. Health Technology Assessment. 2000;4(21):3–107. [PubMed: 11074391]
  350. Oppenheim AN. Questionnaire Design and Attitude Measurement. London: Heinemen; 1984.
  351. Orlando PL. Pressure ulcer management in the geriatric patient. Annals of Pharmacotherapy. 1998;32(11):1221–7. [PubMed: 9825090]
  352. Ovington LG. Advances in Wound Care, the 1999 Edition Source Book. 1999. 1, 2, 3, s-t-r-e-t-c-h; vacuum enhances wound closure; pp. 125–127.
  353. Palmieri B. Heterologous collagen in wound healing: a clinical study. Dextranomer vs lyophilized collagen sponge. Int J Tissue React. 1992;14(Suppl):21–5. [PubMed: 1639582]
  354. Papanikolaou P, Lyne PA, Lycett E. Pressure ulcer risk assessment: application of logistic analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 2003;44(2):128–36. [PubMed: 14521680]
  355. Parish LC, Collins E. Decubitus ulcers: a comparative study. Cutis. 1979;23:106–10. [PubMed: 215386]
  356. Parish LC, Joseph AW. Decubitus ulcer: how to intervene effectively. Drug Therapy Hospital Education. 1983;1983;8:95–8.
  357. Pase MN, Hoffman RG. Selection and use of pressure ulcer risk-assessment tools and treatment protocols in extended-care facilities in the southwest. Journal of Wound, Ostomy, & Continence Nursing. 1998;25(1):44–50. [PubMed: 9481287]
  358. Payne JF. On an unpublished English anatomical treatise of the fourteenth century. BMJ. 1896;1:200–203. [PMC free article: PMC2406195] [PubMed: 20755973]
  359. Pedley G. Prevention and management of pressure sores. Journal of Community Nursing. 1998;12(11):4.
  360. Perier C, Granouillet R, et al. Nutritional markers, acute phase reactants and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1 in elderly patients with pressure sores. Gerontology. 2002;48(5):298–301. [PubMed: 12169795]
  361. Peschardt A, Alsbjorn B, Gottrup F. A comparative randomized study on performance characteristics of a new hydrogel versus saline gauze for the treatment of pressure sores. 6th European Conference on Advances in Wound Management; 1997. p. 283.
  362. Philbeck TE, Whittington KT, Millsap MH, Briones RB, Wight DG, Schroeder WJ. The clinical and cost-effectiveness of externally applied negative pressure wound therapy in the treatment of wounds in home healthcare medicare patients. Ostomy/Wound Management. The Journal for Extended Patient Care Management. 1999;45:41–50. [PubMed: 10687657]
  363. Phillips L. Cost-effective strategy for managing pressure ulcers in critical care: a prospective, non-randomised, cohort study. Journal of Tissue Viability. 2000;10(3 su):2–6. [PubMed: 11299575]
  364. Pierce GF, Tarpley JE, Allman RMG, PS, Serdar CM, Morris B. Tissue repair processes in healing chronic pressure ulcers treated with recombinant platelet-derived growth factor BB. RPDGF-BB 100 micrograms/ml x rPDGF-BB 300 micrograms/ml x placebo. Am J Pathol. 1994;145:1399–1410. [PMC free article: PMC1887508] [PubMed: 7992843]
  365. Pittl G, Milnes M, McMackin S, Boughey F, Fako W. A multi-phase, open label, randomized, parallel comparative study of two hydrocolloid dressings on patients with stage II and stage III exudating pressure ulcers. Comfeel Plus dressing vs Duoderm CGF. Poster presented at the Wound Ostomy and Continence Nurses Annual Conference.1998.
  366. Plassmann P, Jones TD. MAVIS: a non invasive instrument to measure area and volume of wounds. Medical Engineering & Physics. 1998;20:332–338. [PubMed: 9773686]
  367. Pontieri-Lewis V. Focus on wound care. Pressure ulcers: assessment to evaluation. MEDSURG Nursing. 1995;4(3):220–1. [PubMed: 7780477]
  368. Pontieri-Lewis V. Pressure ulcers: assessment to evaluation. MEDSURG Nursing. 1995;4(3):220–1. [PubMed: 7780477]
  369. Prescott WA Jr, Regal RE. Pressure ulcers: what to think when giving zinc. P & T. 2003;28(7):473–474.
  370. Preston KM. Dermal ulcers: simplifying a complex problem of pressure sores. Journal of Gerontological Nursing. 1987;12(7):11–16.
  371. Price P, Bale S, Crook H, Harding KG. The effect of a radiant heat dressing on pressure ulcers. Journal of Wound Care. 2000;9:201–5. [PubMed: 11933306]
  372. Prior J. The pressure is on: midwives and decubitus ulcers. RCM Midwives Journal. 2002;5(5):196–200. [PubMed: 12046196]
  373. Pullen R, Popp R, Volkers P, Fusgen I. Prospective randomized double-blind study of the wound-debriding effects of collagenase and fibrinolysin/deoxyribonuclease in pressure ulcers. Age & Ageing. 2002;31:126–130. [PubMed: 11937475]
  374. Ratliff CR, Rodeheaver GT. Pressure ulcer assessment and management. Lippincott’s Primary Care Practice. 1999;3(2):242–58. [PubMed: 10426069]
  375. Rawcliffe C. Medicine and Society in Later Medieval England. Stroud: Sutton; 1995.
  376. Reed RL, Hepburn K, Adelson R, et al. Low serum albumin levels, confusion and fecal incontinence: are these risk factors for pressure ulcers in mobility-impaired hospitalized adults. Gerontology. 2003;49:255–259. [PubMed: 12792162]
  377. Rees RS, Robson MC, Smiell JM, Perry BH. Becaplermin gel in the treatment of pressure ulcers: a phase II randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Wound Repair & Regeneration. 1999;7:141–7. [PubMed: 10417749]
  378. Rhodes RS, Heyneman CA, Culbertson VL, Wilson SE, Phatak HM. Topical phenytoin treatment of stage II decubitus ulcers in the elderly. Annals of Pharmacotherapy. 2001;35:675–81. [PubMed: 11408983]
  379. Ribbons RM, McKenna LG. Facilitating higher order thinking skills in nurse education: a prototype database for teaching wound assessment and management skills. Studies in Health Technology & Informatics. 1997;46:389–92. [PubMed: 10175429]
  380. Richardson G, Wonderling D, Simon J, Wailoo A, Douglas H-R, Culyer A, Tsuchiya A, Roberts J, Drummond MF.on behalf of Health Economists in Guidelines. In National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Information for National Collaborating Centres and Guideline Developers. London: 2004. Guideline Development Methods.
  381. Riet ter G, van Houtem H, Knipschild P. Health care professionals views of the effectiveness of pressure ulcer treatments. A survey amongst nursing home physicians, dermatologists, and nursing staff in the Netherlands. Clinical Exp Dermatology. 1992;17:328–31. [PubMed: 1458637]
  382. Rippon MG, Springett K, Walmsley R. Ultrasound evaluation of acute experimental and chronic clinical wounds. Skin Research and Technology. 1999;5:228–236.
  383. Ritz MC, Gallegos R, Canham MB, Eskalai M, George FR. PROVANT Wound-Closure System accelerates closure of pressure wounds in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2002;961:356–9. [PubMed: 12081939]
  384. Robson MC, Phillips LG, Heggers JP, McPherson MA, Heiner LS. Clinical studies on growth factors in pressure sores: preliminary report. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1991;365:95–102. [PubMed: 1862156]
  385. Robson MC, Phillips LG, Thomason A, et al. Recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB for the treatment of chronic pressure ulcers. Ann Plast Surg. 1992;1992;29:193–201. [PubMed: 1524367]
  386. Robson MC, Phillips LG, Lawrence WT, et al. The safety and effect of topically applied recombinant basic fibroblast growth factor on the healing of chronic pressure sores. Ann Surg. 1992;216:401–6. [PMC free article: PMC1242638] [PubMed: 1417189]
  387. Robson MC, Abdullah A, Burns BF, et al. Safety and effect of topical recombinant human interleukin-1 beta in the management of pressure sores. Wound Repair Regen. 1994;2:177–81. [PubMed: 17156109]
  388. Robson MC, Maggi SP, Smith PD, Wassermann RJ, Mosiello GC, Hill DP, et al. Original articles: ease of wound closure as an endpoint of treatment efficacy.[comment] Wound Repair & Regeneration. 1999;7:90–6. [PubMed: 10231510]
  389. Robson MC, Hill DP, Smith PD, et al. Sequential cytokine therapy for pressure ulcers: clinical and mechanistic response. Annals of Surgery. 2000;231:600–11. [PMC free article: PMC1421038] [PubMed: 10749622]
  390. Ronda L, Falce RL. Skin care in older people. Primary Health Care. 2002;12(7):51–7.
  391. Rook JL. Wound care pain management. Advances in Wound Care. 1996;9(6):24–31. [PubMed: 9069753]
  392. Rook JL. Wound care pain management. Nurse Practitioner. 1997;22131(3):122–6. 134–6. [PubMed: 9078519]
  393. Rosenthal MJ, Felton RM, Hileman DL, Lee M, Friedman M. A wheelchair cushion designed to redistribute sites of sitting pressure. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1996;77:278–82. [PubMed: 8600872]
  394. Russell L, Taylor J, et al. Development and validation of the Burton Score: a tool for nutritional assessment. Journal of Tissue Viability. 1998;8(4):16–22. [PubMed: 10480967]
  395. Russell L. Malnutrition and pressure ulcers: nutrition assessment tools. (37 refs) Br J Nursing. 2000;9(4):194–204. [PubMed: 11033635]
  396. Russell L, Reynolds TM, Carr J, Evans A, Holmes M. Randomised controlled trial of two pressure-relieving systems. Journal of Wound Care. 2000;9(2):52–55. [PubMed: 11933280]
  397. Russell L, Reynolds TM, Towns A, Worth W, Greenman A, Turner R. Randomized comparison trial of the RIK and the Nimbus 3 mattresses. British Journal of Nursing. 2003;12(4):254–259. [PubMed: 12671572]
  398. Russell L, Nebbioso G, Munter KC, Beele H, Basse PB. The CONTOP study: a hydro-activated silver-containing foam dressing versus standard care. WUWHS meeting; Paris. July 2004.2004.
  399. Rycroft-Malone J, McInnes E. Pressure ulcer risk assessment and prevention. Technical Report. RCN; London: 2000.
  400. Sae-Sia W, Wipke-Tevis D. Pressure ulcer prevention and treatment practices in inpatient rehabilitation facilities. Rehabilitation Nursing. 2002;27(5):192–8. [PubMed: 12242870]
  401. Sayag J, Meaume S, Bohbot S. Healing properties of calcium alginate dressings. J Wound Care. 1996;5:357–62. [PubMed: 8954425]
  402. Saydak SJ. A pilot test of two methods for the treatment of pressure ulcers. J Enterostomal Ther. 1990;17:140–2. [PubMed: 2347993]
  403. Schnelle JF, Ouslander JG, et al. Nighttime sleep and bed mobility among incontinent nursing home residents. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1993;41(9):903–9. [PubMed: 8409175]
  404. Schnelle JF, Adamson GM, Cruise PA, et al. Skin disorder and moisture in incontinent nursing home residents: intervention implications. Journal of the American Geriatric Society. 1997;45(10):1182–1188. [PubMed: 9329478]
  405. Schnelle JF, Cruise PA, et al. Individualizing nighttime incontinence care in nursing home residents. Nursing Research. 1998;47(4):197–204. [PubMed: 9683114]
  406. Schoonhoven L, Defloor T, van der Tweel I, et al. Risk indicators for pressure ulcers during surgery. Applied Nursing Research. 2002;16(1):163–173. [PubMed: 12173167]
  407. Schubert V, Perbeck L, et al. Skin microcirculatory and thermal changes in elderly subjects with early stage of pressure sores. Clinical Physiology. 1994;14(1):1–13. [PubMed: 8149703]
  408. Schue RM, Langemo DK. Pressure ulcer prevalence and incidence and modifications of the Braden scale for rehabilitation unit. Journal of Wound Ostomy and Continence NURSE. 1998;25(1):36–43. [PubMed: 9481286]
  409. Schulz KF, Chalmers I, Hayes RJ, Altman DG. Empirical evidence of bias – dimensions of methodological quality associated with estimates of treatment effects in controlled trials. Jama. 1995;273:408–412. [PubMed: 7823387]
  410. Schwarzl F, Moshammer H, Haas F. Treatment of pressure ulcers with V.A.C. Acta Chir Austriaca. 1998;150:8–9.
  411. Scott F, Newens A. Hospital monitoring of pressure ulcers in the UK. Journal of Wound Care. 1999;8(5):221–4. [PubMed: 10531935]
  412. Scotts A, et al. An instrument to measure healing in pressure ulcers: developmemt and validation of the pressure ulcer scale for healing (PUSH) Journal of Gerontology. 2001;56A(12):795–799. [PubMed: 11723157]
  413. Seaman S, Herbster S, Muglia J, Murray M, Rick C. Simplifying modern wound management for nonprofessional caregivers. Ostomy Wound Management. 2000;46:18–27. [PubMed: 11189544]
  414. Sebern MD. Pressure ulcer management in home health care: efficacy and cost-effectiveness of moisture vapor permeable dressing. Med Rehabil. 1986;67:726–9. [PubMed: 3533007]
  415. Sebern MD. Cost and efficacy of pressure ulcer management in a metropolitan visiting nurse association. Decubitus. 1989;2:58–9. [PubMed: 2775474]
  416. Seeley J, Jensen JL, Hutcherson J. A randomized clinical study comparing a hydrocellular dressing to a hydrocolloid dressing in the management of pressure ulcers. Ostomy Wound Management. 1999;45:39–44. [PubMed: 10655861]
  417. Seiler WO, Stahelin HB. Decubitus ulcers: treatment through five therapeutic principles. Geriatrics. 1985;40(9):30–44. [PubMed: 4029622]
  418. Selkowitz DM, Cameron MH, Mainzer A, Wolfe R. Efficacy of pulsed low-intensity ultrsound in wound healing: a single-case design. Ostomy/Wound Management. 2002;48:40–50. [PubMed: 11993060]
  419. Senapati AG, Jenner G, Thompson RPH. Zinc in the elderly. Quarterly Journal of Medicine. 1989;70(261):81–7. [PubMed: 2594951]
  420. Shea JD. Pressure sores: classification and management. Clinical Orthop. 1975;112:89–100. [PubMed: 1192654]
  421. Sheffet A, Cytryn AS, Louria DB. Applying electric and electromagnetic energy as adjunctive treatment for pressure ulcers: a critical review. Ostomy/Wound Management. 2000;46:28–44. [PubMed: 10745854]
  422. Shiraishi T, Oka R, Nakagawa Y. Pharmaceutical and bacteriological study on povidone-iodine sugar ointment. Dermatology. 1997;195:100–3. [PubMed: 9403265]
  423. Shubert V. Measuring the area of chronic ulcers for consistent documentation in clinical practice. Wounds – A Compendium Of Clinical Research & Practice. 1997;9(5):153–9.
  424. Shutler S, Stock J, Bale S, Harding KG, Squires D, Wilson I. A multi-centre comparison of a hydrocellular adhesive dressing (Allevyn Adhesive) and a hydrocolloid dressing (Granuflex) in the management of stage 2 and 3 pressure sores. Conference Proceedings of 5th European Conference on Advances in Wound Management; Nov 21–24, 1995; Harrogate, UK. 1995.
  425. Smith DB, Lekan-Rutledge D. Continence management and wound care for a patient in a residential facility. Journal of Wocn. 1997;24(3):172–8. [PubMed: 9224026]
  426. Smith DM, Winsemius DK, Besdine RW. Pressure sores in the elderly: can this outcome be improved? J Gen Intern Med. 1991;6:81–93. [PubMed: 1999751]
  427. Smith LN. Managing surgical wounds: a study report. Nursing Standard. 1996;10 [PubMed: 8703782]
  428. Smith-Temple J, Johnson JY. Hospital extra. Clinical procedures. Pressure ulcer management. AJN, American Journal of Nursing. 1998;98(2):16D. Contin Care Extra Ed.
  429. Song C, Tan KC. Vacuum dressings in chronic wounds. First World Wound Healing Congress; Australian Wound Management Association; 2000. p. 113.
  430. Sopata M, Luczak J, et al. Effect of bacteriological status on pressure ulcer healing in patients with advanced cancer. Journal of Wound Care. 2002;11(3):107–10. [PubMed: 11933727]
  431. Specht JP, Bergquist S, et al. Adoption of a research-based practice for treatment of pressure ulcers. Nursing Clinics of North America. 1995;30(3):553–63. [PubMed: 7567579]
  432. Spoelhof GD. Management of pressure ulcers in the nursing home. Annals of Long Term Care. 2000;8(8):69–77.
  433. Spooner R. Managing a patient’s multiple pressure sores. (Care of an elderly demented woman with little mobility) Journal of Wound Care. 1993;2(3):139–141.
  434. Sprigle S, Linden M, et al. Advances in Skin & Wound Care. Clinical skin temperature measurement to predict incipient pressure ulcers. 2001;14(3):133–7. [PubMed: 11905978]
  435. Sprigle S, Linden M, et al. Analysis of localized erythema using clinical indicators and spectroscopy. Ostomy Wound Management. 2003;49(3):42–52. [PubMed: 12732750]
  436. Standards Of Reporting Trials Group. A propsal for structured reporting of randomised controlled trials. JAMA. 1994;272:1926–1931. [PubMed: 7990245]
  437. Stiller MJ, Pak GH, Shupack JL, Thaler S, Kenny C, Jondreau L. A portable pulsed elctromagnetic field (PEMF) device to enhance healing of recalcitrant venous ulcers: a double-blind, placebo controlled trial. British J Dermatol. 1992;127:147–154. [PubMed: 1390143]
  438. Stoneberg C, Pitcock N, Myton C. Pressure sores in the homebound: one solution. American Journal of Nursing. 1986 April:426–8. [PubMed: 3633697]
  439. Strauss MJ, Gong J, Gary BD, et al. The cost of home air-fluidized therapy for pressure sores. A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Family Practice. 1991;33:52–59. [PubMed: 2056290]
  440. Subramanian T, Vijayarathinam P, Sathyavan V, Navaneethakrishnan S, Anugraham S, Anbalagan K, et al. Effects of placental dressings in indolent ulcers. J Ind Med Assoc. 1990;88:314–16. [PubMed: 2086662]
  441. Sugarman B, Hawes S, et al. Osteomyelitis beneath pressure sores. Archives of Internal Medicine. 1983;143(4):683–8. [PubMed: 6220682]
  442. Sugarman B. Pressure sores and underlying bone infection. Archives of Internal Medicine. 1987;147(3):553–5. [PubMed: 3469938]
  443. Taylor A. Managing pressure ulcers: the need for pain assessment. Community Outlook. 2000;6(3):45–6. [PubMed: 12778508]
  444. Taylor TV, Rimmer S, Day B, Butcher J, Dymock IW. Ascorbic acid supplementation in the treatment of pressure-sores. Lancet. 1974 Sep 7;2(7880):544–6. [PubMed: 4140267]
  445. ter Riet G, Kessels AG, Knipschild PG. Randomized clinical trial of ascorbic acid in the treatment of pressure ulcers. J Clin Epidemiol. 1995 Dec;48(12):1453–60. [PubMed: 8543959]
  446. ter Riet G, Kessels AGH, Knipschild P. British Medical Journal. Vol. 310. 1995. A randomized clinical trial of ultrasound treatment for pressure ulcers; pp. 1040–1. [PMC free article: PMC2549431] [PubMed: 7728058]
  447. The Weinberg Group. Technology assessment of the V.A.C for in-home treatment of chronic wounds. Washington, USA: The Weinberg Group Inc; 1999.
  448. Theaker C, Mannan M, Ives N, et al. Risk factors for pressure sores in the critically ill. Anaesthesia. 2000;55:221–224. [PubMed: 10671839]
  449. Thomas DR, Goode PS, Tarquine PH, Allman RM. Hospital acquired pressure ulcers and risk of death. Journal of American Geriatric Society. 1996;44:1435–40. [PubMed: 8951312]
  450. Thomas DR, Goode PS, LaMaster K, Tennyson T. Acemannan hydrogel dressing versus saline dressing for pressure ulcers. A randomized, controlled trial. Advances in Wound Care. 1998;11:273–6. [PubMed: 10326343]
  451. Thomas DR. Improving outcomes of pressure ulcers with nutritional interventions: a review of the evidence. Nutrition. 2001;17:121–125. [PubMed: 11240340]
  452. Thomas DR. Age-related changes in wound healing. Drugs & Aging. 2001;18(8):607–20. [PubMed: 11587247]
  453. Thomas S, Fear M. Comparing two dressings for wound debridement. J Wound Care. 1993;2:272–4.
  454. Thomas S, Fear M, et al. Assessment of patients with chronic wounds. Journal of Wound Care. 1994;3(3):151–4.
  455. Thomas S, Banks V, Bale S, et al. A comparison of two dressings in the management of chronic wounds. Journal of Wound Care. 1997;6:383–6. [PubMed: 9341430]
  456. Thomas S. Alginate dressings in surgery and wound management - part 1. J Wound Care. 2000;9:56–60. [PubMed: 11933281]
  457. Thomas S. Alginate dressings in surgery and wound management - part 2. J Wound Care. 2000;9:115–119. [PubMed: 11933292]
  458. Thornhill-Joynes M, Gonzales F, et al. Osteomyelitis associated with pressure ulcers. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. 1986;67(5):314–8. [PubMed: 3707316]
  459. Toba K, Sudoh N, Nagano K, Eto M, Mizuno Y, Nakagawa H, et al. Randomised prospective trial of gentian violet with dibutyryl cAMP and povidone iodine with sugar as treatment for pressure sores infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in elderly patients. Jpn J Geriatr. 1997;34:577–585. [PubMed: 9388378]
  460. Torrance C. Pressure sores: aetiology, treatment and prevention. Croom Helm; London: 1983.
  461. Ross Touche. The cost of pressure sores. Touché Ross & Company; London: 1993.
  462. Tytgat H, Van Asch H. Topical ketanserin in the treatment of decubitus ulcers: a double blind study with 2% Ketanserin ointment against placebo. Adv Ther. 1988;5:143–52.
  463. Unger PG, Raimastery S. A controlled study of the effect of high voltage pulse current on wound healing. Phys Ther. 1991;71:S119.
  464. Unger PG. Update on high-voltage pulsed. Current research and application. Top Geriatr Rehabil. 2000;16:35–46.
  465. van de Berg JS, Robson MC, Mikhail RJ. Extension of the life span of pressure ulcer fibroblasts with recombinant human interleukin-1beta. Am J Pathol. 1995;146:1273–1282. [PMC free article: PMC1869276] [PubMed: 7747819]
  466. van Ort SR, Gerber RM. Topical application of insulin in the treatment of decubitus ulcers: a pilot study. Nurs Res. 1976;25:9–12. [PubMed: 1107960]
  467. van Rijswijk L. Full-thickness pressure ulcers: patient and wound healing characteristics. Decubitus. 1993;6(1):16–21. [PubMed: 8427640]
  468. van Rijswijk L, Polansky M. Predictors of time to healing deep pressure ulcers. Ostomy Wound Management. 1994;40(8):40–2. 44, 46–8. passim. [PubMed: 7546099]
  469. Verhonick R. Decubitus ulcers observations measured objectively. Nursing Research. 1961;10(4):211. [PubMed: 13925465]
  470. Vesmarovich S, Walker T, et al. Innovations in practice. Use of telerehabilitation to manage pressure ulcers in persons with spinal cord injuries. Advances in Wound Care. 1999;12(5):264–9. [PubMed: 10655800]
  471. Viehbeck M, McGlynn J, et al. Pressure ulcers and wound healing: educating the spinal cord injured individual on the effects of cigarette smoking. Sci Nursing. 1995;12(3):73–6. [PubMed: 7569849]
  472. Walker P. Management of pressure ulcers. Oncology (Huntington) 2001;15(11):1499–508. 1511. discussion 1511:1515–6. [PubMed: 11758876]
  473. Walker TL, Kreutz D, et al. On mobility. Planning for comfort: pressure ulcers are a problem for people who use wheelchairs. Advance for Directors in Rehabilitation. 2002;11(8):21–2.
  474. Waltman NL, Bergstrom N, et al. Nutritional status, pressure sores, and mortality in elderly patients with cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum. 1991;18(5):867–73. [PubMed: 1891415]
  475. Weiss DS, Kirsner R, Eaglstein WH. Electrical stimulation and wound healing. Arch Dermatol. 1990;126:222–25. [PubMed: 2405781]
  476. Wellard SJ. An Australian experience of managing pressure ulcers in persons with SCI. Sci Nursing. 2001;18(1):11–7. [PubMed: 12035472]
  477. Whitney JD, Salvadalena G, Higa L, Mich M. Treatment of pressure ulcers with noncontact normothermic wound therapy: healing and warming effects. Journal of Wound, Ostomy, & Continence Nursing. 2001;28:244–52. [PubMed: 11557928]
  478. Williams DF, Stotts NA, et al. Patients with existing pressure ulcers admitted to acute care. Journal of Wound, Ostomy, & Continence Nursing. 2000;27(4):216–26. [PubMed: 10896747]
  479. Willock J, Hughes J, Tickle S, Rossiter G, Johnson C, Pye H. Pressure sores in children – the acute hospital perspective. Journal of Tissue Viability. 1999;10(2):59–65. [PubMed: 11143639]
  480. Willock J, Hughes J, et al. Pressure sores in children – the acute hospital perspective. Journal of Tissue Viability. 2000;10(2):59–62. [PubMed: 11143639]
  481. Winter GD. Formation of the scab and the rate of epithelialisation of superficial wounds in the skin of the domestic pig. Nature. 1962;193:293. [PubMed: 14007593]
  482. Wollina U. A hydropolymer dressing for chronic wounds: Clinical experiences with 478 patients in an open multicenter trial. Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia. 1997;72:527–532.
  483. Wood JM, Evans PEd, Schallreuter KU, et al. A multicentre study on the use of pulsed low-intensity direct current for healing chronic stage II and stage III decubitus ulcers. Archives of Dermatology. 1993:999–1009. [PubMed: 8352625]
  484. Wongworawat MD, Schnall SB, Holtom PD, Moon C, Schiller F. Negative pressure dressings as an alternative technique for the treatment of infected wounds. Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research. 2003;414 [PubMed: 12966275]
  485. Worsley M, Buchanan L. Comparing efficacies. This study compared two products used in the treatment of leg ulcers and pressure sores. Nurs Stand. 1991;5:4–6.
  486. Wu SH, Zecha PJ, Feitz R, Hovius SER. Vacuum therapy as an intermediate phase in wound closure: a clinical experience. European Journal of Plastic Surgery. 2000;23:174–177.
  487. Wysocki AB. Wound fluids and the pathogenesis of chronic wounds. Journal of Wound Ostomy and Continence Nursing. 1996;23:238–290. [PubMed: 9043277]
  488. Xakellis GC, Chrischilles EA. Hydrocolloid versus saline-gauze dressings in treating pressure ulcers: a cost-effectiveness analysis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1992;73:463–9. [PubMed: 1580775]
  489. Yarkony GM. Pressure ulcers: a review. Arch Phys Med Rehab. 1994;75:908–1. [PubMed: 8053799]
Copyright © 2005, Royal College of Nursing.
Cover of The Management of Pressure Ulcers in Primary and Secondary Care
The Management of Pressure Ulcers in Primary and Secondary Care: A Clinical Practice Guideline [Internet].
NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 29.
Royal College of Nursing (UK).
London: Royal College of Nursing (UK); 2005 Sep 22.

NICE (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence)

PubMed Health Blog...

read all...

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...