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National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK). Diabetes in Pregnancy: Management of Diabetes and Its Complications from Preconception to the Postnatal Period. London: RCOG Press; 2008 Mar. (NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 63.)

Search strategies

3. Preconception care

3.1. Outcomes and risks for the woman and baby

No specific searches were conducted for this section of the guideline.

3.2. The importance of planning pregnancy and the role of contraception

No specific searches were conducted for this section of the guideline.

3.3. Diet, dietary supplements, body weight and exercise

DIP_diet_dietary_supplements_240506

Medline

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS/
  5. or/4–5
  6. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES MELLITUS, LIPOATROPHIC/
  10. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  11. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  12. diabet$.tw.
  13. or/7–13
  14. exp DIET THERAPY/
  15. DIABETIC DIET/
  16. CALORIC RESTRICTION/
  17. (diet$ adj (advi$ or diabet$ or manage$ or restrict$ or therap$)).tw.
  18. (calori$ adj (advi$ or diabet$ or manage$ or restrict$ or therap$)).tw.
  19. or/15–19
  20. DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS/
  21. ((diet$ or food) adj supplement$).tw.
  22. or/21–22
  23. FOOD, FORTIFIED/
  24. ((enrich$ or fortif$) adj2 food).tw.
  25. or/24–25
  26. exp VITAMIN B COMPLEX/
  27. vitamin b.tw.
  28. or/27–28
  29. folacin.tw.
  30. pteroylglutamic acid.tw.
  31. or/30–33
  32. or/20,23,26,29,34
  33. and/6,14,35
  34. animal/ not (human/ or (human/ and animal/))
  35. 36 not 37

Embase

  1. pregnan$.tw.
  2. or/1–2
  3. PREGNANCY DIABETES MELLITUS/
  4. or/3–4
  5. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  6. INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. NON INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  8. diabet$.tw.
  9. or/6–9
  10. exp DIET THERAPY/
  11. DIABETIC DIET/
  12. CALORIC RESTRICTION/
  13. (diet$ adj (advi$ or diabet$ or manage$ or restrict$ or therap$)).tw.
  14. (calori$ adj (advi$ or diabet$ or manage$ or restrict$ or therap$)).tw.
  15. or/11–15
  16. DIET SUPPLEMENTATION/
  17. ((diet$ or food) adj supplement$).tw.
  18. ((enrich$ or fortif$) adj2 food).tw.
  19. or/17–19
  20. VITAMIN B COMPLEX/
  21. vitamin b.tw.
  22. or/21–22
  23. folacin.tw.
  24. pteroylglutamic acid.tw.
  25. or/24–27
  26. or/16,20,23,28
  27. and/5,10,29
  28. (animal/ or nonhuman/) not (human/ or ((animal/ or nonhuman/) and human/))
  29. 30 not 31

CINAHL

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETES/
  5. or/4–5
  6. DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  10. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  11. diabet$.tw.
  12. or/7–12
  13. exp DIET THERAPY/
  14. DIABETIC DIET/
  15. ENERGY INTAKE/
  16. (diet$ adj (advi$ or diabet$ or manage$ or restrict$ or therap$)).tw.
  17. (calori$ adj (advi$ or diabet$ or manage$ or restrict$ or therap$)).tw.
  18. or/14–18
  19. exp DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS/
  20. ((diet$ or food) adj supplement$).tw.
  21. or/20–21
  22. FOOD, FORTIFIED/
  23. ((enrich$ or fortif$) adj2 food).tw.
  24. or/23–24
  25. exp VITAMIN B COMPLEX/
  26. vitamin b.tw.
  27. or/26–27
  28. folacin.tw.
  29. pteroylglutamic acid.tw.
  30. or/29–32
  31. or/19,22,25,28,33
  32. and/6,13,34

DIP_body_mass_180706

Medline

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS/
  5. or/4–5
  6. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES MELLITUS, LIPOATROPHIC/
  10. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  11. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  12. diabet$.tw.
  13. or/7–13
  14. BODY WEIGHT/
  15. body weight.tw.
  16. or/15–16
  17. exp BODY WEIGHT CHANGES/
  18. (weight adj (gain$ or loss$)).tw.
  19. or/18–19
  20. exp OVERWEIGHT/
  21. overweight.tw.
  22. obese.tw.
  23. or/21–25
  24. bmi.tw.
  25. quetelet$ index.tw.
  26. or/27–30
  27. exp DIET THERAPY/
  28. diet therapy.tw.
  29. or/32–33
  30. or/17,20,26,31,34
  31. and/6,14,35
  32. COHORT STUDIES/
  33. LONGITUDINAL STUDIES/
  34. FOLLOW-UP STUDIES/
  35. PROSPECTIVE STUDIES/
  36. ((cohort$ or follow-up or follow?up or inciden$ or longitudinal or prospective) adj1 (stud$ or research or analys$)).tw.
  37. or/37–41
  38. and/36,42
  39. animal/ not (human/ or (human/ and animal/))
  40. 43 not 44

Embase

  1. pregnan$.tw.
  2. or/1–2
  3. PREGNANCY DIABETES MELLITUS/
  4. or/3–4
  5. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  6. INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. NON INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  8. diabet$.tw.
  9. or/6–9
  10. BODY WEIGHT/
  11. BODY WEIGHT DISORDER/
  12. body weight.tw.
  13. or/11–13
  14. WEIGHT GAIN/
  15. WEIGHT LOSS/
  16. (weight adj (gain$ or loss$)).tw.
  17. or/15–17
  18. exp OBESITY/
  19. obese.tw.
  20. overweight.tw.
  21. or/19–22
  22. BODY MASS/
  23. bmi.tw.
  24. quetelet$ index.tw.
  25. or/24–27
  26. DIET THERAPY/
  27. diet therapy.tw.
  28. or/29–30
  29. or/14,18,23,28,31
  30. and/5,10,32
  31. COHORT STUDIES/
  32. LONGITUDINAL STUDIES/
  33. FOLLOW-UP STUDIES/
  34. PROSPECTIVE STUDIES/
  35. ((cohort$ or follow-up or follow?up or inciden$ or longitudinal or prospective) adj1 (stud$ or research or analys$)).tw.
  36. or/34–38
  37. and/33,39
  38. (animal/ or nonhuman/) not (human/ or ((animal/ or nonhuman/) and human/))
  39. 40 not 41

CINAHL

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETES/
  5. or/4–5
  6. DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  10. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  11. diabet$.tw.
  12. or/7–12
  13. BODY WEIGHT/
  14. body weight.tw.
  15. or/14–15
  16. exp BODY WEIGHT CHANGES/
  17. (weight adj (gain$ or loss$)).tw.
  18. or/17–18
  19. exp OBESITY/
  20. obese.tw.
  21. overweight.tw.
  22. or/20–23
  23. bmi.tw.
  24. quetelet$ index.tw.
  25. or/25–28
  26. exp DIET THERAPY/
  27. diet therapy.tw.
  28. or/30–31
  29. or/16,19,24,29,32
  30. and/6,13,33
  31. COHORT STUDIES/
  32. LONGITUDINAL STUDIES/
  33. FOLLOW-UP STUDIES/
  34. PROSPECTIVE STUDIES/
  35. ((cohort$ or follow-up or follow?up or inciden$ or longitudinal or prospective) adj1 (stud$ or research or analys$)).tw.
  36. or/35–39
  37. and/34,40

DIP_exercise_190706

Medline

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS/
  5. or/4–5
  6. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES MELLITUS, LIPOATROPHIC/
  10. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  11. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  12. diabet$.tw.
  13. or/7–13
  14. EXERCISE/
  15. exercise.tw.
  16. or/15–16
  17. and/6,14,17
  18. animal/ not (human/ or (human/ and animal/))
  19. 18 not 19

Embase

  1. pregnan$.tw.
  2. or/1–2
  3. PREGNANCY DIABETES MELLITUS/
  4. or/3–4
  5. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  6. INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. NON INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  8. diabet$.tw.
  9. or/6–9
  10. exp EXERCISE/
  11. exercise.tw.
  12. or/11–12
  13. and/5,10,13
  14. (animal/ or nonhuman/) not (human/ or ((animal/ or nonhuman/) and human/))
  15. 14 not 15

CINAHL

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETES/
  5. or/4–5
  6. DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  10. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  11. diabet$.tw.
  12. or/7–12
  13. exp EXERCISE/
  14. exercise.tw.
  15. or/14–15
  16. and/6,13,16

3.4. Target ranges for blood glucose in the preconception period

DIP_glycaemic_control_preconception_280206

Medline

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS/
  5. or/4–5
  6. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES MELLITUS, LIPOATROPHIC/
  10. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  11. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  12. diabet$.tw.
  13. or/7–13
  14. and/6,14
  15. (blood adj (glucose or sugar)).tw.
  16. ((blood or glyc?emi$) adj (control$ or monitor$)).tw.
  17. or/16–18
  18. and/15,19
  19. PRECONCEPTION CARE/
  20. PRENATAL CARE/
  21. pre?conception$.tw.
  22. pre?natal$.tw.
  23. pre?pregnan$.tw.
  24. or/21–25
  25. and/20,26
  26. animal/ not (human/ or (human/ and animal/))
  27. 27 not 28

Embase

  1. pregnan$.tw.
  2. or/1–2
  3. PREGNANCY DIABETES MELLITUS/
  4. or/3–4
  5. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  6. INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. NON INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  8. diabet$.tw.
  9. or/6–9
  10. and/5,10
  11. BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL/
  12. (blood adj (glucose or sugar)).tw.
  13. ((blood or glyc?emi$) adj (control$ or monitor$)).tw.
  14. or/12–14
  15. MATERNAL CARE/
  16. PRENATAL CARE/
  17. pre?conception$.tw.
  18. pre?natal$.tw.
  19. pre?pregnan$.tw.
  20. or/16,20
  21. and/11,15,21
  22. (animal/ or nonhuman/) not (human/ or ((animal/ or nonhuman/) and human/))
  23. 22 not 23

CINAHL

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETES/
  5. or/4–5
  6. DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  10. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  11. diabet$.tw.
  12. or/7–12
  13. and/6,13
  14. (blood adj (glucose or sugar)).tw.
  15. ((blood or glyc?emi$) adj (control$ or monitor$)).tw.
  16. or/15–17
  17. PREPREGNANCY CARE/
  18. PRENATAL CARE/
  19. pre?conception$.tw.
  20. pre?natal$.tw.
  21. pre?pregnan$.tw.
  22. or/19–23
  23. and/14,18,24

3.5. Monitoring blood glucose and ketones in the preconception period

DIP_ketones_glycaemic_control_preconception_120506

Medline

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS/
  5. or/4–5
  6. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES MELLITUS, LIPOATROPHIC/
  10. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  11. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  12. diabet$.tw.
  13. or/7–13
  14. and/6,14
  15. (blood adj (glucose or sugar)).tw.
  16. ((blood or glyc?emi$) adj (control$ or monitor$)).tw.
  17. or/16–18
  18. exp KETONES/
  19. ketone$.tw.
  20. or/20–21
  21. or/19,22
  22. and/15,23
  23. PRECONCEPTION CARE/
  24. pre?conception$.tw.
  25. pre?pregnan$.tw.
  26. or/25–27
  27. and/24,28
  28. animal/ not (human/ or (human/ and animal/))
  29. 29 not 30

Embase

  1. pregnan$.tw.
  2. or/1–2
  3. PREGNANCY DIABETES MELLITUS/
  4. or/3–4
  5. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  6. INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. NON INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  8. diabet$.tw.
  9. or/6–9
  10. and/5,10
  11. BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL/
  12. (blood adj (glucose or sugar)).tw.
  13. ((blood or glyc?emi$) adj (control$ or monitor$)).tw.
  14. or/12–14
  15. exp KETONE/
  16. ketone$.tw.
  17. or/16–17
  18. or/15,18
  19. MATERNAL CARE/
  20. pre?conception$.tw.
  21. pre?pregnan$.tw.
  22. or/20–22
  23. and/11,19,23
  24. (animal/ or nonhuman/) not (human/ or ((animal/ or nonhuman/) and human/))
  25. 24 not 25

CINAHL

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETES/
  5. or/4–5
  6. DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  10. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  11. diabet$.tw.
  12. or/7–12
  13. and/6,13
  14. (blood adj (glucose or sugar)).tw.
  15. ((blood or glyc?emi$) adj (control$ or monitor$)).tw.
  16. or/15–17
  17. KETONES/
  18. ketone$.tw.
  19. or/19–20
  20. or/18,21
  21. PREPREGNANCY CARE/
  22. pre?conception$.tw.
  23. pre?pregnan$.tw.
  24. or/23–25
  25. and/14,22,26

3.6. The safety of medications for diabetes before and during pregnancy

DIP_medications_050406

Medline

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS/
  5. or/4–5
  6. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES MELLITUS, LIPOATROPHIC/
  10. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  11. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  12. diabet$.tw.
  13. or/7–13
  14. and/6,14
  15. exp HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS/
  16. ((hypoglycaemi$ or hypoglycemi$) adj (agent$ or drug$)).tw.
  17. or/16–17
  18. ADMINISTRATION, ORAL/
  19. (administrat$ adj1 oral$).tw.
  20. or/19–20
  21. and/18,21
  22. exp ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS/
  23. angiotensin converting enzyme inhibit$.tw.
  24. or/23–25
  25. exp ANTICHOLESTEREMIC AGENT/
  26. (anticholestermic adj (agent$ or drug$)).tw.
  27. exp HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL-CoA REDUCTASE INHIBITORS/
  28. statin$.tw.
  29. or/27–30
  30. exp ANTI-OBESITY AGENTS/
  31. ((anorexigenic or obesity) adj (agent$ or drug$)).tw.
  32. APPETITE SUPPRESSANTS/
  33. (appetite adj (depress$ or inhibitor$ or suppress$)).tw.
  34. or/32–35
  35. or/22,26,31,36
  36. and/15,37
  37. animal/ not (human/ or (human/ and animal/))
  38. 38 not 39

Embase

  1. pregnan$.tw.
  2. or/1–2
  3. PREGNANCY DIABETES MELLITUS/
  4. or/3–4
  5. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  6. INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. NON INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  8. diabet$.tw.
  9. or/6–9
  10. and/5,10
  11. exp ORAL ANTIDIABETIC AGENT/
  12. antidiabetic$.tw.
  13. or/12–13
  14. exp ANTIDIABETIC AGENT/
  15. ((hypoglycaemi$ or hypoglycemi$) adj (agent$ or drug$)).tw.
  16. or/15–16
  17. ORAL DRUG ADMINISTRATION/
  18. (administration adj1 oral).tw.
  19. or/18–19
  20. and/17,20
  21. or/14,21
  22. DIPEPTIDYL CARBOXYPEPTIDASE INHIBITOR/
  23. dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase inhibit$.tw.
  24. angiotensin converting enzyme inhibit$.tw.
  25. or/23–26
  26. STATIN/
  27. statin$.tw.
  28. (anticholesteremic adj (agent$ or drug$)).tw.
  29. or/28–30
  30. ANTIOBESITY AGENT/
  31. ((anorexigenic or obesity) adj (agent$ or drug$)).tw.
  32. exp ANOREXIGENIC AGENT/
  33. (appetite adj (depress$ or inhibitor$ or suppress$)).tw.
  34. or/32–35
  35. or/22,27,31,36
  36. and/11,37
  37. (animal/ or nonhuman/) not (human/ or ((animal/ or nonhuman/) and human/))
  38. 38 not 39

CINAHL

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETES/
  5. or/4–5
  6. DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  10. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  11. diabet$.tw.
  12. or/7–12
  13. and/6,13
  14. exp HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS/
  15. ((hypoglycaemi$ or hypoglycemi$) adj (agent$ or drug$)).tw.
  16. or/15–16
  17. ADMINISTRATION, ORAL/
  18. (administrat$ adj1 oral$).tw.
  19. or/18–19
  20. and/17,20
  21. exp ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS/
  22. angiotensin converting enzyme inhibit$.tw.
  23. or/22–24
  24. exp STATINS/
  25. statin$.tw.
  26. (anticholesteremic adj (agent$ or drug$)).tw.
  27. or/26–28
  28. exp ANTI-OBESITY AGENTS/
  29. ((anorexigenic or obesity) adj (agent$ or drug$)).tw.
  30. APPETITE SUPPRESSANTS/
  31. (appetite adj (depress$ or inhibitor$ or suppress$)).tw.
  32. or/30–33
  33. or/21,25,29,34
  34. and/14,35

DIP_medications_insulin_analogues_031006

Medline

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS/
  5. or/4–5
  6. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES MELLITUS, LIPOATROPHIC/
  10. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  11. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  12. diabet$.tw.
  13. or/7–13
  14. and/6,14
  15. INSULIN, LONG-ACTING/
  16. lispro.tw.
  17. aspart.tw.
  18. glulisine.tw
  19. glulysine.tw.
  20. glargine.tw.
  21. detemir.tw.
  22. or/16–23
  23. and/15,24
  24. animal/ not (human/ or (human/ and animal/))
  25. 25 not 26
  26. limit 27 to yr = “2003 – 2006”

Embase

  1. pregnan$.tw.
  2. or/1–2
  3. PREGNANCY DIABETES MELLITUS/
  4. or/3–4
  5. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  6. INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. NON INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  8. diabet$.tw.
  9. or/6–9
  10. and/5,10
  11. INSULIN DERIVATIVE/
  12. LONG ACTING INSULIN/
  13. INSULIN LISPRO/
  14. lispro.tw.
  15. INSULIN ASPART/
  16. aspart.tw.
  17. INSULIN GLULISINE/
  18. glulysine.tw.
  19. glulisine.tw.
  20. INSULIN GLARGINE/
  21. glargine.tw.
  22. INSULIN DETEMIR/
  23. detemir.tw.
  24. or/12–24
  25. and/11,25
  26. (animal/ or nonhuman/) not (human/ or ((animal/ or nonhuman/) and human/))
  27. 26 not 27
  28. limit 28 to yr= “2003 – 2007”

CINAHL

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETES/
  5. or/4–5
  6. DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  10. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  11. diabet$.tw.
  12. or/7–12
  13. and/6,13
  14. INSULIN LISPRO/
  15. lispro.tw.
  16. aspart.tw.
  17. glulisine.tw.
  18. glulysine.tw.
  19. glargine.tw.
  20. detemir.tw.
  21. or/15–22
  22. and/14,23
  23. limit 24 to yr= “2003 – 2007”

3.7. The safety of medications for diabetic complications before and during pregnancy

The searches for this section of the guideline were combined with those for Section 3.6.

3.8. Removing barriers to the uptake of preconception care and when to offer information

DIP_preconception_care_160506

Medline

  1. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  2. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  3. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  4. DIABETES MELLITUS, LIPOATROPHIC/
  5. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  6. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  7. diabet$.tw.
  8. or/1–7
  9. PRECONCEPTION CARE/
  10. ((pre?conception or pre conception) adj care).tw.
  11. or/9–10
  12. FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES/
  13. ((family or pregnan$) adj2 plan$).tw.
  14. or/12–13
  15. or/11,14
  16. and/8,15
  17. animal/ not (human/ or (human/ and animal/))
  18. 16 not 17

Embase

  1. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  2. INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  3. NON INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  4. diabet$.tw.
  5. or/1–4
  6. MATERNAL CARE/
  7. ((pre?conception or pre conception) adj care).tw.
  8. or/6–7
  9. FAMILY PLANNING/
  10. ((family or pregnan$) adj2 plan$).tw.
  11. or/9–10
  12. or/8,11
  13. and/5,12
  14. (animal/ or nonhuman/) not (human/ or ((animal/ or nonhuman/) and human/))
  15. 13 not 14

CINAHL

  1. DIABETES MELLITUS/
  2. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  3. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  4. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  5. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  6. diabet$.tw.
  7. or/1–6
  8. PREPREGNANCY CARE/
  9. ((pre?conception or pre conception) adj care).tw.
  10. or/8–9
  11. exp FAMILY PLANNING/
  12. ((family or pregnan$) adj2 plan$).tw.
  13. or/11–12
  14. or/10–13
  15. and/7,14

DIP_preconception_economics_221106

Medline

  1. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  2. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  3. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  4. DIABETES MELLITUS, LIPOATROPHIC/
  5. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  6. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  7. diabet$.tw.
  8. or/1–7
  9. PRECONCEPTION CARE/
  10. pre?conception$.tw.
  11. pre?pregnan$.tw.
  12. or/9–11
  13. and/8,12
  14. ECONOMICS/
  15. “COSTS AND COST ANALYSIS”/
  16. COST ALLOCATION/
  17. COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS/
  18. COST CONTROL/
  19. COST SAVINGS/
  20. COST OF ILLNESS/
  21. COST SHARING/
  22. HEALTH CARE COSTS/
  23. DIRECT SERVICE COSTS/
  24. DRUG COSTS/
  25. EMPLOYER HEALTH COSTS/
  26. HOSPITAL COSTS/
  27. HEALTH RESOURCES/
  28. “HEALTH SERVICES NEEDS AND DEMAND”/
  29. HEALTH PRIORITIES/
  30. HEALTH EXPENDITURES/
  31. CAPITAL EXPENDITURES/
  32. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT/
  33. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT, HOSPITAL/
  34. “DEDUCTIBLES AND COINSURANCE”/
  35. MEDICAL SAVINGS ACCOUNTS/
  36. ECONOMICS, HOSPITAL/
  37. ECONOMICS, MEDICAL/
  38. ECONOMICS, NURSING/
  39. ECONOMICS, PHARMACEUTICAL/
  40. MODELS, ECONOMIC/
  41. MODELS, ECONOMETRIC/
  42. RESOURCE ALLOCATION/
  43. HEALTH CARE RATIONING/
  44. “FEES AND CHARGES”/
  45. BUDGETS/
  46. VALUE OF LIFE/
  47. (financ$ or fiscal$ or funding).tw.
  48. (QALY$ or life?year$).tw.
  49. (econom$ or cost$).tw.
  50. pharmacoeconomic$.tw.
  51. ec.fs.
  52. or/14–52
  53. and/13,53

Embase

  1. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  2. INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  3. NON INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  4. diabet$.tw.
  5. or/1–4
  6. MATERNAL CARE/
  7. PRENATAL CARE/
  8. pre?conception$.tw.
  9. pre?natal$.tw.
  10. pre?pregnan$.tw.
  11. or/6,10
  12. and/5,11
  13. ECONOMICS/
  14. COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS/
  15. COST CONTROL/
  16. COST EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS/
  17. COST MINIMIZATION ANALYSIS/
  18. COST OF ILLNESS/
  19. COST UTILITY ANALYSIS/
  20. COST/
  21. HEALTH CARE COST/
  22. DRUG COST/
  23. HEALTH CARE FINANCING/
  24. HOSPITAL COST/
  25. SOCIOECONOMICS/
  26. ECONOMIC ASPECT/
  27. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT/
  28. PHARMACOECONOMICS/
  29. RESOURCE ALLOCATION/
  30. (financ$ or fiscal$ or funding).tw.
  31. (QALY$ or life?year$).tw.
  32. (econom$ or cost$).tw.
  33. pharmacoeconomic$.tw.
  34. or/13–36
  35. and/12,37

CINAHL

  1. DIABETES MELLITUS/
  2. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  3. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  4. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  5. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  6. diabet$.tw.
  7. or/1–6
  8. PREPREGNANCY CARE/
  9. pre?conception$.tw.
  10. pre?pregnan$.tw.
  11. or/8–10
  12. and/7,11
  13. ECONOMICS/
  14. “COSTS AND COST ANALYSIS”/
  15. COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS/
  16. COST CONTROL/
  17. COST SAVINGS/
  18. COST OF ILLNESS/
  19. HEALTH CARE COSTS/
  20. ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF ILLNESS/
  21. ECONOMICS, PHARMACEUTICAL/
  22. HEALTH CARE FINANCING/
  23. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT/
  24. HOSPITAL COST/
  25. SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS/
  26. HEALTH RESOURCE ALLOCATION/
  27. (financ$ or fiscal$ or funding).tw.
  28. (QALY$ or life?year$).tw.
  29. (econom$ or cost$).tw.
  30. pharmacoeconomic$.tw.
  31. or/13–30
  32. and/12,31

3.9. Cost-effectiveness of self-management programmes

DIP_preconception_self_management_221106

Medline

  1. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  2. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  3. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  4. DIABETES MELLITUS, LIPOATROPHIC/
  5. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  6. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  7. diabet$.tw.
  8. or/1–7
  9. PRECONCEPTION CARE/
  10. pre?conception$.tw.
  11. pre?pregnan$.tw.
  12. or/9–11
  13. and/8,12
  14. exp SELF CARE/
  15. self care.tw.
  16. self manage$.tw.
  17. or/14–16
  18. and/13,17

Embase

  1. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  2. INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  3. NON INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  4. diabet$.tw.
  5. or/1–4
  6. MATERNAL CARE/
  7. PRENATAL CARE/
  8. pre?conception$.tw.
  9. pre?natal$.tw.
  10. pre?pregnan$.tw.
  11. or/6,10
  12. and/5,11
  13. exp SELF CARE/
  14. self care.tw.
  15. self manage$.tw.
  16. or/13–15
  17. and/12,16

CINAHL

  1. DIABETES MELLITUS/
  2. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  3. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  4. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  5. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  6. diabet$.tw.
  7. or/1–6
  8. PREPREGNANCY CARE/
  9. pre?conception$.tw.
  10. pre?pregnan$.tw.
  11. or/8–10
  12. and/7,11
  13. exp SELF CARE/
  14. self care.tw.
  15. self manage$.tw.
  16. or/13–15
  17. and/12,16

DIP_self_management_economic_231106

Medline

  1. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  2. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  3. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  4. DIABETES MELLITUS, LIPOATROPHIC/
  5. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  6. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  7. diabet$.tw.
  8. or/1–7
  9. exp SELF CARE/
  10. self care.tw.
  11. self manage$.tw.
  12. or/9–11
  13. and/8,12
  14. ECONOMICS/
  15. “COSTS AND COST ANALYSIS”/
  16. COST ALLOCATION/
  17. COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS/
  18. COST CONTROL/
  19. COST SAVINGS/
  20. COST OF ILLNESS/
  21. COST SHARING/
  22. HEALTH CARE COSTS/
  23. DIRECT SERVICE COSTS/
  24. DRUG COSTS/
  25. EMPLOYER HEALTH COSTS/
  26. HOSPITAL COSTS/
  27. HEALTH RESOURCES/
  28. “HEALTH SERVICES NEEDS AND DEMAND”/
  29. HEALTH PRIORITIES/
  30. HEALTH EXPENDITURES/
  31. CAPITAL EXPENDITURES/
  32. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT/
  33. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT, HOSPITAL/
  34. “DEDUCTIBLES AND COINSURANCE”/
  35. MEDICAL SAVINGS ACCOUNTS/
  36. ECONOMICS, HOSPITAL/
  37. ECONOMICS, MEDICAL/
  38. ECONOMICS, NURSING/
  39. ECONOMICS, PHARMACEUTICAL/
  40. MODELS, ECONOMIC/
  41. MODELS, ECONOMETRIC/
  42. RESOURCE ALLOCATION/
  43. HEALTH CARE RATIONING/
  44. “FEES AND CHARGES”/
  45. BUDGETS/
  46. VALUE OF LIFE/
  47. (financ$ or fiscal$ or funding).tw.
  48. (QALY$ or life?year$).tw.
  49. (econom$ or cost$).tw.
  50. pharmacoeconomic$.tw.
  51. ec.fs.
  52. or/14–52
  53. and/13,53

Embase

  1. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  2. INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  3. NON INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  4. diabet$.tw.
  5. or/1–4
  6. exp SELF CARE/
  7. self care.tw.
  8. self manage$.tw.
  9. or/6–8
  10. and/5,9
  11. ECONOMICS/
  12. COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS/
  13. COST CONTROL/
  14. COST EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS/
  15. COST MINIMIZATION ANALYSIS/
  16. COST OF ILLNESS/
  17. COST UTILITY ANALYSIS/
  18. COST/
  19. HEALTH CARE COST/
  20. DRUG COST/
  21. HEALTH CARE FINANCING/
  22. HOSPITAL COST/
  23. SOCIOECONOMICS/
  24. ECONOMIC ASPECT/
  25. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT/
  26. PHARMACOECONOMICS/
  27. RESOURCE ALLOCATION/
  28. (financ$ or fiscal$ or funding).tw.
  29. (QALY$ or life?year$).tw.
  30. (econom$ or cost$).tw.
  31. pharmacoeconomic$.tw.
  32. or/11–34
  33. and/10,35

CINAHL

  1. DIABETES MELLITUS/
  2. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  3. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  4. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  5. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  6. diabet$.tw.
  7. or/1–6
  8. exp SELF CARE/
  9. self care.tw.
  10. self manage$.tw.
  11. or/8–10
  12. and/7,11
  13. ECONOMICS/
  14. “COSTS AND COST ANALYSIS”/
  15. COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS/
  16. COST CONTROL/
  17. COST SAVINGS/
  18. COST OF ILLNESS/
  19. HEALTH CARE COSTS/
  20. ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF ILLNESS/
  21. ECONOMICS, PHARMACEUTICAL/
  22. HEALTH CARE FINANCING/
  23. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT/
  24. HOSPITAL COST/
  25. SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS/
  26. HEALTH RESOURCE ALLOCATION/
  27. (financ$ or fiscal$ or funding).tw.
  28. (QALY$ or life?year$).tw.
  29. (econom$ or cost$).tw.
  30. pharmacoeconomic$.tw.
  31. or/13–30
  32. and/12,31

DIP_education_081106

Medline

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS/
  5. or/4–5
  6. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES MELLITUS, LIPOATROPHIC/
  10. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  11. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  12. diabet$.tw.
  13. or/7–13
  14. and/6,14
  15. PATIENT EDUCATION/
  16. educat$.tw.
  17. or/16–17
  18. DAFNE.tw.
  19. dose adjustment for normal eating.tw.
  20. or/19–20
  21. or/18,21
  22. and/15,22
  23. animal/ not (human/ or (human/ and animal/))
  24. 23 not 24

Embase

  1. pregnan$.tw.
  2. or/1–2
  3. PREGNANCY DIABETES MELLITUS/
  4. or/3–4
  5. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  6. INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. NON INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  8. diabet$.tw.
  9. or/6–9
  10. and/5,10
  11. exp HEALTH EDUCATION/
  12. educat$.tw.
  13. or/12–13
  14. DAFNE.tw.
  15. dose adjustment for normal eating.tw.
  16. or/15–16
  17. or/14,17
  18. and/11,18
  19. (animal/ or nonhuman/) not (human/ or ((animal/ or nonhuman/) and human/))
  20. 19 not 20

CINAHL

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETES/
  5. or/4–5
  6. DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  10. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  11. diabet$.tw.
  12. or/7–12
  13. and/6,13
  14. exp HEALTH EDUCATION/
  15. educat$.tw.
  16. or/15–16
  17. DAFNE.tw.
  18. dose adjustment for normal eating.tw.
  19. or/18–19
  20. or/17,20
  21. and/14,21

4. Gestational diabetes

4.1. Risk factors for gestational diabetes

DIP_risk_030306

Medline

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS/
  5. or/4–5
  6. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES MELLITUS, LIPOATROPHIC/
  10. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  11. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  12. diabet$.tw.
  13. or/7–13
  14. and/6,14
  15. exp RISK/
  16. risk$.tw.
  17. or/16–17
  18. and/15,18
  19. EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES/
  20. exp CASE CONTROL STUDIES/
  21. exp COHORT STUDIES/
  22. case control.tw.
  23. (cohort adj (study or studies)).tw.
  24. cohort analy$.tw.
  25. (follow up adj (study or studies)).tw.
  26. (observational adj (study or studies)).tw.
  27. longitudinal.tw.
  28. retrospective.tw.
  29. cross sectional.tw.
  30. CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES/
  31. or/20–31
  32. and/19,32
  33. animal/ not (human/ or (human/ and animal/))
  34. 33 not 34
  35. limit 35 to yr=”1995 – 2006”

Embase

  1. pregnan$.tw.
  2. or/1–2
  3. PREGNANCY DIABETES MELLITUS/
  4. or/3–4
  5. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  6. INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. NON INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  8. diabet$.tw.
  9. or/6–9
  10. and/5,10
  11. exp RISK/
  12. risk$.tw.
  13. or/12–13
  14. and/11,14
  15. CLINICAL STUDY/
  16. CASE CONTROL STUDY/
  17. FAMILY STUDY/
  18. RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL/
  19. 21 not 22
  20. COHORT ANALYSIS/
  21. (cohort adj (study or studies)).mp.
  22. (case control adj (study or studies)).tw.
  23. (follow up adj (study or studies)).tw.
  24. (observational adj (study or studies)).tw.
  25. (epidemiologic$ adj (study or studies)).tw.
  26. (cross sectional adj (study or studies)).tw.
  27. or/16–20,23–30
  28. and/15,31
  29. (animal/ or nonhuman/) not (human/ or ((animal/ or nonhuman/) and human/))
  30. 32 not 33
  31. limit 34 to yr=”1995 – 2006”

CINAHL

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETES/
  5. or/4–5
  6. DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  10. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  11. diabet$.tw.
  12. or/7–12
  13. and/6,13
  14. RISK FACTORS/
  15. risk$.tw.
  16. or/15–16
  17. and/14,17
  18. PROSPECTIVE STUDIES/
  19. exp CASE CONTROL STUDIES/
  20. CORRELATIONAL STUDIES/
  21. NONCONCURRENT PROSPECTIVE STUDIES/
  22. CROSS SECTIONAL STUDIES/
  23. (cohort adj (study or studies)).tw.
  24. (observational adj (study or studies)).tw.
  25. or/19–25
  26. and/18,26
  27. limit 27 to yr=”1995 – 2006”

4.2. Diagnosis of gestational diabetes

DIP_diagnosis_160506

Medline

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS/
  5. or/4–5
  6. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  7. (diabet$ adj5 gestation$).tw.
  8. or/7–8
  9. DIAGNOSIS/
  10. diagnos$.tw.
  11. or/10–11
  12. and/6,9,12
  13. animal/ not (human/ or (human/ and animal/))
  14. 13 not 14

Embase

  1. pregnan$.tw.
  2. or/1–2
  3. PREGNANCY DIABETES MELLITUS/
  4. (diabet$ adj5 gestation$).tw.
  5. or/4–5
  6. DIAGNOSIS/
  7. diagnos$.tw.
  8. or/7–8
  9. and/3,6,9
  10. (animal/ or nonhuman/) not (human/ or ((animal/ or nonhuman/) and human/))
  11. 10 not 11

CINAHL

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETES/
  5. or/4–5
  6. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  7. (diabet$ adj5 gestation$).tw.
  8. or/7–8
  9. DIAGNOSIS/
  10. diagnos$.tw.
  11. or/10–11
  12. and/6,9,12

4.3. Screening and treatment for gestational diabetes

DIP_gestational_treatment_economics_261006

Medline

  1. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  2. (diabet$ adj2 gestat$).tw.
  3. or/1–2
  4. ECONOMICS/
  5. “COSTS AND COST ANALYSIS”/
  6. COST ALLOCATION/
  7. COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS/
  8. COST CONTROL/
  9. COST SAVINGS/
  10. COST OF ILLNESS/
  11. COST SHARING/
  12. HEALTH CARE COSTS/
  13. DIRECT SERVICE COSTS/
  14. DRUG COSTS/
  15. EMPLOYER HEALTH COSTS/
  16. HOSPITAL COSTS/
  17. HEALTH RESOURCES/
  18. “HEALTH SERVICES NEEDS AND DEMAND”/
  19. HEALTH PRIORITIES/
  20. HEALTH EXPENDITURES/
  21. CAPITAL EXPENDITURES/
  22. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT/
  23. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT, HOSPITAL/
  24. “DEDUCTIBLES AND COINSURANCE”/
  25. MEDICAL SAVINGS ACCOUNTS/
  26. ECONOMICS, HOSPITAL/
  27. ECONOMICS, MEDICAL/
  28. ECONOMICS, NURSING/
  29. ECONOMICS, PHARMACEUTICAL/
  30. MODELS, ECONOMIC/
  31. MODELS, ECONOMETRIC/
  32. RESOURCE ALLOCATION/
  33. HEALTH CARE RATIONING/
  34. “FEES AND CHARGES”/
  35. BUDGETS/
  36. VALUE OF LIFE/
  37. (financ$ or fiscal$ or funding).tw.
  38. (QALY$ or life?year$).tw.
  39. (econom$ or cost$).tw.
  40. pharmacoeconomic$.tw.
  41. ec.fs.
  42. or/4–42
  43. and/3,43

Embase

  1. PREGNANCY DIABETES MELLITUS/
  2. (diabet$ adj2 gestat$).tw.
  3. or/1–2
  4. ECONOMICS/
  5. COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS/
  6. COST CONTROL/
  7. COST EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS/
  8. COST MINIMIZATION ANALYSIS/
  9. COST OF ILLNESS/
  10. COST UTILITY ANALYSIS/
  11. COST/
  12. HEALTH CARE COST/
  13. DRUG COST/
  14. HEALTH CARE FINANCING/
  15. HOSPITAL COST/
  16. SOCIOECONOMICS/
  17. ECONOMIC ASPECT/
  18. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT/
  19. PHARMACOECONOMICS/
  20. RESOURCE ALLOCATION/
  21. (financ$ or fiscal$ or funding).tw.
  22. (QALY$ or life?year$).tw.
  23. (econom$ or cost$).tw.
  24. pharmacoeconomic$.tw.
  25. or/4–27
  26. and/3,28

CINAHL

  1. DIABETES MELLITUS, GESTATIONAL/
  2. (diabet$ adj2 gestat$).tw.
  3. or/1–2
  4. ECONOMICS/
  5. “COSTS AND COST ANALYSIS”/
  6. COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS/
  7. COST CONTROL/
  8. COST SAVINGS/
  9. COST OF ILLNESS/
  10. HEALTH CARE COSTS/
  11. ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF ILLNESS/
  12. ECONOMICS, PHARMACEUTICAL/
  13. HEALTH CARE FINANCING/
  14. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT/
  15. HOSPITAL COST/
  16. SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS/
  17. HEALTH RESOURCE ALLOCATION/
  18. (financ$ or fiscal$ or funding).tw.
  19. (QALY$ or life?year$).tw.
  20. (econom$ or cost$).tw.
  21. pharmacoeconomic$.tw.
  22. or/4–21
  23. and/3,22

5. Antenatal care

5.1. Target ranges for blood glucose during pregnancy

DIP_glycaemic_control_pregnancy_060306

Medline

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS/
  5. or/4–5
  6. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES MELLITUS, LIPOATROPHIC/
  10. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  11. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  12. diabet$.tw.
  13. or/7–13
  14. and/6,14
  15. PARTURITION/
  16. (parturition or childbirth$ or intrapartum).tw.
  17. exp LABOR, OBSTETRIC/
  18. LABOR ONSET/
  19. LABOR STAGE, FIRST/
  20. LABOR STAGE, SECOND/
  21. LABOR STAGE, THIRD/
  22. DELIVERY, OBSTETRIC/
  23. or/16–23
  24. PRECONCEPTION CARE/
  25. PRENATAL CARE/
  26. pre?conception$.tw.
  27. pre?natal$.tw.
  28. pre?pregnan$.tw.
  29. or/25–29
  30. or/24,30
  31. 15 not 31
  32. (blood adj (glucose or sugar)).tw.
  33. ((blood or glyc?emi$) adj (control$ or monitor$)).tw.
  34. or/33–35
  35. and/32,36
  36. META ANALYSIS/
  37. meta analysis.pt.
  38. (metaanaly$ or meta-analy$ or (meta adj analy$)).tw.
  39. ((systematic$ or methodologic$) adj3 (review$ or overview$)).tw.
  40. or/38–41
  41. exp CLINICAL TRIALS/
  42. (clinic$ adj3 trial$).tw.
  43. RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS/
  44. randomized controlled trial.pt.
  45. RANDOM ALLOCATION/
  46. SINGLE BLIND METHOD/
  47. DOUBLE BLIND METHOD/
  48. ((single or double or triple or treble) adj3 (blind$ or mask$)).tw.
  49. (random$ adj3 (allocat$ or method$ or trial$)).tw.
  50. PLACEBOS/
  51. placebo$.tw.
  52. or/43–55
  53. or/42,56
  54. (medline or medlars or embase or cinahl or cochrane or psyc?info or psyc?lit or “web of science” or “science citation” or scisearch).tw.
  55. ((hand or manual$) adj3 search$).tw.
  56. ((electronic or bibliographic or computeri?ed or online) adj database$).tw.
  57. (der?simonian or fixed effect or mantel haenszel or peto or pooled or pooling).tw.
  58. or/58–61
  59. review$.pt.
  60. 62 and 63
  61. or/57,64
  62. (comment or editorial or historical article or letter or review multicase or review of reported cases).pt.
  63. case report.tw.
  64. or/66–67
  65. 65 not 68
  66. HUMAN/ not ANIMAL/
  67. 69 and 70
  68. and/37,71

Embase

  1. pregnan$.tw.
  2. or/1–2
  3. PREGNANCY DIABETES MELLITUS/
  4. or/3–4
  5. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  6. INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. NON INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  8. diabet$.tw.
  9. or/6–9
  10. and/5,10
  11. CHILDBIRTH/
  12. BIRTH/
  13. (parturition or childbirth$ or intrapartum).tw.
  14. LABOR/
  15. DELIVERY/
  16. PUERPERIUM/
  17. or/12–17
  18. MATERNAL CARE/
  19. PRENATAL CARE/
  20. pre?conception$.tw.
  21. pre?natal$.tw.
  22. pre?pregnan$.tw.
  23. or/19–23
  24. or/18,24
  25. 11 not 25
  26. BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL/
  27. (blood adj (glucose or sugar)).tw.
  28. ((blood or glyc?emi$) adj (control$ or monitor$)).tw.
  29. or/27–29
  30. and/26,30
  31. META ANALYSIS/
  32. (metaanaly$ or meta-analy$ or (meta adj analy$)).tw.
  33. ((systematic$ or methodologic$) adj3 (review$ or overview$)).tw.
  34. or/32–34
  35. (clinic$ adj3 trial$).tw.
  36. RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS/
  37. RANDOM ALLOCATION/
  38. CROSSOVER PROCEDURE/
  39. SINGLE BLIND PROCEDURE/
  40. DOUBLE BLIND PROCEDURE/
  41. ((single or double or triple or treble) adj3 (blind$ or mask$)).tw.
  42. (random$ adj3 (allocat$ or method$ or trial$)).tw.
  43. placebo$.tw.
  44. or/36–46
  45. or/35,47
  46. (medline or medlars or embase or cinahl or cochrane or psyc?info of psyc?lit or “web of science” or “science citation” or scisearch).tw.
  47. ((hand or manual$) adj3 search$).tw.
  48. ((electronic or bibliographic or computeri?ed or online) adj database$).tw.
  49. (der?simonian or fixed effect or mantel haenszel or peto or pooled or pooling).tw.
  50. or/49–52
  51. review$.pt.
  52. and/53–54
  53. or/48,55
  54. (editorial or letter or note or short survey).pt.
  55. (abstract report or case report or case study or comment or historical article or review multicase or review of reported cases).tw.
  56. or/57–58
  57. 56 not 59
  58. HUMAN/ not (ANIMAL/ or RODENTS/ or EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL/)
  59. and/60–61
  60. and/31,62

CINAHL

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETES/
  5. or/4–5
  6. DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  10. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  11. diabet$.tw.
  12. or/7–12
  13. and/6,13
  14. exp INTRAPARTUM CARE/
  15. (parturition or childbirth$ or intrapartum).tw.
  16. exp CHILDBIRTH/
  17. exp LABOR/
  18. LABOR STAGES/
  19. LABOR STAGE, FIRST/
  20. LABOR STAGE, SECOND/
  21. LABOR STAGE, THIRD/
  22. exp DELIVERY/
  23. or/15–23
  24. PREPREGNANCY CARE/
  25. PRENATAL CARE/
  26. pre?conception$.tw.
  27. pre?natal$.tw.
  28. pre?pregnan$.tw.
  29. or/25–29
  30. or/24,30
  31. 14 not 31
  32. (blood adj (glucose or sugar)).tw.
  33. ((blood or glyc?emi$) adj (control$ or monitor$)).tw.
  34. or/33–35
  35. and/32,36
  36. META ANALYSIS/
  37. (metaanaly$ or meta-analy$ or (meta adj analy$)).tw.
  38. ((systematic$ or methodologic$) adj3 (review$ or overview$)).tw.
  39. or/38–42
  40. exp CLINICAL TRIALS/
  41. (clinic$ adj3 trial$).tw.
  42. RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS/
  43. RANDOM ASSIGNMENT/
  44. SINGLE BLIND STUDIES/
  45. DOUBLE BLIND STUDIES/
  46. TRIPLE BLIND STUDIES/
  47. ((single or double or triple or treble) adj3 (blind$ or mask$)).tw.
  48. (random$ adj3 (allocat$ or method$ or trial$)).tw.
  49. PLACEBOS/
  50. placebo$.tw.
  51. or/44–55
  52. or/43,56
  53. (medline or medlars or embase or cinahl or cochrane or psyc?info or psyc?lit or “web of science” or “science citation” or scisearch).tw.
  54. ((hand or manual$) adj3 search$).tw.
  55. ((electronic or bibliographic or computeri?ed or online) adj database$).tw.
  56. (der?simonian or fixed effect or mantel haenszel or peto or pooled or pooling).tw.
  57. or/58–61
  58. review$.pt.
  59. and/62–63
  60. or/57,64
  61. (commentary or editorial or letter or manuscripts or newsletters or newspapers or pamphlets or reports).pt.
  62. case report.tw.
  63. or/66–67
  64. 65 not 68
  65. ANIMALS/
  66. 69 not 70
  67. and/37,71

5.2. Monitoring blood glucose and ketones during pregnancy

DIP_ketones_glycaemic_control_pregnancy_170506

Medline

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS/
  5. or/4–5
  6. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES MELLITUS, LIPOATROPHIC/
  10. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  11. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  12. diabet$.tw.
  13. or/7–13
  14. and/6,14
  15. PARTURITION/
  16. (parturition or childbirth$ or intrapartum).tw.
  17. exp LABOR, OBSTETRIC/
  18. LABOR ONSET/
  19. LABOR STAGE, FIRST/
  20. LABOR STAGE, SECOND/
  21. LABOR STAGE, THIRD/
  22. DELIVERY, OBSTETRIC/
  23. or/16–23
  24. PRECONCEPTION CARE/
  25. PRENATAL CARE/
  26. pre?conception$.tw.
  27. pre?natal$.tw.
  28. pre?pregnan$.tw.
  29. or/25–29
  30. or/24,30
  31. 15 not 31
  32. (blood adj (glucose or sugar)).tw.
  33. ((blood or glyc?emi$) adj (control$ or monitor$)).tw.
  34. or/33–35
  35. exp KETONES/
  36. ketone$.tw.
  37. or/37–38
  38. or/36,39
  39. and/32,40
  40. META ANALYSIS/
  41. meta analysis.pt.
  42. (metaanaly$ or meta-analy$ or (meta adj analy$)).tw.
  43. ((systematic$ or methodologic$) adj3 (review$ or overview$)).tw.
  44. or/42–45
  45. exp CLINICAL TRIALS/
  46. (clinic$ adj3 trial$).tw.
  47. RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS/
  48. randomized controlled trial.pt.
  49. RANDOM ALLOCATION/
  50. SINGLE BLIND METHOD/
  51. DOUBLE BLIND METHOD/
  52. ((single or double or triple or treble) adj3 (blind$ or mask$)).tw.
  53. (random$ adj3 (allocat$ or method$ or trial$)).tw.
  54. PLACEBOS/
  55. placebo$.tw.
  56. or/47–59
  57. or/46,60
  58. (medline or medlars or embase or cinahl or cochrane or psyc?info or psyc?lit or “web of science” or “science citation” or scisearch).tw.
  59. ((hand or manual$) adj3 search$).tw.
  60. ((electronic or bibliographic or computeri?ed or online) adj database$).tw.
  61. (der?simonian or fixed effect or mantel haenszel or peto or pooled or pooling).tw.
  62. or/62–65
  63. review$.pt.
  64. 66 and 67
  65. or/61,68
  66. (comment or editorial or historical article or letter or review multicase or review of reported cases).pt.
  67. case report.tw.
  68. or/70–71
  69. 69 not 72
  70. HUMAN/ not ANIMAL/
  71. 73 and 74
  72. and/41,75

Embase

  1. pregnan$.tw.
  2. or/1–2
  3. PREGNANCY DIABETES MELLITUS/
  4. or/3–4
  5. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  6. INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. NON INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  8. diabet$.tw.
  9. or/6–9
  10. and/5,10
  11. CHILDBIRTH/
  12. BIRTH/
  13. (parturition or childbirth$ or intrapartum).tw.
  14. LABOR/
  15. DELIVERY/
  16. PUERPERIUM/
  17. or/12–17
  18. MATERNAL CARE/
  19. PRENATAL CARE/
  20. pre?conception$.tw.
  21. pre?natal$.tw.
  22. pre?pregnan$.tw.
  23. or/19–23
  24. or/18,24
  25. 11 not 25
  26. BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL/
  27. (blood adj (glucose or sugar)).tw.
  28. ((blood or glyc?emi$) adj (control$ or monitor$)).tw.
  29. or/27–29
  30. exp KETONE/
  31. ketone$.tw.
  32. or/31–32
  33. or/30,33
  34. and/26,34
  35. META ANALYSIS/
  36. (metaanaly$ or meta-analy$ or (meta adj analy$)).tw.
  37. ((systematic$ or methodologic$) adj3 (review$ or overview$)).tw.
  38. or/36–38
  39. (clinic$ adj3 trial$).tw.
  40. RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS/
  41. RANDOM ALLOCATION/
  42. CROSSOVER PROCEDURE/
  43. SINGLE BLIND PROCEDURE/
  44. DOUBLE BLIND PROCEDURE/
  45. ((single or double or triple or treble) adj3 (blind$ or mask$)).tw.
  46. (random$ adj3 (allocat$ or method$ or trial$)).tw.
  47. placebo$.tw.
  48. or/40–50
  49. or/39,51
  50. (medline or medlars or embase or cinahl or cochrane or psyc?info of psyc?lit or “web of science” or “science citation” or scisearch).tw.
  51. ((hand or manual$) adj3 search$).tw.
  52. ((electronic or bibliographic or computeri?ed or online) adj database$).tw.
  53. (der?simonian or fixed effect or mantel haenszel or peto or pooled or pooling).tw.
  54. or/53–56
  55. review$.pt.
  56. and/57–58
  57. or/52,59
  58. (editorial or letter or note or short survey).pt.
  59. (abstract report or case report or case study or comment or historical article or review multicase or review of reported cases).tw.
  60. or/61–62
  61. 60 not 63
  62. HUMAN/ not (ANIMAL/ or RODENTS/ or EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL/)
  63. and/64–65
  64. and/35,66

CINAHL

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETES/
  5. or/4–5
  6. DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  10. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  11. diabet$.tw.
  12. or/7–12
  13. and/6,13
  14. exp INTRAPARTUM CARE/
  15. (parturition or childbirth$ or intrapartum).tw.
  16. exp CHILDBIRTH/
  17. exp LABOR/
  18. LABOR STAGES/
  19. LABOR STAGE, FIRST/
  20. LABOR STAGE, SECOND/
  21. LABOR STAGE, THIRD/
  22. exp DELIVERY/
  23. or/15–23
  24. PREPREGNANCY CARE/
  25. PRENATAL CARE/
  26. pre?conception$.tw.
  27. pre?natal$.tw.
  28. pre?pregnan$.tw.
  29. or/25–29
  30. or/24,30
  31. 14 not 31
  32. (blood adj (glucose or sugar)).tw.
  33. ((blood or glyc?emi$) adj (control$ or monitor$)).tw.
  34. or/33–35
  35. KETONES/
  36. ketone$.tw.
  37. or/37–38
  38. or/36,39
  39. and/32,40
  40. META ANALYSIS/
  41. (metaanaly$ or meta-analy$ or (meta adj analy$)).tw.
  42. ((systematic$ or methodologic$) adj3 (review$ or overview$)).tw.
  43. or/42–46
  44. exp CLINICAL TRIALS/
  45. (clinic$ adj3 trial$).tw.
  46. RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS/
  47. RANDOM ASSIGNMENT/
  48. SINGLE BLIND STUDIES/
  49. DOUBLE BLIND STUDIES/
  50. TRIPLE BLIND STUDIES/
  51. ((single or double or triple or treble) adj3 (blind$ or mask$)).tw.
  52. (random$ adj3 (allocat$ or method$ or trial$)).tw.
  53. PLACEBOS/
  54. placebo$.tw.
  55. or/48–59
  56. or/47,60
  57. (medline or medlars or embase or cinahl or cochrane or psyc?info or psyc?lit or “web of science” or “science citation” or scisearch).tw.
  58. ((hand or manual$) adj3 search$).tw.
  59. ((electronic or bibliographic or computeri?ed or online) adj database$).tw.
  60. (der?simonian or fixed effect or mantel haenszel or peto or pooled or pooling).tw.
  61. or/62–65
  62. review$.pt.
  63. and/66–67
  64. or/61,68
  65. (commentary or editorial or letter or manuscripts or newsletters or newspapers or pamphlets or reports).pt.
  66. case report.tw.
  67. or/70–71
  68. 69 not 72
  69. ANIMALS/
  70. 73 not 74
  71. and/41,75

5.3. Management of diabetes during pregnancy

DIP_emergencies_hypoglycaemia_ketoacidosis_021106

Medline

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS/
  5. or/4–5
  6. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES MELLITUS, LIPOATROPHIC/
  10. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  11. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  12. diabet$.tw.
  13. or/7–13
  14. and/6,14
  15. exp HYPOGLYCEMIA/
  16. hypoglyc?emi$.tw.
  17. or/16–17
  18. (diabet$ adj2 (acidosis or ketoacidosis or ketosis)).tw.
  19. or/19–20
  20. or/18,21
  21. and/15,22
  22. exp EMERGENCY TREATMENT/
  23. emergenc$.tw.
  24. or/24–25
  25. and/23,26
  26. animal/ not (human/ or (human/ and animal/))
  27. 27 not 28

Embase

  1. pregnan$.tw.
  2. or/1–2
  3. PREGNANCY DIABETES MELLITUS/
  4. or/3–4
  5. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  6. INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. NON INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  8. diabet$.tw.
  9. or/6–9
  10. and/5,10
  11. exp HYPOGLYCEMIA/
  12. hypoglyc?emi$.tw.
  13. or/12–13
  14. (diabet$ adj2 (acidosis or ketoacidosis or ketosis)).tw.
  15. or/15–16
  16. or/14,17
  17. and/11,18
  18. exp EMERGENCY TREATMENT/
  19. emergenc$.tw.
  20. or/20–21
  21. 19 and 22
  22. animal/ not (human/ or (human/ and animal/))
  23. 23 not 24

CINAHL

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETES/
  5. or/4–5
  6. DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  10. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  11. diabet$.tw.
  12. or/7–12
  13. and/6,13
  14. HYPOGLYCEMIA/
  15. hypoglyc?emi$.tw.
  16. or/15–16
  17. (diabet$ adj2 (acidosis or ketoacidosis or ketosis)).tw.
  18. or/18–19
  19. or/17,20
  20. and/14,21
  21. EMERGENCY CARE/
  22. emergenc$.tw.
  23. or/23–24
  24. and/22,25

DIP_morning_sickness_011106

Medline

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS/
  5. or/4–5
  6. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES MELLITUS, LIPOATROPHIC/
  10. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  11. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  12. diabet$.tw.
  13. or/7–13
  14. and/6,14
  15. exp MORNING SICKNESS/
  16. hyperemesis gravidarum.tw.
  17. ((gestation$ or morning or pregnan$) adj5 (hyperemesis or naus$ or sickness or vomit$)).tw.
  18. or/16–18
  19. and/15,19
  20. animal/ not (human/ or (human/ and animal/))
  21. 20 not 21

Embase

  1. pregnan$.tw.
  2. or/1–2
  3. PREGNANCY DIABETES MELLITUS/
  4. or/3–4
  5. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  6. INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. NON INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  8. diabet$.tw.
  9. or/6–9
  10. and/5,10
  11. MORNING SICKNESS/
  12. HYPEREMESIS GRAVIDARUM/
  13. hyperemesis gravidarum.tw.
  14. ((gestation$ or morning or pregnan$) adj5 (hyperemesis or naus$ or sickness or vomit$)).tw.
  15. or/12–15
  16. and/11,16

CINAHL

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETES/
  5. or/4–5
  6. DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  10. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  11. diabet$.tw.
  12. or/7–12
  13. and/6,13
  14. HYPEREMESIS GRAVIDARUM/
  15. hyperemesis gravidarum.tw.
  16. ((gestation$ or morning or pregnan$) adj5 (hyperemesis or naus$ or sickness or vomit$)).tw.
  17. or/15–17
  18. and/14,18

DIP_medications_insulin_pumps_051006

Medline

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS/
  5. or/4–5
  6. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES MELLITUS, LIPOATROPHIC/
  10. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  11. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  12. diabet$.tw.
  13. or/7–13
  14. and/6,14
  15. INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS/
  16. (insulin adj2 (infusion or pump)).tw.
  17. or/16–17
  18. and/15,18
  19. animal/ not (human/ or (human/ and animal/))
  20. 19 not 20

Embase

  1. pregnan$.tw.
  2. or/1–2
  3. PREGNANCY DIABETES MELLITUS/
  4. or/3–4
  5. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  6. INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. NON INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  8. diabet$.tw.
  9. or/6–9
  10. and/5,10
  11. exp INFUSION SYSTEM/
  12. (insulin adj2 (infusion or pump)).tw.
  13. or/12–13
  14. and/11,14
  15. (animal/ or nonhuman/) not (human/ or ((animal/ or nonhuman/) and human/))
  16. 15 not 16

CINAHL

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETES/
  5. or/4–5
  6. DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  10. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  11. diabet$.tw.
  12. or/7–12
  13. and/6,13
  14. INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS/
  15. (insulin adj2 (infusion or pump)).tw.
  16. or/15–16
  17. and/14,17

5.4. Retinal assessment during pregnancy

DIP_antenatal_retinal_assessment_070206

Medline

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS/
  5. or/4–5
  6. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES MELLITUS, LIPOATROPHIC/
  10. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  11. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  12. diabet$.tw.
  13. or/7–13
  14. and/6,14
  15. (diabet$ adj retin$).tw.
  16. or/16–17
  17. DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES, OPHTHALMOLOGICAL/
  18. VISION SCREENING/
  19. ((ophthalm$ or retina$ or vision$ or visual$) adj2 (assess$ or digital$ or imag$ or photograph$ or screen$ or test$)).tw.
  20. or/19–21
  21. or/18,22
  22. and/15,23
  23. animal/ not (human/ or (human/ and animal/))
  24. 24 not 25

Embase

  1. pregnan$.tw.
  2. or/1–2
  3. PREGNANCY DIABETES MELLITUS/
  4. or/3–4
  5. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  6. INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. NON INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  8. diabet$.tw.
  9. or/6–9
  10. and/5,10
  11. (diabet$ adj2 retin$).tw.
  12. or/12–13
  13. OPHTHALMOLOGY/
  14. VISION TEST/
  15. ((ophthalm$ or retina$ or vision$ or visual$) adj2 (assess$ or digital$ or imag$ or photograph$ or screen$ or test$)).tw.
  16. or/15–17
  17. or/14,18
  18. and/11,19
  19. (animal/ or nonhuman/) not (human/ or ((animal/ or nonhuman/) and human/))
  20. 20 not 21

CINAHL

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETES/
  5. or/4–5
  6. DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  10. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  11. diabet$.tw.
  12. or/7–12
  13. and/6,13
  14. (diabet$ adj retin$).tw.
  15. or/15–16
  16. OPHTHALMOLOGY/
  17. VISION SCREENING/
  18. ((ophthalm$ or retina$ or vision$ or visual$) adj2 (assess$ or digit$ or imag$ or photograph$ or screen$ or test$)).tw.
  19. or/18–20
  20. or/17,21
  21. and/14,22

5.5. Renal assessment during pregnancy

DIP_antenatal_renal_assessment_101006

Medline

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS/
  5. or/4–5
  6. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES MELLITUS, LIPOATROPHIC/
  10. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  11. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  12. diabet$.tw.
  13. or/7–13
  14. and/6,14
  15. DIABETIC NEPHROPATHIES/
  16. (diabet$ adj2 (glomerulopath$ or glomeruloscleros$ or nephropath$ or nephroscleros$)).tw.
  17. (glomeruloscleros$ adj2 (intercapillary or nodular)).tw.
  18. (kimmelstiel adj2 (disease or nephropath$ or syndrome)).tw.
  19. or/16–19
  20. KIDNEY DISEASES/
  21. ((kidney or renal) adj (disease$ or dysfunct$ or impair$)).tw.
  22. or/21–22
  23. HYPERTENSION, RENAL/
  24. (hypertens$ adj2 (juxtaglomerular or kidney or nephrogenic or renal$ or renoarterial or renovascular)).tw.
  25. or/24–25
  26. or/20,23,26
  27. and/15,27
  28. animal/ not (human/ or (human/ and animal/))
  29. 28 not 29

Embase

  1. pregnan$.tw.
  2. or/1–2
  3. PREGNANCY DIABETES MELLITUS/
  4. or/3–4
  5. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  6. INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. NON INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  8. diabet$.tw.
  9. or/6–9
  10. and/5,10
  11. (diabet$ adj2 (glomerulopath$ or glomeruloscleros$ or nephropath$ or nephroscleros$)).tw.
  12. (glomeruloscleros$ adj2 (intercapillary or nodular)).tw.
  13. (kimmelstiel adj2 (disease or nephropath$ or syndrome)).tw.
  14. or/12–15
  15. KIDNEY DISEASE/
  16. ((kidney or renal) adj (disease$ or dysfunct$ or impair$)).tw.
  17. or/17–18
  18. RENOVASCULAR HYPERTENSION/
  19. (hypertens$ adj2 (juxtaglomerular or kidney or nephrogenic or renal$ o renoarterial or renovascular)).tw.
  20. or/20–21
  21. or/16,19,22
  22. and/11,23
  23. (animal/ or nonhuman/) not (human/ or ((animal/ or nonhuman/) and human/))
  24. 24 not 25

CINAHL

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETES/
  5. or/4–5
  6. DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  10. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  11. diabet$.tw.
  12. or/7–12
  13. and/6,13
  14. DIABETIC NEPHROPATHIES/
  15. (diabet$ adj2 (glomerulopath$ or glomeruloscleros$ or nephropath$ or nephroscleros$)).tw.
  16. (glomeruloscleros$ adj2 (intercapillary or nodular)).tw.
  17. (kimmelstiel adj2 (disease or nephropath$ or syndrome)).tw.
  18. or/15–18
  19. KIDNEY DISEASES/
  20. ((kidney or renal) adj (disease$ or dysfunct$ or impair$)).tw.
  21. or/20–21
  22. HYPERTENSION, RENAL/
  23. (hypertens$ adj2 (juxtaglomerular or kidney or nephrogenic or renal$ o renoarterial or renovascular)).tw.
  24. or/23–24
  25. or/19,22,25
  26. and/14,26

5.6. Screening for congenital malformations

DIP_congenital_malformations_screening_200306

Medline

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS/
  5. or/4–5
  6. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES MELLITUS, LIPOATROPHIC/
  10. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  11. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  12. diabet$.tw.
  13. or/7–13
  14. and/6,14
  15. exp ABNORMALITIES/
  16. ((birth or congenital) adj (abnormal$ or defect$ or malform$)).tw.
  17. or/16–17
  18. exp NERVOUS SYSTEM MALFORMATIONS/
  19. ((nervous or neural) adj (abnormal$ or defect$ or malform$)).tw.
  20. or/19–20
  21. or/18,21
  22. and/15,22
  23. exp PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS/
  24. ((antenatal$ or intrauterin$ or prenatal$) adj diagnos$).tw.
  25. or/24–25
  26. exp MASS SCREENING/
  27. screen$.tw.
  28. or/27–28
  29. or/26,29
  30. and/23,30
  31. animal/ not (human/ or (human/ and animal/))
  32. 31 not 32

Embase

  1. pregnan$.tw.
  2. or/1–2
  3. PREGNANCY DIABETES MELLITUS/
  4. or/3–4
  5. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  6. INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. NON INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  8. diabet$.tw.
  9. or/6–9
  10. and/5,10
  11. exp CONGENITAL MALFORMATION/
  12. ((birth or congenital) adj (abnormal$ or defect$ or malform$)).tw.
  13. or/12–13
  14. exp NERVOUS SYSTEM MALFORMATION/
  15. ((nervous or neural) adj2 (abnormal$ or defect$ or malform$)).tw.
  16. or/15–16
  17. or/14,17
  18. and/11,18
  19. exp PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS/
  20. ((antenatal$ or intrauterin$ or prenatal$) adj diagnos$).tw.
  21. or/20–21
  22. exp MASS SCREENING/
  23. screen$.tw.
  24. or/23–24
  25. or/22,25
  26. and/19,26
  27. (animal/ or nonhuman/) not (human/ or ((animal/ or nonhuman/) and human/))
  28. 27 not 28

CINAHL

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETES/
  5. or/4–5
  6. DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  10. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  11. diabet$.tw.
  12. or/7–12
  13. and/6,13
  14. exp ABNORMALITIES/
  15. ((birth or congenital) adj (abnormal$ or defect$ or malform$)).tw.
  16. or/15–16
  17. exp NERVOUS SYSTEM MALFORMATIONS/
  18. ((nervous or neural) adj2 (abnormal$ or defect$ or malform$)).tw.
  19. or/18–19
  20. or/17,20
  21. and/14,21
  22. exp PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS/
  23. ((antenatal$ or intrauterin$ or prenatal$) adj diagnos$).tw.
  24. or/23–24
  25. HEALTH SCREENING/
  26. screen$.tw.
  27. or/26–27
  28. or/25,28
  29. and/22,29

DIP_congenital_malformations_screening_economics_050406

Medline

  1. ECONOMICS/
  2. “COSTS AND COST ANALYSIS”/
  3. COST ALLOCATION/
  4. COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS/
  5. COST CONTROL/
  6. COST SAVINGS/
  7. COST OF ILLNESS/
  8. COST SHARING/
  9. HEALTH CARE COSTS/
  10. DIRECT SERVICE COSTS/
  11. DRUG COSTS/
  12. EMPLOYER HEALTH COSTS/
  13. HOSPITAL COSTS/
  14. HEALTH RESOURCES/
  15. “HEALTH SERVICES NEEDS AND DEMAND”/
  16. HEALTH PRIORITIES/
  17. HEALTH EXPENDITURES/
  18. CAPITAL EXPENDITURES/
  19. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT/
  20. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT, HOSPITAL/
  21. “DEDUCTIBLES AND COINSURANCE”/
  22. MEDICAL SAVINGS ACCOUNTS/
  23. ECONOMICS, HOSPITAL/
  24. ECONOMICS, MEDICAL/
  25. ECONOMICS, NURSING/
  26. ECONOMICS, PHARMACEUTICAL/
  27. MODELS, ECONOMIC/
  28. MODELS, ECONOMETRIC/
  29. RESOURCE ALLOCATION/
  30. HEALTH CARE RATIONING/
  31. “FEES AND CHARGES”/
  32. BUDGETS/
  33. VALUE OF LIFE/
  34. (financ$ or fiscal$ or funding).tw.
  35. (QALY$ or life?year$).tw.
  36. (econom$ or cost$).tw.
  37. pharmacoeconomic$.tw.
  38. ec.fs.
  39. or/1–39
  40. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  41. pregnan$.tw.
  42. or/41–43
  43. PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS/
  44. or/44–45
  45. exp ABNORMALITIES/
  46. ((birth or congenital) adj (abnormal$ or defect$ or malform$)).tw.
  47. or/47–48
  48. exp NERVOUS SYSTEM MALFORMATIONS/
  49. ((nervous or neural) adj (abnormal$ or defect$ or malform$)).tw.
  50. or/50–51
  51. or/49,52
  52. exp PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS/
  53. ((antenatal$ or intrauterin$ or prenatal$) adj diagnos$).tw.
  54. or/54–55
  55. exp MASS SCREENING/
  56. screen$.tw.
  57. or/57–58
  58. or/56,59
  59. and/53,60
  60. and/46,61
  61. and/40,62
  62. animal/ not (human/ or (human/ and animal/))
  63. 63 not 64

Embase

  1. ECONOMICS/
  2. COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS/
  3. COST CONTROL/
  4. COST EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS/
  5. COST MINIMIZATION ANALYSIS/
  6. COST OF ILLNESS/
  7. COST UTILITY ANALYSIS/
  8. COST/
  9. HEALTH CARE COST/
  10. DRUG COST/
  11. HEALTH CARE FINANCING/
  12. HOSPITAL COST/
  13. SOCIOECONOMICS/
  14. ECONOMIC ASPECT/
  15. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT/
  16. PHARMACOECONOMICS/
  17. RESOURCE ALLOCATION/
  18. (financ$ or fiscal$ or funding).tw.
  19. (QALY$ or life?year$).tw.
  20. (econom$ or cost$).tw.
  21. pharmacoeconomic$.tw.
  22. or/1–24
  23. pregnan$.tw.
  24. or/26–27
  25. PREGNANCY DIABETES MELLITUS/
  26. or/28–29
  27. exp CONGENITAL MALFORMATION/
  28. ((birth or congenital) adj (abnormal$ or defect$ or malform$)).tw.
  29. or/31–32
  30. exp NERVOUS SYSTEM MALFORMATION/
  31. ((nervous or neural) adj2 (abnormal$ or defect$ or malform$)).tw.
  32. or/34–35
  33. or/33,36
  34. exp PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS/
  35. ((antenatal$ or intrauterin$ or prenatal$) adj diagnos$).tw.
  36. or/38–39
  37. exp MASS SCREENING/
  38. screen$.tw.
  39. or/41–42
  40. or/40,43
  41. and/37,44
  42. and/30,45
  43. and/25,46
  44. (animal/ or nonhuman/) not (human/ or ((animal/ or nonhuman/) and human/))
  45. 47 not 48

CINAHL

  1. ECONOMICS/
  2. “COSTS AND COST ANALYSIS”/
  3. COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS/
  4. COST CONTROL/
  5. COST SAVINGS/
  6. COST OF ILLNESS/
  7. HEALTH CARE COSTS/
  8. ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF ILLNESS/
  9. ECONOMICS, PHARMACEUTICAL/
  10. HEALTH CARE FINANCING/
  11. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT/
  12. HOSPITAL COST/
  13. SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS/
  14. HEALTH RESOURCE ALLOCATION/
  15. (financ$ or fiscal$ or funding).tw.
  16. (QALY$ or life?year$).tw.
  17. (econom$ or cost$).tw.
  18. pharmacoeconomic$.tw.
  19. or/1–18
  20. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  21. pregnan$.tw.
  22. or/20–22
  23. PREGNANCY IN DIABETES/
  24. or/23–24
  25. exp ABNORMALITIES/
  26. ((birth or congenital) adj (abnormal$ or defect$ or malform$)).tw.
  27. or/26–27
  28. exp NERVOUS SYSTEM MALFORMATIONS/
  29. ((nervous or neural) adj2 (abnormal$ or defect$ or malform$)).tw.
  30. or/29–30
  31. or/28,31
  32. exp PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS/
  33. ((antenatal$ or intrauterin$ or prenatal$) adj diagnos$).tw.
  34. or/33–34
  35. HEALTH SCREENING/
  36. screen$.tw.
  37. or/36–37
  38. or/35,38
  39. and/32,39
  40. and/25,40
  41. and/19,41

DIP_congenital_malformations_counselling_210306

Medline

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS/
  5. or/4–5
  6. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES MELLITUS, LIPOATROPHIC/
  10. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  11. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  12. diabet$.tw.
  13. or/7–13
  14. and/6,14
  15. exp ABNORMALITIES/
  16. ((birth or congenital) adj (abnormal$ or defect$ or malform$)).tw.
  17. or/16–17
  18. exp NERVOUS SYSTEM MALFORMATIONS/
  19. ((nervous or neural) adj2 (abnormal$ or defect$ or malform$)).tw.
  20. or/19–20
  21. or/18,21
  22. and/15,22
  23. COUNSELING/
  24. counsel$.tw.
  25. or/24–25
  26. SELF-HELP GROUPS/
  27. ((self?help or support) adj group$).tw.
  28. or/27–28
  29. or/26,29
  30. and/23,30
  31. animal/ not (human/ or (human/ and animal/))
  32. 31 not 32

Embase

  1. pregnan$.tw.
  2. or/1–2
  3. PREGNANCY DIABETES MELLITUS/
  4. or/3–4
  5. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  6. INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. NON INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  8. diabet$.tw.
  9. or/6–9
  10. and/5,10
  11. exp CONGENITAL MALFORMATION/
  12. ((birth or congenital) adj (abnormal$ or defect$ or malform$)).tw.
  13. or/12–13
  14. exp NERVOUS SYSTEM MALFORMATION/
  15. ((nervous or neural) adj2 (abnormal$ or defect$ or malform$)).tw.
  16. or/15–16
  17. or/14,17
  18. and/11,18
  19. COUNSELING/
  20. counsel$.tw.
  21. or/20–21
  22. SUPPORT GROUP/
  23. SELF HELP/
  24. ((self?help or support) adj group$).tw.
  25. or/23–25
  26. or/22,26
  27. and/19,27
  28. (animal/ or nonhuman/) not (human/ or ((animal/ or nonhuman/) and human/))
  29. 28 not 29

CINAHL

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETES/
  5. or/4–5
  6. DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  10. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  11. diabet$.tw.
  12. or/7–12
  13. and/6,13
  14. exp ABNORMALITIES/
  15. ((birth or congenital) adj (abnormal$ or defect$ or malform$)).tw.
  16. or/15–16
  17. exp NERVOUS SYSTEM MALFORMATIONS/
  18. ((nervous or neural) adj2 (abnormal$ or defect$ or malform$)).tw.
  19. or/18–19
  20. or/17,20
  21. and/14,21
  22. COUNSELING/
  23. counsel$.tw.
  24. or/23–24
  25. SUPPORT GROUPS/
  26. ((self?help or support) adj group$).tw.
  27. or/26–27
  28. or/25,28
  29. and/22,29

5.7. Monitoring fetal growth and wellbeing

DIP_fetal_growth_wellbeing_051006

Medline

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS/
  5. or/4–5
  6. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES MELLITUS, LIPOATROPHIC/
  10. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  11. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  12. diabet$.tw.
  13. or/7–13
  14. exp FETAL DEVELOPMENT/
  15. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj (develop$ or grow$)).tw.
  16. or/15–16
  17. ABDOMEN/em, us
  18. (abdomen$ adj2 (circumference or grow$)).tw.
  19. or/18–19
  20. FETAL ORGAN MATURITY/
  21. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 matur$).tw.
  22. or/21–22
  23. FETAL VIABILITY/
  24. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 viab$).tw.
  25. or/24–25
  26. FETAL WEIGHT/
  27. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 weight).tw.
  28. or/27–28
  29. FETAL MOVEMENT/
  30. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 (activ$ or behav$ or move$ or well?being)).tw.
  31. or/30–31
  32. FETAL BLOOD/
  33. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 blood).tw.
  34. or/33–34
  35. HEART RATE, FETAL/
  36. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 heart rate).tw.
  37. or/36–37
  38. ULTRASONOGRAPHY, DOPPLER, PULSED/
  39. (ultrasonography adj2 (doppler or pulsed)).tw.
  40. (umbilical adj3 (doppler or velocit$)).tw.
  41. UMBILICAL ARTERIES/us
  42. or/39–41
  43. or/17,20,23,26,29,32,35,38,43
  44. and/6,14,44
  45. COHORT STUDIES/
  46. LONGITUDINAL STUDIES/
  47. FOLLOW-UP STUDIES/
  48. PROSPECTIVE STUDIES/
  49. RETROSPECTIVE STUDIES/
  50. ((cohort$ or follow-up or follow?up or inciden$ or longitudinal or prospective or retrospective) adj1 (stud$ or research or analys$)).tw.
  51. or/46–51
  52. and/45,52
  53. animal/ not (human/ or (human/ and animal/))
  54. 53 not 54

Embase

  1. pregnan$.tw.
  2. or/1–2
  3. PREGNANCY DIABETES MELLITUS/
  4. or/3–4
  5. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  6. INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. NON INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  8. diabet$.tw.
  9. or/6–9
  10. and/5,10
  11. exp EMBRYONIC/ and FETAL FUNCTIONS/
  12. exp FETUS DEVELOPMENT/
  13. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj (develop$ or grow$)).tw.
  14. or/13–14
  15. (abdomen$ adj2 (circumference or grow$)).tw.
  16. or/16–17
  17. FETUS GROWTH/
  18. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 matur$).tw.
  19. or/19–20
  20. FETAL WELLBEING/
  21. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 viab$).tw.
  22. or/22–23
  23. FETUS WEIGHT/
  24. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 weight).tw.
  25. or/25–26
  26. FETUS MOVEMENT/
  27. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 (activ$ or behav$ or move$ or well?being)).tw.
  28. or/28–29
  29. FETUS HEART RATE/
  30. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 heart).tw.
  31. or/31–32
  32. FETUS BREATHING/
  33. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 breath$).tw.
  34. or/34–35
  35. DOPPLER ECHOGRAPHY/
  36. (ultrasonography adj2 (doppler or pulsed)).tw.
  37. (umbilical adj3 (doppler or velocit$)).tw.
  38. UMBILICAL ARTERY/
  39. or/37–40
  40. or/12,15,18,21,24,27,30,33,36,41
  41. and/11,42
  42. COHORT ANALYSIS/
  43. FOLLOW UP/
  44. ((cohort$ or follow-up or follow?up or inciden$ or longitudinal or prospective or retrospective) adj1 (stud$ or research or analys$)).tw.
  45. or/44–49
  46. and/43,50
  47. (animal/ or nonhuman/) not (human/ or ((animal/ or nonhuman/) and human/))
  48. 51 not 52

CINAHL

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETES/
  5. or/4–5
  6. DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  10. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  11. diabet$.tw.
  12. or/7–12
  13. and/6,13
  14. exp FETAL DEVELOPMENT/
  15. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj (develop$ or grow$)).tw.
  16. or/15–16
  17. ABDOMEN/em, us
  18. (abdomen$ adj2 (circumference or grow$)).tw.
  19. or/18–19
  20. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 matur$).tw.
  21. FETAL CIRCULATION/
  22. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 circulation).tw.
  23. or/22–23
  24. FETAL WELL-BEING/
  25. FETAL WEIGHT/
  26. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 weight).tw.
  27. or/26–27
  28. FETAL MOVEMENT/
  29. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 (activ$ or behav$ or move$ or well?being)).tw.
  30. or/29–30
  31. ULTRASONOGRAPHY, DOPPLER, PULSED/
  32. (ultrasonography adj2 (doppler or pulsed)).tw.
  33. (umbilical adj3 (doppler or velocit$)).tw.
  34. UMBILICAL ARTERIES/us
  35. or/32–35
  36. or/17,20–21,24–25,28,31,36
  37. and/14,37
  38. COHORT STUDIES/
  39. LONGITUDINAL STUDIES/
  40. FOLLOW-UP STUDIES/
  41. PROSPECTIVE STUDIES/
  42. RETROSPECTIVE DESIGN/
  43. ((cohort$ or follow-up or follow?up or inciden$ or longitudinal or prospective or retrospective) adj1 (stud$ or research or analys$)).tw.
  44. or/39–44
  45. and/38,45

DIP_fetal_growth_wellbeing_economics_051006

Medline

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS/
  5. or/4–5
  6. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES MELLITUS, LIPOATROPHIC/
  10. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  11. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  12. diabet$.tw.
  13. or/7–13
  14. exp FETAL DEVELOPMENT/
  15. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj (develop$ or grow$)).tw.
  16. or/15–16
  17. ABDOMEN/em, us
  18. (abdomen$ adj2 (circumference or grow$)).tw.
  19. or/18–19
  20. FETAL ORGAN MATURITY/
  21. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 matur$).tw.
  22. or/21–22
  23. FETAL VIABILITY/
  24. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 viab$).tw.
  25. or/24–25
  26. FETAL WEIGHT/
  27. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 weight).tw.
  28. or/27–28
  29. FETAL MOVEMENT/
  30. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 (activ$ or behav$ or move$ or well?being)).tw.
  31. or/30–31
  32. FETAL BLOOD/
  33. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 blood).tw.
  34. or/33–34
  35. HEART RATE, FETAL/
  36. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 heart rate).tw.
  37. or/36–37
  38. ULTRASONOGRAPHY, DOPPLER, PULSED/
  39. (ultrasonography adj2 (doppler or pulsed)).tw.
  40. (umbilical adj3 (doppler or velocit$)).tw.
  41. UMBILICAL ARTERIES/us
  42. or/39–41
  43. or/17,20,23,26,29,32,35,38,43
  44. and/6,14,44
  45. ECONOMICS/
  46. “COSTS AND COST ANALYSIS”/
  47. COST ALLOCATION/
  48. COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS/
  49. COST CONTROL/
  50. COST SAVINGS/
  51. COST OF ILLNESS/
  52. COST SHARING/
  53. HEALTH CARE COSTS/
  54. DIRECT SERVICE COSTS/
  55. DRUG COSTS/
  56. EMPLOYER HEALTH COSTS/
  57. HOSPITAL COSTS/
  58. HEALTH RESOURCES/
  59. “HEALTH SERVICES NEEDS AND DEMAND”/
  60. HEALTH PRIORITIES/
  61. HEALTH EXPENDITURES/
  62. CAPITAL EXPENDITURES/
  63. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT/
  64. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT, HOSPITAL/
  65. “DEDUCTIBLES AND COINSURANCE”/
  66. MEDICAL SAVINGS ACCOUNTS/
  67. ECONOMICS, HOSPITAL/
  68. ECONOMICS, MEDICAL/
  69. ECONOMICS, NURSING/
  70. ECONOMICS, PHARMACEUTICAL/
  71. MODELS, ECONOMIC/
  72. MODELS, ECONOMETRIC/
  73. RESOURCE ALLOCATION/
  74. HEALTH CARE RATIONING/
  75. “FEES AND CHARGES”/
  76. BUDGETS/
  77. VALUE OF LIFE/
  78. (financ$ or fiscal$ or funding).tw.
  79. (QALY$ or life?year$).tw.
  80. (econom$ or cost$).tw.
  81. pharmacoeconomic$.tw.
  82. ec.fs.
  83. or/46–84
  84. and/45,85

Embase

  1. pregnan$.tw.
  2. or/1–2
  3. PREGNANCY DIABETES MELLITUS/
  4. or/3–4
  5. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  6. INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. NON INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  8. diabet$.tw.
  9. or/6–9
  10. and/5,10
  11. exp EMBRYONIC/ and FETAL FUNCTIONS/
  12. exp FETUS DEVELOPMENT/
  13. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj (develop$ or grow$)).tw.
  14. or/13–14
  15. (abdomen$ adj2 (circumference or grow$)).tw.
  16. or/16–17
  17. FETUS GROWTH/
  18. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 matur$).tw.
  19. or/19–20
  20. FETAL WELLBEING/
  21. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 viab$).tw.
  22. or/22–23
  23. FETUS WEIGHT/
  24. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 weight).tw.
  25. or/25–26
  26. FETUS MOVEMENT/
  27. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 (activ$ or behav$ or move$ or well?being)).tw.
  28. or/28–29
  29. FETUS HEART RATE/
  30. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 heart).tw.
  31. or/31–32
  32. FETUS BREATHING/
  33. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 breath$).tw.
  34. or/34–35
  35. DOPPLER ECHOGRAPHY/
  36. (ultrasonography adj2 (doppler or pulsed)).tw.
  37. (umbilical adj3 (doppler or velocit$)).tw.
  38. UMBILICAL ARTERY/
  39. or/37–40
  40. or/12,15,18,21,24,27,30,33,36,41
  41. and/11,42
  42. ECONOMICS/
  43. COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS/
  44. COST CONTROL/
  45. COST EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS/
  46. COST MINIMIZATION ANALYSIS/
  47. COST OF ILLNESS/
  48. COST UTILITY ANALYSIS/
  49. COST/
  50. HEALTH CARE COST/
  51. DRUG COST/
  52. HEALTH CARE FINANCING/
  53. HOSPITAL COST/
  54. SOCIOECONOMICS/
  55. ECONOMIC ASPECT/
  56. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT/
  57. PHARMACOECONOMICS/
  58. RESOURCE ALLOCATION/
  59. (financ$ or fiscal$ or funding).tw.
  60. (QALY$ or life?year$).tw.
  61. (econom$ or cost$).tw.
  62. pharmacoeconomic$.tw.
  63. or/44–67
  64. and/43,68

CINAHL

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETES/
  5. or/4–5
  6. DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  10. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  11. diabet$.tw.
  12. or/7–12
  13. and/6,13
  14. exp FETAL DEVELOPMENT/
  15. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj (develop$ or grow$)).tw.
  16. or/15–16
  17. ABDOMEN/em, us
  18. (abdomen$ adj2 (circumference or grow$)).tw.
  19. or/18–19
  20. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 matur$).tw.
  21. FETAL CIRCULATION/
  22. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 circulation).tw.
  23. or/22–23
  24. FETAL WELL-BEING/
  25. FETAL WEIGHT/
  26. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 weight).tw.
  27. or/26–27
  28. FETAL MOVEMENT/
  29. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 (activ$ or behav$ or move$ or well?being)).tw.
  30. or/29–30
  31. ULTRASONOGRAPHY, DOPPLER, PULSED/
  32. (ultrasonography adj2 (doppler or pulsed)).tw.
  33. (umbilical adj3 (doppler or velocit$)).tw.
  34. UMBILICAL ARTERIES/us
  35. or/32–35
  36. or/17,20–21,24–25,28,31,36
  37. and/14,37
  38. COHORT STUDIES/
  39. LONGITUDINAL STUDIES/
  40. FOLLOW-UP STUDIES/
  41. PROSPECTIVE STUDIES/
  42. RETROSPECTIVE DESIGN/
  43. ((cohort$ or follow-up or follow?up or inciden$ or longitudinal or prospective or retrospective) adj1 (stud$ or research or analys$)).tw.
  44. or/39–44
  45. and/38,45
  46. ECONOMICS/
  47. “COSTS AND COST ANALYSIS”/
  48. COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS/
  49. COST CONTROL/
  50. COST SAVINGS/
  51. COST OF ILLNESS/
  52. HEALTH CARE COSTS/
  53. ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF ILLNESS/
  54. ECONOMICS, PHARMACEUTICAL/
  55. HEALTH CARE FINANCING/
  56. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT/
  57. HOSPITAL COST/
  58. SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS/
  59. HEALTH RESOURCE ALLOCATION/
  60. (financ$ or fiscal$ or funding).tw.
  61. (QALY$ or life?year$).tw.
  62. (econom$ or cost$).tw.
  63. pharmacoeconomic$.tw.
  64. or/47–64
  65. and/46,65

DIP_fetal_growth_wellbeing_dx_accuracy_291106

Medline

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS/
  5. or/4–5
  6. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES MELLITUS, LIPOATROPHIC/
  10. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  11. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  12. diabet$.tw.
  13. or/7–13
  14. exp FETAL DEVELOPMENT/
  15. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj (develop$ or grow$)).tw.
  16. or/15–16
  17. ABDOMEN/em, us
  18. (abdomen$ adj2 (circumference or grow$)).tw.
  19. or/18–19
  20. FETAL ORGAN MATURITY/
  21. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 matur$).tw.
  22. or/21–22
  23. FETAL VIABILITY/
  24. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 viab$).tw.
  25. or/24–25
  26. FETAL WEIGHT/
  27. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 weight).tw.
  28. or/27–28
  29. FETAL MOVEMENT/
  30. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 (activ$ or behav$ or move$ or well?being)).tw.
  31. or/30–31
  32. FETAL BLOOD/
  33. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 blood).tw.
  34. or/33–34
  35. HEART RATE, FETAL/
  36. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 heart rate).tw.
  37. or/36–37
  38. ULTRASONOGRAPHY, DOPPLER, PULSED/
  39. (ultrasonography adj2 (doppler or pulsed)).tw.
  40. (umbilical adj3 (doppler or velocit$)).tw.
  41. UMBILICAL ARTERIES/us
  42. or/39–41
  43. or/17,20,23,26,29,32,35,38,43
  44. and/6,14,44
  45. exp “SENSITIVITY AND SPECIFICITY”/
  46. (predictive adj value$).tw.
  47. LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS/
  48. (likelihood adj (estimate$ or ratio$)).tw.
  49. exp DIAGNOSTIC ERRORS/
  50. (false adj (negative$ or positive$)).tw.
  51. “REPRODUCIBILITY OF RESULTS”/
  52. DIAGNOSIS, DIFFERENTIAL/
  53. (differential adj diagnos$).tw.
  54. or/46–55
  55. and/45,56
  56. animal/ not (human/ or (human/ and animal/))
  57. 57 not 58

Embase

  1. pregnan$.tw.
  2. or/1–2
  3. PREGNANCY DIABETES MELLITUS/
  4. or/3–4
  5. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  6. INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. NON INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  8. diabet$.tw.
  9. or/6–9
  10. and/5,10
  11. exp EMBRYONIC/ and FETAL FUNCTIONS/
  12. exp FETUS DEVELOPMENT/
  13. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj (develop$ or grow$)).tw.
  14. or/13–14
  15. (abdomen$ adj2 (circumference or grow$)).tw.
  16. or/16–17
  17. FETUS GROWTH/
  18. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 matur$).tw.
  19. or/19–20
  20. FETAL WELLBEING/
  21. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 viab$).tw.
  22. or/22–23
  23. FETUS WEIGHT/
  24. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 weight).tw.
  25. or/25–26
  26. FETUS MOVEMENT/
  27. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 (activ$ or behav$ or move$ or well?being)).tw.
  28. or/28–29
  29. FETUS HEART RATE/
  30. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 heart).tw.
  31. or/31–32
  32. FETUS BREATHING/
  33. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 breath$).tw.
  34. or/34–35
  35. DOPPLER ECHOGRAPHY/
  36. (ultrasonography adj2 (doppler or pulsed)).tw.
  37. (umbilical adj3 (doppler or velocit$)).tw.
  38. UMBILICAL ARTERY/
  39. or/37–40
  40. or/12,15,18,21,24,27,30,33,36,41
  41. and/11,42
  42. exp “SENSITIVITY AND SPECIFICITY”/
  43. (predictive adj value$).tw.
  44. STATISTICAL MODEL/
  45. (likelihood adj (estimate$ or ratio$)).tw.
  46. DIAGNOSTIC ERROR/
  47. (false adj (negative$ or positive$)).tw.
  48. REPRODUCIBILITY/
  49. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS/
  50. (differential adj diagnos$).tw.
  51. or/44–53
  52. and/43,54
  53. (animal/ or nonhuman/) not (human/ or ((animal/ or nonhuman/) and human/))
  54. 55 not 56

CINAHL

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETES/
  5. or/4–5
  6. DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  10. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  11. diabet$.tw.
  12. or/7–12
  13. and/6,13
  14. exp FETAL DEVELOPMENT/
  15. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj (develop$ or grow$)).tw.
  16. or/15–16
  17. ABDOMEN/em, us
  18. (abdomen$ adj2 (circumference or grow$)).tw.
  19. or/18–19
  20. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 matur$).tw.
  21. FETAL CIRCULATION/
  22. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 circulation).tw.
  23. or/22–23
  24. FETAL WELL-BEING/
  25. FETAL WEIGHT/
  26. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 weight).tw.
  27. or/26–27
  28. FETAL MOVEMENT/
  29. ((fetal or fetus or foetal) adj2 (activ$ or behav$ or move$ or well?being)).tw.
  30. or/29–30
  31. ULTRASONOGRAPHY, DOPPLER, PULSED/
  32. (ultrasonography adj2 (doppler or pulsed)).tw.
  33. (umbilical adj3 (doppler or velocit$)).tw.
  34. UMBILICAL ARTERIES/us
  35. or/32–35
  36. or/17,20–21,24–25,28,31,36
  37. and/14,37
  38. exp “SENSITIVITY AND SPECIFICITY”/
  39. (predictive adj value$).tw.
  40. (likelihood adj (estimate$ or ratio$)).tw.
  41. exp DIAGNOSTIC ERRORS/
  42. (false adj (negative$ or positive$)).tw.
  43. “REPRODUCIBILITY OF RESULTS”/
  44. DIAGNOSIS, DIFFERENTIAL/
  45. (differential adj diagnos$).tw.
  46. or/39–47
  47. and/38,48

5.8. Timetable of antenatal appointments

No specific searches were conducted for this section of the guideline.

5.9. Preterm labour in women with diabetes

DIP_fetal_lung_maturation_050106

Medline

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. (expect$ adj (adolescen$ or female$ or mother$ or teen$ or wom?n)).tw.
  4. or/1–4
  5. PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS/
  6. (pregnan$ adj2 diabet$).tw.
  7. or/6–7
  8. or/5,8
  9. INFANT, PREMATURE/
  10. ((premature$ or preterm$ or pre?term$) adj (baby or babies or child$ or infan$)).tw.
  11. INFANT, NEWBORN/
  12. neonat$.tw.
  13. newborn$.tw.
  14. INFANT, SMALL FOR GESTATIONAL AGE/
  15. (small adj2 gestational age).tw.
  16. INFANT, LOW BIRTH WEIGHT/
  17. INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT/
  18. (low adj birth adj weight).tw.
  19. (low adj birth?weight).tw.
  20. lbw.tw.
  21. vlbw.tw.
  22. or/10–22
  23. or/9,23
  24. DIABETES MELLITUS/
  25. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  26. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  27. DIABETES MELLITUS, LIPOATROPHIC/
  28. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  29. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  30. diabet$.tw.
  31. or/25–31
  32. exp FETAL DEVELOPMENT/
  33. FETAL ORGAN MATURITY/
  34. ((fetal or fetus or foetal or foetus) adj2 (develop$ or matur$)).tw.
  35. or/33–35
  36. LUNG/em
  37. and/36–37
  38. RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN/
  39. (respirat$ adj distress adj3 (neonat$ or newborn or premature$ or preterm$ or pre?term$)).tw.
  40. (RDS adj3 (neonat$ or newborn or premature$ or preterm$ or pre?term$)).tw.
  41. or/39–41
  42. or/38,42
  43. exp GLUCOCORTICOIDS/
  44. glucocorticoid$.tw.
  45. or/44–45
  46. ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES/
  47. corticoid$.tw.
  48. corticosteroid$.tw.
  49. or/47–49
  50. or/51–52
  51. or/54–55
  52. or/57–58
  53. exp PULMONARY SURFACTANTS/
  54. ((alveol$ or lung or pulmonary) adj surfactant$).tw.
  55. or/60–61
  56. or/46,50,53,56,59,62
  57. and/24,32,43,63
  58. animal/ not (human/ or (human/ and animal/))
  59. 64 not 65

Embase

  1. pregnan$.tw.
  2. (expect$ adj (adolescen$ or female$ or mother$ or teen$ or wom?n)).tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY DIABETES MELLITUS/
  5. (pregnan$ adj2 diabet$).tw.
  6. or/5–6
  7. or/4,7
  8. PREMATURITY/
  9. ((premature$ or preterm$ or pre?term$) adj (baby or babies or child$ or infan$)).tw.
  10. exp NEWBORN/
  11. neonat$.tw.
  12. newborn$.tw.
  13. NEWBORN PERIOD/
  14. PERINATAL PERIOD/
  15. exp INFANT/
  16. INFANCY/
  17. BABY/
  18. infan$.tw.
  19. (baby or babies).tw.
  20. SMALL FOR DATE INFANT/
  21. (small adj2 (date or “gestational age”)).tw.
  22. lbw.tw.
  23. vlbw.tw.
  24. or/9–26
  25. or/8,27
  26. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  27. INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  28. NON INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  29. diabet$.tw.
  30. or/29–32
  31. PREMATURE LABOR/
  32. ((birth$ or deliver$ or labor or labour) adj (immatur$ or premature$ or preterm$ or pre?term$)).tw.
  33. or/34–35
  34. exp PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT/
  35. exp PRENATAL GROWTH/
  36. FETUS MATURITY/
  37. ((fetal or fetus or foetal or foetus) adj (lung or organ) adj (develop$ or matur$)).tw.
  38. or/37–40
  39. LUNG/
  40. and/41–42
  41. FETUS LUNG MATURATION/
  42. or/43–44
  43. NEONATAL RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME/
  44. (respirat$ adj distress adj3 (neonat$ or newborn or premature$ or preterm$ or pre?term$)).tw.
  45. (RDS adj3 (neonat$ or newborn or premature$ or preterm$ or pre?term$)).tw.
  46. or/46–48
  47. or/45,49
  48. CORTICOSTEROID/
  49. corticoid$.tw.
  50. corticosteroid$.tw.
  51. or/51–53
  52. exp GLUCOCORTICOID/
  53. glucocorticoid$.tw.
  54. or/55–56
  55. or/58–59
  56. or/61–62
  57. or/64–65
  58. LUNG SURFACTANT/
  59. ((alveol$ or lung or pulmonary) adj surfactant$).tw.
  60. or/67–68
  61. or/54,57,60,63,66,69
  62. and/28,33,36,50,70
  63. (animal/ or nonhuman/) not (human/ or ((animal/ or nonhuman/) and human/))
  64. 71 not 72

CINAHL

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. (expect$ adj (adolescen$ or female$ or mother$ or teen$ or wom?n)).tw.
  4. or/1–4
  5. PREGNANCY IN DIABETES/
  6. (pregnan$ adj2 diabet$).tw.
  7. or/6–7
  8. or/5,8
  9. INFANT, PREMATURE/
  10. ((premature$ or preterm$ or pre?term$) adj (baby or babies or child$ or infan$)).tw.
  11. INFANT, NEWBORN/
  12. neonat$.tw.
  13. newborn$.tw.
  14. INFANT, SMALL FOR GESTATIONAL AGE/
  15. (small adj2 gestational age).tw.
  16. INFANT, LOW BIRTH WEIGHT/
  17. INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT/
  18. (low adj birth adj weight).tw.
  19. (low adj birth?weight).tw.
  20. lbw.tw.
  21. vlbw.tw.
  22. or/10–22
  23. or/9,23
  24. DIABETES MELLITUS/
  25. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  26. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  27. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  28. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  29. diabet$.tw.
  30. or/25–30
  31. exp FETAL DEVELOPMENT/
  32. ((fetal or fetus or foetal or foetus) adj2 (develop$ or matur$)).tw.
  33. or/32–33
  34. LUNG/
  35. and/34–35
  36. RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME/
  37. (respirat$ adj distress adj3 (neonat$ or newborn or premature$ or preterm$ or pre?term$)).tw.
  38. (RDS adj3 (neonat$ or newborn or premature$ or preterm$ or pre?term$)).tw.
  39. or/37–39
  40. or/36,40
  41. exp GLUCOCORTICOIDS/
  42. glucocorticoid$.tw.
  43. or/42–43
  44. ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES/
  45. corticoid$.tw.
  46. corticosteroid$.tw.
  47. or/45–47
  48. or/50–51
  49. or/53–54
  50. PULMONARY SURFACTANTS/
  51. ((alveol$ or lung or pulmonary) adj surfactant$).tw.
  52. or/56–57
  53. or/44,48–49,52,55,58
  54. and/24,31,41,59

DIP_suppression_preterm_labour_080206

Medline

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS/
  5. or/4–5
  6. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES MELLITUS, LIPOATROPHIC/
  10. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  11. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  12. diabet$.tw.
  13. or/7–13
  14. and/6,14
  15. exp OBSTETRIC LABOR, PREMATURE/
  16. ((prematur$ or preterm$) adj2 (deliever$ or labo?r)).tw.
  17. or/16–17
  18. and/15,18
  19. exp TOCOLYTIC AGENTS/
  20. tocolytic agent$.tw.
  21. exp ADRENERGIC BETA-AGONISTS/
  22. atosiban$.tw.
  23. salbutamol$.tw.
  24. ((myometr$ or uter$) adj2 relax$).tw.
  25. or/20–28
  26. and/15,29
  27. animal/ not (human/ or (human/ and animal/))
  28. 30 not 31

Embase

  1. pregnan$.tw.
  2. or/1–2
  3. PREGNANCY DIABETES MELLITUS/
  4. or/3–4
  5. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  6. INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. NON INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  8. diabet$.tw.
  9. or/6–9
  10. and/5,10
  11. exp PREMATURE LABOR/
  12. ((prematur$ or preterm$) adj2 (deliver$ or labo?r)).tw.
  13. or/12–13
  14. and/11,14
  15. exp UTERUS SPASMOLYTIC AGENT/
  16. tocolytic agent$.tw.
  17. exp BETA ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR STIMULATING AGENT/
  18. atosiban$.tw.
  19. salbutamol$.tw.
  20. ((myometr$ or uter$) adj2 relax$).tw.
  21. or/16–24
  22. and/15,25
  23. (animal/ or nonhuman/) not (human/ or ((animal/ or nonhuman/) and human/))
  24. 26 not 27

CINAHL

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETES/
  5. or/4–5
  6. DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  10. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  11. diabet$.tw.
  12. or/7–12
  13. and/6,13
  14. LABOR, PREMATURE/
  15. ((prematur$ or preterm$) adj2 (deliver$ or labo?r)).tw.
  16. or/15–16
  17. and/14,17
  18. exp TOCOLYTIC AGENTS/
  19. tocolytic agent$.tw.
  20. exp ADRENERGIC BETA-AGONISTS/
  21. atosiban$.tw.
  22. salbutamol$.tw.
  23. ((myometr$ or uter$) adj2 relax$).tw.
  24. or/19–27
  25. and/18,28

6. Intrapartum care

6.1. Timing and mode of birth

DIP_birth_timing_mode_of_delivery_211106

Medline

  1. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  2. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  3. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  4. DIABETES MELLITUS, LIPOATROPHIC/
  5. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  6. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  7. diabet$.tw.
  8. or/1–7
  9. exp LABOR, OBSTETRIC/
  10. LABOR, INDUCED/
  11. (induc$ adj2 (labor or labour)).tw.
  12. ((augment$ or accelerat$) adj2 (deliver$ or labor or labour)).tw.
  13. or/10–12
  14. exp DELIVERY, OBSTETRIC/
  15. CESAREAN SECTION/
  16. ((caesarean or cesarean) adj section).tw.
  17. c section.tw.
  18. or/15–17
  19. EXTRACTION, OBSTETRICAL/
  20. VACUUM EXTRACTION, OBSTETRICAL/
  21. (vacuum$ adj3 (extract$ or deliver$ or cup$)).tw.
  22. ventouse$.tw.
  23. or/20–22
  24. OBSTETRICAL FORCEPS/
  25. forcep$.tw.
  26. ((instrumental or operative$) adj2 deliver$).tw.
  27. or/24–26
  28. or/9,13,18,23,27
  29. and/8,28
  30. COHORT STUDIES/
  31. LONGITUDINAL STUDIES/
  32. FOLLOW-UP STUDIES/
  33. PROSPECTIVE STUDIES/
  34. ((cohort$ or follow-up or follow?up or inciden$ or longitudinal or prospective) adj1 (stud$ or research or analys$)).tw.
  35. or/30–34
  36. and/29,35
  37. animal/ not (human/ or (human/ and animal/))
  38. 36 not 37

Embase

  1. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  2. INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  3. NON INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  4. diabet$.tw.
  5. or/1–4
  6. exp LABOR/
  7. (induc$ adj2 (labor or labour)).tw.
  8. ((augment$ or accelerat$) adj2 (deliver$ or labor or labour)).tw.
  9. or/6–8
  10. exp DELIVERY/
  11. ((caesarean or cesarean) adj section).tw.
  12. c section.tw.
  13. (vacuum$ adj3 (extract$ or deliver$ or cup$)).tw.
  14. ventouse$.tw.
  15. forcep$.tw.
  16. ((instrumental or operative$) adj2 deliver$).tw.
  17. or/10–16
  18. or/9,17
  19. and/5,18
  20. COHORT STUDIES/
  21. LONGITUDINAL STUDIES/
  22. FOLLOW-UP STUDIES/
  23. PROSPECTIVE STUDIES/
  24. ((cohort$ or follow-up or follow?up or inciden$ or longitudinal or prospective) adj1 (stud$ or research or analys$)).tw.
  25. or/20–24
  26. and/19,25
  27. (animal/ or nonhuman/) not (human/ or ((animal/ or nonhuman/) and human/))
  28. 26 not 27

CINAHL

  1. DIABETES MELLITUS/
  2. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  3. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  4. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  5. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  6. diabet$.tw.
  7. or/1–6
  8. exp OBSTETRIC CARE/
  9. (induc$ adj2 (labor or labour)).tw.
  10. ((augment$ or accelerat$) adj2 (deliver$ or labor or labour)).tw.
  11. or/9–10
  12. exp CESAREAN SECTION/
  13. ((caesarean or cesarean) adj section).tw.
  14. c section.tw.
  15. or/12–14
  16. VACUUM EXTRACTION, OBSTETRICAL/
  17. (vacuum$ adj3 (extract$ or deliver$ or cup$)).tw.
  18. ventouse$.tw.
  19. or/16–18
  20. OBSTETRICAL FORCEPS/
  21. forcep$.tw.
  22. ((instrumental or operative$) adj2 deliver$).tw.
  23. or/20–22
  24. or/8,11,15,19,23
  25. and/7,24
  26. COHORT STUDIES/
  27. LONGITUDINAL STUDIES/
  28. FOLLOW-UP STUDIES/
  29. PROSPECTIVE STUDIES/
  30. ((cohort$ or follow-up or follow?up or inciden$ or longitudinal or prospective) adj1 (stud$ or research or analys$)).tw.
  31. or/26–30
  32. and/25,31

DIP_stillbirth_270307

Medline

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS/
  5. or/4–5
  6. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES MELLITUS, LIPOATROPHIC/
  10. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  11. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  12. diabet$.tw.
  13. or/7–13
  14. still birth.tw.
  15. stillborn.tw.
  16. still born.tw.
  17. or/15–19
  18. and/6,14,20
  19. animal/ not (human/ or (human/ and animal/))
  20. 21 not 22

Embase

  1. pregnan$.tw.
  2. or/1–2
  3. PREGNANCY DIABETES MELLITUS/
  4. or/3–4
  5. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  6. INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. NON INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  8. diabet$.tw.
  9. or/6–9
  10. and/5,10
  11. still birth.tw.
  12. stillborn.tw.
  13. still born.tw.
  14. or/12–16
  15. and/11,17
  16. (animal/ or nonhuman/) not (human/ or ((animal/ or nonhuman/) and human/))
  17. 18 not 19

CINAHL

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETES/
  5. or/4–5
  6. DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  10. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  11. diabet$.tw.
  12. or/7–12
  13. and/6,13
  14. PERINATAL DEATH/
  15. still birth.tw.
  16. stillborn.tw.
  17. still born.tw.
  18. or/15–19
  19. and/14,20

6.2. Analgesia and anaesthesia

DIP_birth_analgesia_anaesthesia_291106

Medline

  1. PARITY/
  2. PARTURITION/
  3. (parturition or childbirth$ or intrapartum).tw.
  4. LABOR, OBSTETRIC/
  5. LABOR STAGE, FIRST/
  6. LABOR STAGE, SECOND/
  7. LABOR STAGE, THIRD/
  8. DELIVERY, OBSTETRIC/
  9. LABOR PAIN/
  10. or/1–10
  11. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  12. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  13. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  14. DIABETES MELLITUS, LIPOATROPHIC/
  15. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  16. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  17. diabet$.tw.
  18. or/12–18
  19. and/11,19
  20. ANALGESIA, OBSTETRICAL/
  21. (obstetric$ adj analgesi$).tw.
  22. or/21–22
  23. ANALGESIA, PATIENT-CONTROLLED/
  24. (patient$ adj3 control$ adj3 analgesi$).tw.
  25. midwife top up.tw.
  26. or/24–26
  27. TRANSCUTANEOUS ELECTRIC NERVE STIMULATION/
  28. tens.tw.
  29. ((transcutaneous$ or percutaneous$) adj2 (nerve$ or electric$) adj2 stimulat$).tw.
  30. electroanalgesi$.tw.
  31. (analgesi$ adj2 electrostimulat$).tw.
  32. or/28–32
  33. ANESTHESIA, CONDUCTION/
  34. ((an?esthe$ or analgesi$) adj1 (conduction or regional)).tw.
  35. NERVE BLOCK/
  36. pudendal block$.tw.
  37. or/34–37
  38. ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL/
  39. ANALGESIA, EPIDURAL/
  40. ((an?esthe$ or analges$) adj1 epidural$).tw.
  41. (an?esthe$ adj1 (extradural$ or peridural$)).tw.
  42. mobile epidural$.tw.
  43. or/39–43
  44. ANESTHESIA, SPINAL/
  45. ((an?esthe$ or analgesi$) adj1 (spine or spinal)).tw.
  46. (spin$ adj2 epidural$).tw.
  47. spinal block$.tw.
  48. or/45–48
  49. ANESTHESIA, INHALATION/
  50. ((analgesi$ or an?esthe$) adj1 inhal$).tw.
  51. NITROUS OXIDE/
  52. nitrous oxide.tw.
  53. entonox.tw.
  54. or/50–54
  55. meperidin$.tw.
  56. pethidin$.tw.
  57. isonipecain.tw.
  58. demerol.tw.
  59. dolantin$.tw.
  60. dolargan.tw.
  61. dolcontral.tw.
  62. dolin.tw.
  63. dolosa$.tw.
  64. dolsin.tw.
  65. dolvanol.tw.
  66. endolate.tw.
  67. lidol.tw.
  68. lydol.tw.
  69. operidine.tw.
  70. or/56–71
  71. morphin$.tw.
  72. duramorph.tw.
  73. ms contin.tw.
  74. morphia.tw.
  75. or/73–77
  76. HEROIN/
  77. heroin.tw.
  78. diacetylmorphine.tw.
  79. diamorphine.tw.
  80. or/79–82
  81. MEPTAZINOL/
  82. meptazinol.tw.
  83. meptid.tw.
  84. or/84–86
  85. fentan?l.tw.
  86. phentan?l.tw.
  87. fentanest.tw.
  88. sublimaze.tw.
  89. or/88–92
  90. remifentan?l.tw.
  91. levobupivacaine$.tw.
  92. or/95–98
  93. or/23,27,33,38,44,49,55,72,78,83,87,93–94,99
  94. and/20,100
  95. animal/ not (human/ or (human/ and animal/))
  96. 101 not 102

Embase

  1. PARITY/
  2. PRIMIPARA/
  3. MULTIPARA/
  4. NULLIPARA/
  5. CHILDBIRTH/
  6. BIRTH/
  7. (parturition or childbirth$ or intrapartum).tw.
  8. LABOR/
  9. DELIVERY/
  10. LABOR PAIN/
  11. or/1–11
  12. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  13. INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  14. NON INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  15. diabet$.tw.
  16. or/13–16
  17. and/12,17
  18. OBSTETRIC ANESTHESIA/
  19. OBSTETRIC ANALGESIA/
  20. (obstetric$ adj analgesi$).tw.
  21. or/19–21
  22. PATIENT CONTROLLED ANALGESIA/
  23. (patient$ adj3 control$ adj3 analgesi$).tw.
  24. midwife top up.tw.
  25. or/23–25
  26. TRANSCUTANEOUS NERVE STIMULATION/
  27. tens.tw.
  28. ((transcutaneous$ or percutaneous$) adj2 (nerve$ or electric$) adj2 stimulat$).tw.
  29. electroanalgesi$.tw.
  30. (analgesi$ adj2 electrostimulat$).tw.
  31. or/27–31
  32. INHALATION ANESTHESIA/
  33. ((analgesi$ or an?esthe$) adj1 inhal$).tw.
  34. NITROUS OXIDE/
  35. nitrous oxide.tw.
  36. entonox.tw.
  37. or/33–37
  38. PETHIDINE/
  39. pethidin$.tw.
  40. meperidin$.tw.
  41. isonipecain.tw.
  42. demerol.tw.
  43. dolargan.tw.
  44. dolcontral.tw.
  45. dolin.tw.
  46. dolosa$.tw.
  47. dolsin.tw.
  48. dolvanol.tw.
  49. endolate.tw.
  50. lidol.tw.
  51. lydol.tw.
  52. operidine.tw.
  53. or/39–53
  54. morphin$.tw.
  55. duramorph.tw.
  56. ms contin.tw.
  57. morphia.tw.
  58. or/55–59
  59. DIAMORPHINE/
  60. heroin.tw.
  61. diacetylmorphine.tw.
  62. diamorphine.tw.
  63. or/61–64
  64. MEPTAZINOL/
  65. meptazinol.tw.
  66. meptid.tw.
  67. or/66–68
  68. fentan?l.tw.
  69. phentan?l.tw.
  70. fentanest.tw.
  71. sublimaze.tw.
  72. or/70–75
  73. remifentan?l.tw.
  74. or/77–78
  75. LEVOBUPIVACAINE/
  76. levobupivacaine$.tw.
  77. or/80–85
  78. REGIONAL ANESTHESIA/
  79. ((an?esthe$ or analgesi$) adj1 (conduction or regional)).tw.
  80. NERVE BLOCK/
  81. pudendal block$.tw.
  82. or/87–90
  83. EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA/
  84. CONTINUOUS EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA/
  85. EPIDURAL DRUG ADMINISTRATION/
  86. ((an?esthe$ or analges$) adj1 epidural$).tw.
  87. (an?esthe$ adj1 (extradural$ or peridural$)).tw.
  88. mobile epidural$.tw.
  89. or/92–97
  90. SPINAL ANESTHESIA/
  91. ((an?esthe$ or analgesi$) adj1 (spine or spinal)).tw.
  92. (spin$ adj2 epidural$).tw.
  93. spinal block$.tw.
  94. or/99–102
  95. or/22,26,32,38,54,60,65,69,76,79,86,91,98,103
  96. and/18,104
  97. (animal/ or nonhuman/) not (human/ or ((animal/ or nonhuman/) and human/))
  98. 105 not 106

CINAHL

  1. INTRAPARTUM CARE/
  2. CHILDBIRTH/
  3. (parturition or childbirth$ or intrapartum).tw.
  4. LABOR/
  5. LABOR STAGES/
  6. LABOR STAGE, FIRST/
  7. LABOR STAGE, SECOND/
  8. LABOR STAGE, THIRD/
  9. DELIVERY/
  10. LABOR PAIN/
  11. or/1–11
  12. DIABETES MELLITUS/
  13. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  14. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  15. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  16. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  17. diabet$.tw.
  18. or/13–18
  19. and/12,19
  20. ANESTHESIA, OBSTETRICAL/
  21. ANALGESIA, OBSTETRICAL/
  22. (obstetric$ adj analgesi$).tw.
  23. or/21–23
  24. PATIENT-CONTROLLED ANALGESIA/
  25. (patient$ adj3 control$ adj3 analgesi$).tw.
  26. or/25–26
  27. TRANSCUTANEOUS ELECTRIC NERVE STIMULATION/
  28. tens.tw.
  29. ((transcutaneous$ or percutaneous$) adj2 (nerve$ or electric$) adj2 stimulat$).tw.
  30. electroanalgesi$.tw.
  31. (analgesi$ adj2 electrostimulat$).tw.
  32. or/28–32
  33. ANESTHESIA, INHALATION/
  34. ((analgesi$ or an?esthe$) adj1 inhal$).tw.
  35. NITROUS OXIDE/
  36. nitrous oxide.tw.
  37. entonox.tw.
  38. or/34–38
  39. meperidin$.tw.
  40. pethidin$.tw.
  41. isonipecain.tw.
  42. demerol.tw.
  43. dolantin$.tw.
  44. dolargan.tw.
  45. dolcontral.tw.
  46. dolin.tw.
  47. dolosa$.tw.
  48. dolsin.tw.
  49. dolvanol.tw.
  50. endolate.tw.
  51. lidol.tw.
  52. lydol.tw.
  53. operidine.tw.
  54. or/40–55
  55. morphin$.tw.
  56. duramorph.tw.
  57. ms contin.tw.
  58. morphia.tw.
  59. or/57–61
  60. HEROIN/
  61. heroin.tw.
  62. diacetylmorphine.tw.
  63. diamorphine.tw.
  64. or/63–66
  65. meptazinol.tw.
  66. meptid.tw.
  67. or/68–69
  68. fentan?l.tw.
  69. phentan?l.tw.
  70. fentanest.tw.
  71. sublimaze.tw.
  72. or/71–76
  73. remifentan?l.tw.
  74. levobupivacaine$.tw.
  75. or/79–82
  76. ANESTHESIA, CONDUCTION/
  77. ((an?esthe$ or analgesi$) adj1 (conduction or regional)).tw.
  78. NERVE BLOCK/
  79. pudendal block$.tw.
  80. or/84–87
  81. ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL/
  82. ANALGESIA, EPIDURAL/
  83. ((an?esthe$ or analges$) adj1 epidural$).tw.
  84. (an?esthe$ adj1 (extradural$ or peridural$)).tw.
  85. mobile epidural$.tw.
  86. or/89–93
  87. ANESTHESIA, SPINAL/
  88. ((an?esthe$ or analgesi$) adj1 (spine or spinal)).tw.
  89. (spin$ adj2 epidural$).tw.
  90. spinal block$.tw.
  91. or/95–98
  92. or/24,27,33,39,56,62,67,70,77–78,83,88,94,99
  93. and/20,100

6.3. Glycaemic control during labour and birth

DIP_glycaemic_control_labour_140206

Medline

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS/
  5. or/4–5
  6. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES MELLITUS, LIPOATROPHIC/
  10. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  11. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  12. diabet$.tw.
  13. or/7–13
  14. and/6,14
  15. PARTURITION/
  16. (parturition or childbirth$ or intrapartum).tw.
  17. exp LABOR, OBSTETRIC/
  18. LABOR ONSET/
  19. LABOR STAGE, FIRST/
  20. LABOR STAGE, SECOND/
  21. LABOR STAGE, THIRD/
  22. DELIVERY, OBSTETRIC/
  23. or/16–23
  24. and/15,24
  25. (blood adj (glucose or sugar)).tw.
  26. ((blood or glyc?emi$) adj (control$ or monitor$)).tw.
  27. or/26–28
  28. and/25,29
  29. animal/ not (human/ or (human/ and animal/))
  30. 30 not 31

Embase

  1. pregnan$.tw.
  2. or/1–2
  3. PREGNANCY DIABETES MELLITUS/
  4. or/3–4
  5. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  6. INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. NON INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  8. diabet$.tw.
  9. or/6–9
  10. and/5,10
  11. CHILDBIRTH/
  12. BIRTH/
  13. (parturition or childbirth$ or intrapartum).tw.
  14. LABOR/
  15. DELIVERY/
  16. PUERPERIUM/
  17. or/12–17
  18. or/12–17
  19. and/11,19
  20. BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL/
  21. (blood adj (glucose or sugar)).tw.
  22. ((blood or glyc?emi$) adj (control$ or monitor$)).tw.
  23. or/21–23
  24. and/20,24
  25. (animal/ or nonhuman/) not (human/ or ((animal/ or nonhuman/) and human/))
  26. 25 not 26

CINAHL

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETES/
  5. or/4–5
  6. DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  10. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  11. diabet$.tw.
  12. or/7–12
  13. and/6,13
  14. exp INTRAPARTUM CARE/
  15. (parturition or childbirth$ or intrapartum).tw.
  16. exp CHILDBIRTH/
  17. exp LABOR/
  18. LABOR STAGES/
  19. LABOR STAGE, FIRST/
  20. LABOR STAGE, SECOND/
  21. LABOR STAGE, THIRD/
  22. exp DELIVERY/
  23. or/15–23
  24. and/14,24
  25. (blood adj (glucose or sugar)).tw.
  26. ((blood or glyc?emi$) adj (control$ or monitor$)).tw.
  27. or/26–28
  28. and/25,29

DIP_hyperglycaemia_hypoglycaemia_labour_110406

Medline

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS/
  5. or/4–5
  6. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES MELLITUS, LIPOATROPHIC/
  10. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  11. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  12. diabet$.tw.
  13. or/7–13
  14. and/6,14
  15. PARTURITION/
  16. (parturition or childbirth$ or intrapartum).tw.
  17. exp LABOR, OBSTETRIC/
  18. LABOR ONSET/
  19. LABOR STAGE, FIRST/
  20. LABOR STAGE, SECOND/
  21. LABOR STAGE, THIRD/
  22. DELIVERY, OBSTETRIC/
  23. or/16–23
  24. and/15,24
  25. exp HYPERGLYCEMIA/
  26. hyperglyc?emi$.tw.
  27. or/26–27
  28. exp HYPOGLYCEMIA/
  29. hypoglyc?emi$.tw.
  30. or/29–30
  31. or/28,31
  32. and/25,32
  33. animal/ not (human/ or (human/ and animal/))
  34. 33 not 34

Embase

  1. pregnan$.tw.
  2. or/1–2
  3. PREGNANCY DIABETES MELLITUS/
  4. or/3–4
  5. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  6. INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. NON INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  8. diabet$.tw.
  9. or/6–9
  10. and/5,10
  11. CHILDBIRTH/
  12. BIRTH/
  13. (parturition or childbirth$ or intrapartum).tw.
  14. LABOR/
  15. DELIVERY/
  16. PUERPERIUM/
  17. or/12–17
  18. or/12–17
  19. and/11,19
  20. HYPERGLYCEMIA/
  21. hyperglyc?emi$.tw.
  22. or/21–22
  23. exp HYPOGLYCEMIA/
  24. hypoglyc?emi$.tw.
  25. or/24–25
  26. or/23,26
  27. and/20,27
  28. (animal/ or nonhuman/) not (human/ or ((animal/ or nonhuman/) and human/))
  29. 28 not 29

CINAHL

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETES/
  5. or/4–5
  6. DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  10. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  11. diabet$.tw.
  12. or/7–12
  13. and/6,13
  14. exp INTRAPARTUM CARE/
  15. (parturition or childbirth$ or intrapartum).tw.
  16. exp CHILDBIRTH/
  17. exp LABOR/
  18. LABOR STAGES/
  19. LABOR STAGE, FIRST/
  20. LABOR STAGE, SECOND/
  21. LABOR STAGE, THIRD/
  22. exp DELIVERY/
  23. or/15–23
  24. and/14,24
  25. HYPERGLYCEMIA/
  26. hyperglyc?emi$.tw.
  27. or/26–27
  28. HYPOGLYCEMIA/
  29. hypoglyc?emi$.tw.
  30. or/29–30
  31. or/28,31
  32. and/25,32

7. Neonatal care

7.1. Initial assessment and criteria for admission to intensive or special care

DIP_neonatal_assessment_241006

Medline

  1. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  2. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  3. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  4. DIABETES MELLITUS, LIPOATROPHIC/
  5. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  6. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  7. diabet$.tw.
  8. or/1–7
  9. INFANT, NEWBORN/
  10. neonate$.tw.
  11. or/9–10
  12. NEONATAL SCREENING/
  13. PHYSICAL EXAMINATION/
  14. (physical adj3 (assess$ or examin$)).tw.
  15. APGAR SCORE/
  16. apgar$.tw.
  17. morbidity assessment index$.tw.
  18. or/12–17
  19. INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES/
  20. exp RESPIRATION/
  21. exp HEART RATE/
  22. ABNORMALITIES/
  23. CARDIOVASCULAR ABNORMALITIES/
  24. CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS/
  25. malformation$.tw.
  26. or/19–25
  27. and/11,18,26

Embase

  1. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  2. INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  3. NON INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  4. diabet$.tw.
  5. or/1–4
  6. NEWBORN/
  7. neonate$.tw.
  8. or/6–7
  9. NEWBORN SCREENING/
  10. SCREENING TEST/
  11. MEDICAL EXAMINATION/
  12. (physical adj3 (assess$ or examin$)).tw.
  13. APGAR SCORE/
  14. apgar$.tw.
  15. morbidity assessment index$.tw.
  16. or/9–15
  17. NEWBORN DISEASE/
  18. exp BREATHING/
  19. exp HEART RATE/
  20. CONGENITAL MALFORMATION/
  21. exp CARDIOVASCULAR MALFORMATION/
  22. CHROMOSOME ABERRATION/
  23. malformation$.tw.
  24. or/17–23
  25. and/5,8,16,24

CINAHL

  1. DIABETES MELLITUS/
  2. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  3. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  4. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  5. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  6. diabet$.tw.
  7. or/1–6
  8. INFANT, NEWBORN/
  9. neonate$.tw.
  10. or/8–9
  11. exp NEONATAL ASSESSMENT/
  12. HEALTH SCREENING/
  13. PHYSICAL EXAMINATION/
  14. (physical adj3 (assess$ or examin$)).tw.
  15. apgar$.tw.
  16. morbidity assessment index$.tw.
  17. or/11–16
  18. INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES/
  19. RESPIRATION/
  20. exp HEART RATE/
  21. ABNORMALITIES/
  22. CARDIOVASCULAR ABNORMALITIES/
  23. malformation$.tw.
  24. or/18–23
  25. and/7,10,17,24

DIP_neonatal_intensive_care_081106

Medline

  1. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  2. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  3. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  4. DIABETES MELLITUS, LIPOATROPHIC/
  5. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  6. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  7. diabet$.tw.
  8. or/1–7
  9. INFANT, NEWBORN/
  10. neonat$.tw.
  11. or/9–10
  12. and/8,11
  13. INTENSIVE CARE, NEONATAL/
  14. exp INTENSIVE CARE UNITS, PEDIATRIC/
  15. intensive care.tw.
  16. or/13–15
  17. and/12,16

Embase

  1. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  2. INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  3. NON INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  4. diabet$.tw.
  5. or/1–4
  6. NEWBORN/
  7. neonat$.tw.
  8. or/6–7
  9. NEWBORN INTENSIVE CARE/
  10. INTENSIVE CARE UNIT/
  11. intensive care.tw.
  12. or/9–11
  13. and/5,8,12

CINAHL

  1. DIABETES MELLITUS/
  2. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  3. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  4. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  5. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  6. diabet$.tw.
  7. or/1–6
  8. INFANT, NEWBORN/
  9. neonate$.tw.
  10. or/8–9
  11. INTENSIVE CARE, NEONATAL/
  12. exp INTENSIVE CARE UNITS, PEDIATRIC/
  13. intensive care.tw.
  14. or/11–13
  15. and/7,10,14

DIP_neonatal_intensive_care_economics_081106

Medline

  1. ECONOMICS/
  2. “COSTS AND COST ANALYSIS”/
  3. COST ALLOCATION/
  4. COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS/
  5. COST CONTROL/
  6. COST SAVINGS/
  7. COST OF ILLNESS/
  8. COST SHARING/
  9. HEALTH CARE COSTS/
  10. DIRECT SERVICE COSTS/
  11. DRUG COSTS/
  12. EMPLOYER HEALTH COSTS/
  13. HOSPITAL COSTS/
  14. HEALTH RESOURCES/
  15. “HEALTH SERVICES NEEDS AND DEMAND”/
  16. HEALTH PRIORITIES/
  17. HEALTH EXPENDITURES/
  18. CAPITAL EXPENDITURES/
  19. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT/
  20. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT, HOSPITAL/
  21. “DEDUCTIBLES AND COINSURANCE”/
  22. MEDICAL SAVINGS ACCOUNTS/
  23. ECONOMICS, HOSPITAL/
  24. ECONOMICS, MEDICAL/
  25. ECONOMICS, NURSING/
  26. ECONOMICS, PHARMACEUTICAL/
  27. MODELS, ECONOMIC/
  28. MODELS, ECONOMETRIC/
  29. RESOURCE ALLOCATION/
  30. HEALTH CARE RATIONING/
  31. “FEES AND CHARGES”/
  32. BUDGETS/
  33. VALUE OF LIFE/
  34. (financ$ or fiscal$ or funding).tw.
  35. (QALY$ or life?year$).tw.
  36. (econom$ or cost$).tw.
  37. pharmacoeconomic$.tw.
  38. ec.fs.
  39. or/1–39
  40. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  41. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  42. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  43. DIABETES MELLITUS, LIPOATROPHIC/
  44. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  45. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  46. diabet$.tw.
  47. or/41–47
  48. INFANT, NEWBORN/
  49. neonate$.tw.
  50. or/49–50
  51. and/48,51
  52. INTENSIVE CARE, NEONATAL/
  53. exp INTENSIVE CARE UNITS, PEDIATRIC/
  54. intensive care.tw.
  55. or/53–55
  56. and/52,56
  57. and/40,57

Embase

  1. ECONOMICS/
  2. COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS/
  3. COST CONTROL/
  4. COST EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS/
  5. COST MINIMIZATION ANALYSIS/
  6. COST OF ILLNESS/
  7. COST UTILITY ANALYSIS/
  8. COST/
  9. HEALTH CARE COST/
  10. DRUG COST/
  11. HEALTH CARE FINANCING/
  12. HOSPITAL COST/
  13. SOCIOECONOMICS/
  14. ECONOMIC ASPECT/
  15. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT/
  16. PHARMACOECONOMICS/
  17. RESOURCE ALLOCATION/
  18. (financ$ or fiscal$ or funding).tw.
  19. (QALY$ or life?year$).tw.
  20. (econom$ or cost$).tw.
  21. pharmacoeconomic$.tw.
  22. or/1–24
  23. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  24. INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  25. NON INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  26. diabet$.tw.
  27. or/26–29
  28. NEWBORN/
  29. neonate$.tw.
  30. or/31–32
  31. NEWBORN INTENSIVE CARE/
  32. INTENSIVE CARE UNIT/
  33. intensive care.tw.
  34. or/34–36
  35. and/30,33,37
  36. and/25,38

CINAHL

  1. ECONOMICS/
  2. “COSTS AND COST ANALYSIS”/
  3. COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS/
  4. COST CONTROL/
  5. COST SAVINGS/
  6. COST OF ILLNESS/
  7. HEALTH CARE COSTS/
  8. ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF ILLNESS/
  9. ECONOMICS, PHARMACEUTICAL/
  10. HEALTH CARE FINANCING/
  11. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT/
  12. HOSPITAL COST/
  13. SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS/
  14. HEALTH RESOURCE ALLOCATION/
  15. (financ$ or fiscal$ or funding).tw.
  16. (QALY$ or life?year$).tw.
  17. (econom$ or cost$).tw.
  18. pharmacoeconomic$.tw.
  19. or/1–18
  20. DIABETES MELLITUS/
  21. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  22. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  23. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  24. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  25. diabet$.tw.
  26. or/20–25
  27. INFANT, NEWBORN/
  28. neonate$.tw.
  29. or/27–28
  30. INTENSIVE CARE, NEONATAL/
  31. exp INTENSIVE CARE UNITS, PEDIATRIC/
  32. intensive care.tw.
  33. or/30–32
  34. and/26,29,33
  35. and/19,34

7.2. Prevention and assessment of neonatal hypoglycaemia

DIP_neonate_hypoglycemia_060106

Medline

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS/
  5. or/4–5
  6. INFANT, PREMATURE/
  7. ((premature$ or preterm$ or pre?term$) adj (baby or babies or child$ or infan$)).tw.
  8. INFANT, NEWBORN/
  9. neonat$.tw.
  10. newborn$.tw.
  11. INFANT, SMALL FOR GESTATIONAL AGE/
  12. (small adj2 gestational age).tw.
  13. INFANT, LOW BIRTH WEIGHT/
  14. INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT/
  15. (low adj birth adj weight).tw.
  16. (low adj birth?weight).tw.
  17. lbw.tw.
  18. vlbw.tw.
  19. or/7–19
  20. FETAL MACROSOMIA/
  21. ((fetal or fetus or foetal or foetus) adj macrosomi$).tw.
  22. (large adj2 gestational age).tw.
  23. or/21–23
  24. or/20,24
  25. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  26. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  27. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  28. DIABETES MELLITUS, LIPOATROPHIC/
  29. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  30. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  31. diabet$.tw.
  32. or/26–32
  33. HYPOGLYCEMIA/
  34. hypoglycemi$.tw.
  35. hypoglycaemi$.tw.
  36. or/34–36
  37. neonat$.ti.
  38. infan$.ti.
  39. or/38–39
  40. and/6,25,33,37,40
  41. animal/ not (human/ or (human/ and animal/))
  42. 41 not 42
  43. limit 43 to yr=”1995 – 2006”

Embase

  1. pregnan$.tw.
  2. or/1–2
  3. PREGNANCY DIABETES MELLITUS/
  4. or/3–4
  5. PREMATURITY/
  6. ((premature$ or preterm$ or pre?term$) adj (baby or babies or child$ or infan$)).tw.
  7. exp NEWBORN/
  8. neonat$.tw.
  9. newborn$.tw.
  10. NEWBORN PERIOD/
  11. PERINATAL PERIOD/
  12. exp INFANT/
  13. INFANCY/
  14. BABY/
  15. infan$.tw.
  16. (baby or babies).tw.
  17. SMALL FOR DATE INFANT/
  18. (small adj2 (date or “gestational age”)).tw.
  19. lbw.tw.
  20. vlbw.tw.
  21. or/6–23
  22. ((fetal or fetus or foetal or foetus) adj macrosomi$).tw.
  23. (large adj2 gestational age).tw.
  24. or/25–27
  25. or/24,28
  26. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  27. INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  28. NON INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  29. diabet$.tw.
  30. or/30–33
  31. exp HYPOGLYCEMIA/
  32. hypoglycemi$.tw.
  33. hypoglycaemi$.tw.
  34. or/35–37
  35. neonat$.ti.
  36. infan$.ti.
  37. or/39–40
  38. and/5,29,34,38,41
  39. (animal/ or nonhuman/) not (human/ or ((animal/ or nonhuman/) and human/))
  40. 42 not 43
  41. limit 44 to yr=”1995 – 2006”

CINAHL

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETES/
  5. or/4–5
  6. INFANT, PREMATURE/
  7. ((premature$ or preterm$ or pre?term$) adj (baby or babies or child$ or infan$)).tw.
  8. INFANT, NEWBORN/
  9. neonat$.tw.
  10. newborn$.tw.
  11. INFANT, SMALL FOR GESTATIONAL AGE/
  12. (small adj2 gestational age).tw.
  13. INFANT, LOW BIRTH WEIGHT/
  14. INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT/
  15. (low adj birth adj weight).tw.
  16. (low adj birth?weight).tw.
  17. lbw.tw.
  18. vlbw.tw.
  19. or/7–19
  20. FETAL MACROSOMIA/
  21. ((fetal or fetus or foetal or foetus) adj macrosomi$).tw.
  22. (large adj2 gestational age).tw.
  23. or/21–23
  24. or/20,24
  25. DIABETES MELLITUS/
  26. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  27. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  28. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  29. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  30. diabet$.tw.
  31. or/26–31
  32. HYPOGLYCEMIA/
  33. hypoglycemi$.tw.
  34. hypoglycaemi$.tw.
  35. or/33–35
  36. neonat$.ti.
  37. infan$.ti.
  38. or/37–38
  39. and/6,25,32,36,39
  40. limit 40 to yr=”1995 – 2006”

DIP_colostrum_020707

Medline

  1. exp DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1/
  2. exp DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 2/
  3. ((type 1 or type 2) adj5 diabet$).tw.
  4. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  5. (diabet$ adj5 gestation$).tw.
  6. or/1–5
  7. COLOSTRUM/
  8. colostrum$.tw.
  9. or/7–8
  10. BREAST FEEDING/
  11. BOTTLE FEEDING/
  12. or/10–11
  13. or/9,12
  14. and/6,13
  15. limit 14 to humans

Embase

  1. INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  2. NON INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  3. ((type 1 or type 2) adj5 diabet$).tw.
  4. exp PREGNANCY DIABETES MELLITUS/
  5. (diabet$ adj5 gestation$).tw.
  6. or/1–5
  7. COLOSTRUM/
  8. colostrum$.tw.
  9. or/7–8
  10. BREAST FEEDING/
  11. BOTTLE FEEDING/
  12. or/10–11
  13. or/9,12
  14. and/6,13

CINAHL

  1. DIABETES MELLITUS, INSULIN-DEPENDENT/
  2. DIABETES MELLITUS, NON-INSULIN-DEPENDENT/
  3. ((type 1 or type 2) adj5 diabet$).tw.
  4. DIABETES MELLITUS, GESTATIONAL/
  5. (diabet$ adj5 gestation$).tw.
  6. or/1–5
  7. COLOSTRUM/
  8. colostrum$.tw.
  9. or/7–8
  10. exp BREAST FEEDING/
  11. BOTTLE FEEDING/
  12. or/10–11
  13. or/9,12
  14. and/6,13

8. Postnatal care

8.1. Breastfeeding and effects on glycaemic control

DIP_glycaemic_control_breast_feeding_160506

Medline

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS/
  5. or/4–5
  6. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES MELLITUS, LIPOATROPHIC/
  10. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  11. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  12. diabet$.tw.
  13. or/7–13
  14. (blood adj (glucose or sugar)).tw.
  15. ((blood or glyc?emi$) adj (control$ or monitor$)).tw.
  16. or/15–17
  17. BREAST FEEDING/
  18. breast?feed$.tw.
  19. breast feed$.tw.
  20. or/19–21
  21. MILK, HUMAN/
  22. ((breast or human) adj milk).tw.
  23. or/23–24
  24. or/22,25
  25. and/6,14,18,26
  26. animal/ not (human/ or (human/ and animal/))
  27. 27 not 28

Embase

  1. pregnan$.tw.
  2. or/1–2
  3. PREGNANCY DIABETES MELLITUS/
  4. or/3–4
  5. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  6. INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. NON INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  8. diabet$.tw.
  9. or/6–9
  10. BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL/
  11. (blood adj (glucose or sugar)).tw.
  12. ((blood or glyc?emi$) adj (control$ or monitor$)).tw.
  13. or/11–13
  14. BREAST FEEDING/
  15. breast?feed$.tw.
  16. breast feed$.tw.
  17. or/15–17
  18. BREAST MILK/
  19. ((breast or human) adj milk).tw.
  20. or/19–20
  21. or/18,21
  22. and/5,10,14,22
  23. (animal/ or nonhuman/) not (human/ or ((animal/ or nonhuman/) and human/))
  24. 23 not 24

CINAHL

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETES/
  5. or/4–5
  6. DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  10. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  11. diabet$.tw.
  12. or/7–12
  13. (blood adj (glucose or sugar)).tw.
  14. ((blood or glyc?emi$) adj (control$ or monitor$)).tw.
  15. or/14–16
  16. BREAST FEEDING/
  17. breast?feed$.tw.
  18. breast feed$.tw.
  19. or/18–20
  20. MILK, HUMAN/
  21. ((breast or human) adj milk).tw.
  22. or/22–23
  23. or/21,24
  24. and/6,13,17,25

8.2. Information and follow-up after birth

DIP_follow_up_081106

Medline

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS/
  5. or/4–5
  6. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES MELLITUS, LIPOATROPHIC/
  10. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  11. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  12. diabet$.tw.
  13. or/7–13
  14. and/6,14
  15. POSTNATAL CARE/
  16. ((postnatal or postpartum) adj (care or period)).tw.
  17. or/16–17
  18. AFTERCARE/
  19. after?care.tw.
  20. or/19–20
  21. follow up.tw.
  22. follow?up.tw.
  23. or/22–23
  24. or/18,21,24
  25. and/15,25
  26. animal/ not (human/ or (human/ and animal/))
  27. 26 not 27

Embase

  1. pregnan$.tw.
  2. or/1–2
  3. PREGNANCY DIABETES MELLITUS/
  4. or/3–4
  5. exp DIABETES MELLITUS/
  6. INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. NON INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS/
  8. diabet$.tw.
  9. or/6–9
  10. and/5,10
  11. POSTNATAL CARE/
  12. ((postnatal or postpartum) adj (care or period)).tw.
  13. or/12–13
  14. exp AFTERCARE/
  15. after?care.tw.
  16. or/15–16
  17. FOLLOW UP/
  18. follow up.tw.
  19. follow?up.tw.
  20. or/18–20
  21. or/14,17,21
  22. and/11,22
  23. (animal/ or nonhuman/) not (human/ or ((animal/ or nonhuman/) and human/))
  24. 23 not 24

CINAHL

  1. PREGNANT WOMEN/
  2. pregnan$.tw.
  3. or/1–3
  4. PREGNANCY IN DIABETES/
  5. or/4–5
  6. DIABETES MELLITUS/
  7. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 1/
  8. DIABETES, MELLITUS TYPE 2/
  9. DIABETES INSIPIDUS/
  10. DIABETES, GESTATIONAL/
  11. diabet$.tw.
  12. or/7–12
  13. and/6,13
  14. POSTNATAL CARE/
  15. ((postnatal or postpartum) adj (care or period)).tw.
  16. or/15–16
  17. AFTER CARE/
  18. after care.tw.
  19. follow up.tw.
  20. follow?up.tw.
  21. or/18–21
  22. or/17,22
  23. and/14,23
Copyright © 2008, National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health.

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher or, in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency in the UK [www.cla.co.uk]. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the terms stated here should be sent to the publisher at the UK address printed on this page.

The use of registered names, trademarks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant laws and regulations and therefore for general use.

Cover of Diabetes in Pregnancy
Diabetes in Pregnancy: Management of Diabetes and Its Complications from Preconception to the Postnatal Period.
NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 63.
National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).
London: RCOG Press; 2008 Mar.

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