Summary Results Table 1Sphincter Repair

StudySurgery typeFollow-up (months)NN. at follow-upFaecal Incontinence:ComplicationsComments
CuredimprovedNot improvedWound infection?Bleeding?Unknown or other?
Engel1994b113Anterior sphincter repair (wrap-over)15555545%031%24%External sphincter defect
Giordano2002146Anterior overlapping sphincter repair20151External sphincter defect.
Poorer results in patients with repeat repairs (not significant)
Oliveria1996293Anterior overlapping sphincter repair29555571%29%2%4%Anterior defects
Morren1997261Direct and overlapping sphincter repair.40675535%65%11%2%11%External sphincter defect. Surgery combined with an anterior levator plasty (n=45), internal sphincter placation (n=24) and postanal repair (n=1)
Young1998441Overlapping sphincter repair27565686%14%2%38%Anterior and laterally placed single anal sphincter defects
Karoui2000194Overlapping sphincter repair40867418%58%24%External and associated internal sphincter defect
Fleshman 1991a130Overlapping sphincter repair24555550%22%28%15%2%Rectovaginal fistula (n=15) also repaired during surgery. 22% of cured are incontinent to gas
Londonos chimmer1994221Overlapping sphincteroplasty591289414%36%50%16%2%8%External sphincter defect. In addition to repair: plication (n=7), repair of rectovaginal fistula (n=4), posterior vaginal repair (n=2) and miscellaneous (n=3).
Zorcolo2005444Anterior anal sphincter repair70937382%17%1%25%Internal and external sphincter defects. Repair reinforced with levatoplasty (n=51) and had better outcomes than group without levatorplasty (not significant)
Gutierrez et al152Overlapping sphincteroplasty1201911306%16%76%16% of cured patients incontinent to gas.
Sphincter defect.
Arnaud199115Direct sphincter repair17404063%15%22%13%
Bartolo199024Anterior sphincter repair60303067%Additional levatorplasty or posterior colporrhaphy was performed
Elton2002111Overlapping anterior sphincter repair13202080%20%10%5%
Engel1994a115Overlapping sphincter repair46282858%21%21%4%4%Additional levatorplasty (n=16)
Gibbs1993143Overlapping sphincter repair43363388%12%6%25%
Gilliland1998145Overlapping sphincter repair241057755%45%4%14%Levatorplasty performed in 58 of the patients
Malouf2000c231Overlapping sphincter repair77553650%50%
Osterberg 2000299Overlapping sphincter repair122020
Rothbarth 2000351Overlapping sphincter repair39393962%38%7%5%Combined with puborectal muscle plasty (n=32) and additional posterior vaginal wall repair (n=5)
Simmang 1994377Overlapping sphincter repair12141493%7%
Ternent1997397Anterior overlapping sphincteroplasty12353562%38%
Briel199838Direct sphincter repair and overlapping with internal imbrication24555565%35%11%9%
Fleshman 1191129Overlapping13282875%25%7%7%
Chen199858Sphincter repair by plication method50151595%5%13%
Engel1997114Overlapping repair12202030%5%
Briel199939Anterior anal sphincter repair12202065%35%
Sangwan 1996357Overlapping sphincter repair161515404713
Jensen1997187Biofeedback after sphincteroplasty32282889%10%0%0%0%
Steele2006385overlapping anal sphincteroplasty33.8282843%
Weighted mean (95% CI)40% (15–65)27% (23–31)47% (22–72)52% (49–55)13% (4–30)36% (33–39)10% (8–12)3% (1–5)12% (9–14)


CR – clinician reported

PR – patient reported


Cover of Faecal Incontinence
Faecal Incontinence: The Management of Faecal Incontinence in Adults.
NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 49.
National Collaborating Centre for Acute Care (UK).
Copyright © 2007, National Collaborating Centre for Acute Care.

Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher or, in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency in the UK. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the terms stated here should be sent to the publisher at the UK address printed on this page.

The use of registered names, trademarks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant laws and regulations and therefore for general use.

The rights of National Collaborating Centre for Acute Care to be identified as Author of this work have been asserted by them in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988.

PubMed Health. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.