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Table 6.58Symptoms: stiffness

Stiffness outcomeReferenceInterventionAssessment timeOutcome/effect size
Knee osteoarthritis
Electroacupuncture vs Ice massage
Stiffness (verbal rating)1 RCT (Yurtkuran and Kocagil 1999)Electroacupuncture vs ice massage2 weeks (end of treatment)NS
Electroacupuncture vs AL-TENS
Stiffness (verbal rating)1 RCT (Yurtkuran and Kocagil 1999)Electroacupuncture vs AL-TENS2 weeks (end of treatment)NS
Knee or hip
Acupuncture vs no acupuncture
WOMAC stiffness (change from baseline)1 RCT (Witt et al. 2006) (N=712)Acupuncture vs no acupuncture3 months, end of treatmentMean change 31.7% (acupuncture) and 1.5% (no acupuncture), p<0.001
Mixed (knee, hip, finger, lumbar, thoracic or cervical)
Acupuncture vs sham acupuncture
Pain (patient’s assessment, scale 1–4, change from baseline) and tenderness (physician’s evaluation, scale 1–4, change from baseline)1 RCT (Gaw et al. 1975) (N=40)Acupuncture vs placebo (sham acupuncture)End of treatment (8 weeks) and at 2 weeks and 6 weeks post- interventionNS

From: 6, Non-pharmacological management of osteoarthritis

Cover of Osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis: National Clinical Guideline for Care and Management in Adults.
NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 59.
National Collaborating Centre for Chronic Conditions (UK).
Copyright © 2008, Royal College of Physicians of London.

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