PubMed Health. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.

Chou R, Dana T. Screening Adults for Bladder Cancer: Update of the 2004 Evidence Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2010 Oct. (Evidence Syntheses, No. 78.)

Appendix 4Excluded Studies

Wrong Population

  1. Brake M, Loertzer H, Horsch R, et al. Long-term results of intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy for stage T1 superficial bladder cancer. Urology. 2000;55(5):673–678. [PubMed: 10792077]
  2. Brauers A, Buettner R, Jakse G. Second resection and prognosis of primary high risk superficial bladder cancer: is cystectomy often too early? J Urol. 2001;165(3):808–810. [PubMed: 11176474]
  3. Britton J, Dowell A, Whelan P, et al. A community study of bladder cancer screening by the detection of occult urinary bleeding. J Urol. 1992;148:788–780. [PubMed: 1512826]
  4. Cai T, Bartoletti R. Long-term outcome of hematuria home screening for bladder cancer in men. Cancer. 2007;109(9):1923–1924. [PubMed: 17357998]
  5. Chahal R, Darshane A, Browning AJ, et al. Evaluation of the clinical value of urinary NMP22 as a marker in the screening and surveillance of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. Eur Urol. 2001;40(4):415–420. [PubMed: 11713396]
  6. Chang YH, Wu CH, Lee YL, et al. Evaluation of nuclear matrix protein-22 as a clinical diagnostic marker for bladder cancer. Urology. 2004;64(4):687–692. [PubMed: 15491702]
  7. Cheng CW, Chan SFP, Chan LW, et al. Twelve-year follow up of a randomized prospective trial comparing bacillus Calmette-Guerin and epirubicin as adjuvant therapy in superficial bladder cancer. Int J Urol. 2005;12(5):449–455. [PubMed: 15948743]
  8. Cheng CW, Lau WK, Tan PH, et al. Cystoscopic diagnosis of bladder cancer by intravesical instillation of 5-aminolevulinic acid induced porphyrin fluorescence: the Singapore experience. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2000;29(2):153–158. [PubMed: 10895330]
  9. Cookson MS, Herr HW, Zhang ZF, et al. The treated natural history of high risk superficial bladder cancer: 15-year outcome. J Urol. 1997;158(1):62–67. [PubMed: 9186324]
  10. Daniltchenko DI, Riedl CR, Sachs MD, et al. Long-term benefit of 5-aminolevulinic acid fluorescence assisted transurethral resection of superficial bladder cancer: 5-year results of a prospective randomized study. J Urol. 2005;174(6):2129–2133. [PubMed: 16280742]
  11. de Reijke TM, Kurth KH, Sylvester RJ, et al. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin versus epirubicin for primary, secondary or concurrent carcinoma in situ of the bladder: results of a European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer—Genito-Urinary Group Phase III Trial. J Urol. 2005;173(2):405–409. [PubMed: 15643181]
  12. Di Stasi SM, Giannantoni A, Giurioli A, et al. Sequential BCG and electromotive mitomycin versus BCG alone for high-risk superficial bladder cancer: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2006;7(1):43–51. [PubMed: 16389183]
  13. Duncan W, Arnott SJ, Jack WJ, et al. A report of a randomized trial of d(15)+Be neutrons compared with megavoltage X-ray therapy of bladder cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1985;11(12):2043–2049. [PubMed: 3905730]
  14. Eissa S, Labib RA, Mourad MS, et al. Comparison of telomerase activity and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in voided urine and bladder wash samples as a useful diagnostic tool for bladder cancer. Eur Urol. 2003;44(6):687–694. [PubMed: 14644121]
  15. Eissa S, Swellam M, Ali-Labib R, et al. Detection of telomerase in urine by 3 methods: evaluation of diagnostic accuracy for bladder cancer. J Urol. 2007;178(3 Pt 1):1068–1072. [PubMed: 17644139]
  16. El-Ghobashy S, El-Leithy TR, Roshdy MM, et al. Effectiveness of a single immediate mitomycin C instillation in patients with low risk superficial bladder cancer: short and long-term follow-up. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst. 2007;19(2):121–126. [PubMed: 19034342]
  17. Fornari D, Steven K, Hansen AB, et al. Microsatellite analysis of urine sediment versus urine cytology for diagnosing transitional cell tumors of the urinary bladder. APMIS. 2004;112(2):148–152. [PubMed: 15056232]
  18. Friedrich MG, Pichlmeier U, Schwaibold H, et al. Long-term intravesical adjuvant chemotherapy further reduces recurrence rate compared with short-term intravesical chemotherapy and short-term therapy with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma. Eur Urol. 2007;52(4):1123–1130. [PubMed: 17383080]
  19. Gervino G, Autino E, Kolomoets E, et al. Diagnosis of bladder cancer at 465 MHz. Electromagn Biol Med. 2007;26(2):119–134. [PubMed: 17613039]
  20. Gore JL, Lai J, Setodji CM, et al. Mortality increases when radical cystectomy is delayed more than 12 weeks: results from a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results–Medicare analysis. Cancer. 2009;115(5):988–996. [PMC free article: PMC2654713] [PubMed: 19142878]
  21. Green DF, Robinson MR, Glashan R, et al. Does intravesical chemotherapy prevent invasive bladder cancer? J Urol. 1984;131(1):33–35. [PubMed: 6418897]
  22. Grossman HB, Messing E, Soloway M, et al. Detection of bladder cancer using a point-of-care proteomic assay. JAMA. 2005;293(7):810–816. [PubMed: 15713770]
  23. Kageyama S, Isono T, Iwaki H, et al. Identification by proteomic analysis of calreticulin as a marker for bladder cancer and evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of its detection in urine. Clin Chem. 2004;50(5):857–866. [PubMed: 14764641]
  24. Lahme S, Bichler KH, Feil G, et al. Comparison of cytology and nuclear matrix protein 22 (NMP 22) for the detection and follow-up of bladder-cancer. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2003;539( Pt A):111–119. [PubMed: 15088900]
  25. Lam JS, Benson MC, O’Donnell MA, et al. Bacillus Calmete-Guerin plus interferon-alpha2B intravesical therapy maintains an extended treatment plan for superficial bladder cancer with minimal toxicity. Urol Oncol. 2003;21(5):354–360. [PubMed: 14670544]
  26. Lebret T, Bohin D, Kassardjian Z, et al. Recurrence, progression and success in stage Ta grade 3 bladder tumors treated with low dose bacillus Calmette-Guerin instillations. J Urol. 2000;163(1):63–67. [PubMed: 10604315]
  27. Lerner SP, Tangen CM, Sucharew H, et al. Patterns of recurrence and outcomes following induction bacillus Calmette-Guerin for high risk Ta, T1 bladder cancer. J Urol. 2007;177(5):1727–1731. [PubMed: 17437798]
  28. Leyh H, Hall R, Mazeman E, et al. Comparison of the Bard BTA test with voided urine and bladder wash cytology in the diagnosis and management of cancer of the bladder. Urology. 1997;50:49–53. [PubMed: 9218018]
  29. Leyh H, Marberger M, Conort P, et al. Comparison of the BTA stat test with voided urine cytology and bladder wash cytology in the diagnosis and monitoring of bladder cancer. Eur Urol. 1999;35(1):52–56. [PubMed: 9933795]
  30. Lotan Y, Capitanio U, Shariat SF, Hutterer GC, Karakiewicz PI. Impact of clinical factors, including a point-of-care nuclear matrix protein-22 assay and cytology, on bladder cancer detection. Br J Urol. 2009;103:1368–1374. [PubMed: 19338566]
  31. Luftenegger W, Ackermann DK, Futterlieb A, et al. Intravesical versus intravesical plus intradermal bacillus Calmette-Guerin: a prospective randomized study in patients with recurrent superficial bladder tumors. J Urol. 1996;155(2):483–487. [PubMed: 8558641]
  32. Madeb R, Messing EM. Long-term outcome of home dipstick testing for hematuria. World J Urol. 2008;26(1):19–24. [PubMed: 18040694]
  33. Messing EM, Young TB, Hunt VB, et al. Home screening for hematuria: results of a multi-clinic study. J Urol. 1992;148(2 pt 1):289–292. [PubMed: 1635120]
  34. Mian C, Pycha A, Wiener H, et al. Immunocyt 1: a new tool for detecting transitional cell cancer of the urinary tract. J Urol. 1999;161(5):1486–1489. [PubMed: 10210378]
  35. Miyanaga N, Akaza H, Tsukamoto T. Urinary nuclear matrix protein 22 as a new marker for the screening of urothelial cancer in patients with microscopic hematuria. Int J Urol. 1999;6(4):173–177. [PubMed: 10226833]
  36. Mutlu N, Turkeri L, Emerk K. Analytical and clinical evaluation of a new urinary tumor marker: bladder tumor fibronectin in diagnosis and follow-up of bladder cancer. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2003;41(8):1069–1074. [PubMed: 12964816]
  37. Parekattil SJ, Fisher HA, Kogan BA. Neural network using combined urine nuclear matrix protein-22, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and urinary intercellular adhesion molecule-1 to detect bladder cancer. J Urol. 2003;169(3):917–920. [PubMed: 12576812]
  38. Pfister C, Chautard D, Devonec M, et al. Immunocyt test improves the diagnostic accuracy of urinary cytology: results of a French multicenter study. J Urol. 2003;169(3):921–924. [PubMed: 12576813]
  39. Planz B, Synek C, Robben J, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of DNA image cytometry and urinary cytology with cells from voided urine in the detection of bladder cancer. Urology. 2000;56(5):782–786. [PubMed: 11068301]
  40. Ponsky LE, Sharma S, Pandrangi L, et al. Screening and monitoring for bladder cancer: refining the use of NMP22. J Urol. 2001;166(1):75–78. [PubMed: 11435827]
  41. Prout GR, Koontz WW, Coombs LJ, et al. Long-term fate of 90 patients with superficial bladder cancer randomly assigned to receive or not to receive thiotepa. J Urol. 1983;130(4):677–680. [PubMed: 6411939]
  42. Raitanen MP, Tammela TL. Specificity of human complement factor h-related protein test (Bard BRA stat test) Scand J Urol Nephrol. 1999;33:234–236. [PubMed: 10515085]
  43. Sanchez-Carbayo M, Urrutia M, Silva JM, et al. Urinary tissue polypeptide-specific antigen for the diagnosis of bladder cancer. Urology. 2000;55:526–532. [PubMed: 10736496]
  44. Sozen S, Biri H, Sinik Z, et al. Comparison of the nuclear matrix protein 22 with voided urine cytology and BTA stat test in the diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Eur Urol. 1999;36(3):225–229. [PubMed: 10450007]
  45. Steiner H, Bergmeister M, Verdorfer I, et al. Early results of bladder-cancer screening in a high-risk population of heavy smokers. BJU Int. 2008;102(3):291–296. [PubMed: 18336612]
  46. Sylvester RJ, van der Meijden AP, Witjes JA, et al. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin versus chemotherapy for the intravesical treatment of patients with carcinoma in situ of the bladder: a meta-analysis of the published results of randomized clinical trials. J Urol. 2005;174(1):86–92. [PubMed: 15947584]
  47. Yi S, He D, Ma Q, et al. Comparison of seven screening methods in the diagnosis of bladder cancer. Chin Med J. 2006;119(21):1763–1771. [PubMed: 17097029]
  48. Zippe C, Pandrangi L, Agarwal A. NMP22 is a sensitive, cost-effective test in patients at risk for bladder cancer. J Urol. 1999;161(1):62–65. [PubMed: 10037369]

Wrong Intervention

  1. Agrawal MS, Agrawal M, Bansal S, et al. The safety and efficacy of different doses of Bacillus Calmette Guérin in superficial bladder transitional cell carcinoma. Urology. 2007;70(6):1075–1078. [PubMed: 18158020]
  2. Denzinger S, Burger M, Walter B, et al. Clinically relevant reduction in risk of recurrence of superficial bladder cancer using 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence diagnosis: 8-year results of prospective randomized study. Urology. 2007;69(4):675–679. [PubMed: 17445650]
  3. Herr HW, Schwalb DM, Zhang ZF, et al. Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy prevents tumor progression and death from superficial bladder cancer: ten-year follow-up of a prospective randomized trial. J Clin Oncol. 1995;13(6):1404–1408. [PubMed: 7751885]
  4. Huland H, Otto U. Mitomycin instillation to prevent recurrence of superficial bladder carcinoma: results of a controlled, prospective study in 58 patients. Eur Urol. 1983;9(2):84–86. [PubMed: 6343089]
  5. Kurth K, Tunn U, Ay R, et al. Adjuvant chemotherapy for superficial transitional cell bladder carcinoma: long-term results of a European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer randomized trial comparing doxorubicin, ethoglucid and transurethral resection alone. J Urol. 1997;158(2):378–384. [PubMed: 9224307]
  6. Liu B, Wang Z, Chen B, et al. Randomized study of single instillation of epirubicin for superficial bladder carcinoma: long-term clinical outcomes. Cancer Invest. 2006;24(2):160–163. [PubMed: 16537185]
  7. Lotan Y, Roehrborn CG. Sensitivity and specificity of commonly available bladder tumor markers versus cytology: results of a comprehensive literature review and meta-analyses. Urology. 2003;61(1):109–118. [PubMed: 12559279]
  8. Mahnert B, Tauber S, Kriegmair M, et al. BTA-TRAK: a useful diagnostic tool in urinary bladder cancer? Anticancer Res. 1999;19:2615–2620. [PubMed: 10470204]
  9. Martinez-Pineiro JA, Flores N, Isorna S, et al. Long-term follow-up of a randomized prospective trial comparing a standard 81 mg dose of intravesical bacille Calmette-Guerin with a reduced dose of 27 mg in superficial bladder cancer. BJU Int. 2002;89(7):671–680. [PubMed: 11966623]
  10. Martinez-Pineiro JA, Martinez-Pineiro L, Solsona E, et al. Has a 3-fold decreased dose of bacillus Calmette-Guerin the same efficacy against recurrences and progression of T1G3 and Tis bladder tumors than the standard dose? Results of a prospective randomized trial. J Urol. 2005;174(4 Pt 1):1242–1247. [PubMed: 16145378]
  11. Medical Research Council Working Party on Urological Cancer, Subgroup on Superficial Bladder Cancer. The effect of intravesical thiotepa on tumour recurrence after endoscopic treatment of newly diagnosed superficial bladder cancer: a further report with long-term follow-up of a Medical Research Council randomized trial. Br J Urol. 1994;73(6):632–638. [PubMed: 8032829]
  12. O’Donnell MA, Lilli K, Leopold C. National Bacillus Calmette-Guerin/Interferon Phase Investigator Group. Interim results from a national multicenter phase II trial of combination bacillus calmette-guerin plus interferon alfa-2b for superficial bladder cancer. J Urol. 2004;172(3):888–893. [PubMed: 15310991]
  13. Schwaibold H, Pichlmeier U, Klingenberger HJ, et al. Long-term follow-up of cytostatic intravesical instillation in patients with superficial bladder carcinoma: is short-term, intensive instillation better than maintenance therapy? Eur Urol. 1997;31(2):153–159. [PubMed: 9076457]
  14. Shelley M, Court JB, Kynaston H, et al. Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin versus mitomycin C for Ta and T1 bladder cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(3):CD003231. [PubMed: 12917955]
  15. Shelley M, Court JB, Kynaston H, et al. Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin in Ta and T1 bladder cancer. Cochrane Database of Syst Rev. 2000;1986;(4):CD00. [PubMed: 11034738]
  16. Sylvester RJ, Oosterlinck W, van der Meijden AP. A single immediate postoperative instillation of chemotherapy decreases the risk of recurrence in patients with stage Ta T1 bladder cancer: a meta-analysis of published results of randomized clinical trials. J Urol. 2004;171(6 Pt 1):2186–2190. [PubMed: 15126782]
  17. Tolley DA, Parmar MK, Grigor KM, et al. The effect of intravesical mitomycin C on recurrence of newly diagnosed superficial bladder cancer: a further report with 7 years of follow up. J Urol. 1996;155(4):1233–1238. [PubMed: 8632538]
  18. Zarogianni C, Tsiamis C. Immunological treatment of superficial bladder carcinoma. J BUON. 2004;9(1):41–47. [PubMed: 17385826]

Wrong Outcome

  1. Botteman MF, Pashos CL, Redaelli A, et al. The health economics of bladder cancer: a comprehensive review of the published literature. Pharmacoeconomics. 2003;21(18):1315–1330. [PubMed: 14750899]
  2. Burger M, Zaak D, Stief CG, et al. Photodynamic diagnostics and noninvasive bladder cancer: is it cost-effective in long-term application? A Germany-based cost analysis. Eur Urol. 2007;52(1):142–147. [PubMed: 17267099]
  3. Crew JP, O’Brien T, Bradburn M, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor is a predictor of relapse and stage progression in superficial bladder cancer. Cancer Res. 1997;57(23):5281–5285. [PubMed: 9393750]
  4. De Lauretis A, De Capua B, Barbieri MT, et al. ABR evaluation of ototoxicity in cancer patients receiving cisplatin or carboplatin. Scand Audiol. 1999;28(3):139–143. [PubMed: 10489862]
  5. Fahmy NM, Mahmud S, Aprikian AG. Delay in the surgical treatment of bladder cancer and survival: systematic review of the literature. Eur Urol. 2006;50(6):1176–1182. [PubMed: 16846680]
  6. Fradet Y, Aprikian A, Dranitsaris G, et al. Does prolonging the time to bladder cancer surgery affect long-term cancer control: a systematic review of the literature. Can J Urol. 2006;13(Suppl 3):37–47. [PubMed: 16818011]
  7. Hollenbeck BK, Ye Z, Dunn RL, et al. Provider treatment intensity and outcomes for patients with early-stage bladder cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009;101(8):571–580. [PMC free article: PMC2669100] [PubMed: 19351919]
  8. Lee CT, Madii R, Daignault S, et al. Cystectomy delay more than 3 months from initial bladder cancer diagnosis results in decreased disease specific and overall survival. J Urol. 2006;175(4):1262–1267. [PubMed: 16515975]
  9. Liedberg F, Anderson H, Mansson A, et al. Diagnostic delay and prognosis in invasive bladder cancer. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2003;37(5):396–400. [PubMed: 14594688]
  10. Liedberg F, Anderson H, Mansson W. Treatment delay and prognosis in invasive bladder cancer. J Urol. 2005;174(5):1777–1781. [PubMed: 16217282]
  11. May F, Treiber U, Hartung R, et al. Significance of random bladder biopsies in superficial bladder cancer. Eur Urol. 2003;44(1):47–50. [PubMed: 12814674]

Wrong study design or publication type

  1. Screening for bladder cancer. The challenge: identifying who might benefit most from screening. Duke Med Health News. 2009;15(10):7. [PubMed: 19830877]
  2. Ayres BE, Gillatt D, McPhail S, et al. A delay in radical cystectomy of >3 months is not associated with a worse clinical outcome. BJU Int. 2008;102(8):1045. [PubMed: 18840144]
  3. Betkerur V, Rao R, Hlaing V, Rhee H, Baumgartner G, Guinan P. Screening tests for detection of bladder cancer. Urology. 1980;16(1):16–19. [PubMed: 7395005]
  4. Black PC, Brown GA, Grossman HB, Dinney CP. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for bladder cancer. World J Urol. 2006;24(5):531–542. [PubMed: 17115230]
  5. Britton JP, Dowell AC, Whelan P. Dipstick haematuria and bladder cancer in men over 60: results of a community study. BMJ. 1989;299(6706):1010–1012. [PMC free article: PMC1837876] [PubMed: 2511941]
  6. Brown FM. Urine cytology: is it still the gold standard for screening? Urol Clin North Am. 2000;27(1):25–37. [PubMed: 10696242]
  7. Carmack AJ, Soloway MS. The diagnosis and staging of bladder cancer: from RBCs to TURs. Urology. 2006;67(3 Suppl 1):3–8. [PubMed: 16530066]
  8. Chiong E, Gaston KE, Grossman HB. Urinary markers in screening patients with hematuria. World J Urol. 2008;26(1):25–30. [PubMed: 18060548]
  9. Collado A, Chechile GE, Salvador J, Vicente J. Early complications of endoscopic treatment for superficial bladder tumors. J Urol. 2000;164(5):1529–1532. [PubMed: 11025697]
  10. Droller MJ. Long-term results of intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy for stage T1 superficial bladder cancer. J Urol. 2001;165(2):701–702. [PubMed: 11233047]
  11. Fu CY, Ng BK, Razul SG, et al. Fluorescence detection of bladder cancer using urine cytology. Int J Oncol. 2007;31(3):525–530. [PubMed: 17671678]
  12. Hedelin H, Jonsson K, Salomonsson K, Boman H. Screening for bladder tumours in men aged 60–70 years with a bladder tumour marker (UBC) and dipstick-detected haematuria using both white-light and fluorescence cystoscopy. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2006;40(1):26–30. [PubMed: 16452052]
  13. Kaasinen E, Rintala E, Hellstrom P, et al. Factors explaining recurrence in patients undergoing chemoimmunotherapy regimens for frequently recurring superficial bladder carcinoma. Eur Urol. 2002;42(2):167–174. [PubMed: 12160589]
  14. Konety B, Lotan Y. Urothelial bladder cancer: biomarkers for detection and screening. BJU Int. 2008;102(9 Pt B):1234–1241. [PubMed: 19035887]
  15. Kurth KH. Intravesical chemotherapy for superficial bladder tumors category Ta/T1: who should be treated and how? Semin Urol Oncol. 1996;14(1 Suppl 1):30–35. [PubMed: 8727808]
  16. Lotan Y, Elias K, Svatek RS, et al. Bladder cancer screening in a high risk asymptomatic population using a point-of-care urine based protein tumor marker. J Urol. 2009;182:52–58. [PubMed: 19450825]
  17. Maffezzini M, Simonato A, Zanon M, Raber M, Carmignani G. Up-front intravesical chemotherapy for low stage, low grade recurrent bladder cancer. J Urol. 1996;155(1):91–93. [PubMed: 7490907]
  18. Malmstrom PU, Wijkstrom H, Lundholm C, et al. 5-year follow-up of a randomized prospective study comparing mitomycin C and bacillus Calmette-Guerin in patients with superficial bladder carcinoma. J Urol. 1999;161(4):1124–1127. [PubMed: 10081852]
  19. Manyak M, Ogan K. Photodynamic therapy for refractory superficial bladder cancer: long-term clinical outcomes of single treatment using intravesical diffusion medium. J Endourol. 2003;17(8):633–639. [PubMed: 14622483]
  20. Marsh GM, Cassidy LD. The Drake Health Registry Study: findings from fifteen years of continuous bladder cancer screening. Am J Ind Med. 2003;43(2):142–148. [PubMed: 12541268]
  21. Mayfield MP, Whelan P. Bladder tumours detected on screening: results at 7 years. Br J Urol. 1998;82(6):825–828. [PubMed: 9883219]
  22. Messing E. Markers of detection. Urol. 2007;25(4):344–347. [PubMed: 17628306]
  23. Messing EM, Vaillancourt A. Hematuria screening for bladder cancer. J Occup Med. 1990;32(9):838–845. [PubMed: 2074507]
  24. Messing EM, Young TB, Hunt VB, et al. Hematuria home screening: repeat testing results. J Urol. 1995;154:57–61. [PubMed: 7776456]
  25. Pinkowish MD. Earlier use of aggressive therapy could prevent one-third of bladder cancer deaths. CA Cancer J Clin. 2009;59(3):142–144. [PubMed: 19369683]
  26. Susman E. Benefits of bladder-cancer screening at home. Lancet Oncol. 2006;7(7):540. [PubMed: 16838441]
  27. Svatek RS, Lotan Y, Karakiewizc PI, Shariat SF. Screening for bladder cancer using urine-based tumor markers. Minerva Urol Nefrol. 2008;60(4):247–253. [PubMed: 18923361]
  28. Wakui M, Shiigai T. Urinary tract cancer screening through analysis of urinary red blood cell volume distribution. Int J Urol. 2000;7(7):248–253. [PubMed: 10910226]
  29. Whelan P, Britton JP, Dowell AC. Three-year follow-up of bladder tumours found on screening. Br J Urology. 1993;72:893–896. [PubMed: 8306152]
Cover of Screening Adults for Bladder Cancer
Screening Adults for Bladder Cancer: Update of the 2004 Evidence Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force [Internet].
Evidence Syntheses, No. 78.
Chou R, Dana T.

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