PubMed Health. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.

Carson S, McDonagh MS, Thakurta S, et al. Drug Class Review: Newer Drugs for Insomnia: Final Report Update 2 [Internet]. Portland (OR): Oregon Health & Science University; 2008 Oct.

Appendix C. Excluded studies

290 trials were excluded with the exclusion code shown below (new trials from Update 2 are highlighted in gray-scale)

Codes:

1 = Foreign language

2 = Wrong outcome

3 = Wrong drug (including combination therapy)

4 = Wrong population

5 = Wrong publication type (letter, editorial, nonsystematic review, etc.)

6 = Wrong design (including dose-ranging study, pharmacokinetics, single-dose study, drug interaction)

7 = cannot find the study

8 = duplicated study

AO = abstract only

Poster= Poster only

TrialsCode
Abe K, Hikita T, Sakoda S. A hypnotic drug for sleep disturbances in patients with Parkinson's disease. No to Shinkei - Brain & Nerve. Apr 2005;57(4):301–305.1
Allain H, Bentue-Ferrer D, Tarral A, Gandon JM. Effects on postural oscillation and memory functions of a single dose of zolpidem 5 mg, zopiclone 3.75 mg and lormetazepam 1 mg in elderly healthy subjects. A randomized, cross-over, double- blind study versus placebo. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 2003;59(3):179–188.4
Allain H, Le Breton S, Kleinermans D, Lavoisy J, Klausner J, Gandon JM. Assessment of patients preferences between two hypnotics, zolpidem (10 mg) vs. zaleplon (10 mg). Sleep. 2001;24(Abstr Suppl):A332.5
Allain H, Patat A, Lieury A, et al. Comparative study of the effects of zopiclone (7.5 mg), zolpidem, flunitrazepam and a placebo on nocturnal cognitive performance in healthy subjects, in relation to pharmacokinetics. European Psychiatry. 1995;10(Suppl 3):129S–135S.4
Allen D, Curran HV, Lader M. The effects of single doses of CL284,846, lorazepam, and placebo and psychomotor and memory function in normal male volunteers. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 1993;45(4):313–320.4
Amsterdam JD, Brunswick DJ, Hundert M. A single-site, double-blind, placebo- controlled, dose-ranging study of YKP10A - A putative, new antidepressant. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry. 2002;26(7–8):1333–1338.3
Amsterdam JD. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the safety and efficacy of selegiline transdermal system without dietary restrictions in patients with major depressive disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2003;64(2):208–214.3
Ansseau M, Pitchot W, Hansenne M, Gonzalez Moreno A. Psychotic reactions to zolpidem. Lancet. 1992;339:809; 8796.4
Aranko K, Luurila H, Backman JT, Neuvonen PJ, Olkkola KT. The effect of erythromycin on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of zopiclone. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 1994;38(4):363–367.4
Arbus L, Lavoisy J, Belin J, Soubrane C. Efficacy and safety of zolpidem 10 mg administered pro re nata (P.R.N) during 4 weeks in patients with chronic insomnia. Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 1999;9(Suppl 5):S309.6
Balkin TJ, O'Donnell VM, Wesensten N, McCann U, Belenky G. Comparison of the daytime sleep and performance effects of zolpidem versus triazolam. Psychopharmacology. 1992;107(1):83–88.4
Beaumont G, Holland RL. A multi-centre open study in general practice to evaluate the efficacy and acceptability of zopiclone 7.5 mg nocte in patients requiring the prescription of an hypnotic. International Clinical Psychopharmacology. 1990;5 Suppl 2:11–20.6
Beaumont M, Batejat D, Coste O, et al. Effects of zolpidem and zaleplon on sleep, respiratory patterns and performance at a simulated altitude of 4,000 m. Neuropsychobiology. 2004;49(3):154–162.6
Beaumont M, Goldenberg F, Lejeune D, Marotte H, Harf A, Lofaso F. Effect of zolpidem on sleep and ventilatory patterns at simulated altitude of 4,000 meters. American Journal of Respiratory & Critical Care Medicine. 1996;153(6 Pt 1):1864–1869.4
Beaupre A, Soucy R, Phillips R, Bourgouin J. Respiratory center output following zopiclone or diazepam administration in patients with pulmonary disease. Respiration. 1988;54(4):235–240.2
Bech P, Tanghoj P, Cialdella P, Andersen HF, Pedersen AG. Escitalopram dose- response revisited: an alternative psychometric approach to evaluate clinical effects of escitalopram compared to citalopram and placebo in patients with major depression. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology. Sep 2004;7(3):283–290.3
Bechelli LP, Navas F, Pierangelo SA. Comparison of the reinforcing properties of zopiclone and triazolam in former alcoholics. International Pharmacopsychiatry. 1982;17 Suppl 2:235–241.4
Beer B, Ieni JR, Wu W-H, et al. A placebo-controlled evaluation of single, escalating doses of CL 284,846, a non-benzodiazepine hypnotic. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 1994;34(4):335–344.4
Benoit O, Bouard G, Payan C, Borderies P, Prado J. Effect of a single dose (10 mg) of zolpidem on visual and spectral analysis of sleep in young poor sleepers. Psychopharmacology. 1994;116(3):297–303.2
Bensimon G, Foret J, Warot D, Lacomblez L, Thiercelin JF, Simon P. Daytime wakefulness following a bedtime oral dose of zolpidem 20 mg, flunitrazepam 2 mg and placebo. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 1990;30(3):463–469.4
Bergener M, Kranzhoff EU, Schwalb B, Fischer W. Sleep disorders in the elderly - Results of a multicenter study with zopiclone. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1995;28(165).6
Berlin I, Warot D, Hergueta T, Molinier P, Bagot C, Puech AJ. Comparison of the effects of zolpidem and triazolam on memory functions, psychomotor performances, and postural sway in healthy subjects. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. 1993;13(2):100–106.4
Berthelon C, Bocca ML, Denise P, Pottier A. Do zopiclone, zolpidem and flunitrazepam have residual effects on simulated task of collision anticipation? Journal of Psychopharmacology. 2003;17(3):324–331.2
Bertschy G, Ragama-Pardos E, Muscionico M, et al. Trazodone addition for insomnia in venlafaxine-treated, depressed inpatients: A semi-naturalistic study. Pharmacological Research. 2005;51(1):79–84.3
Besset A, Tafti M, Villemin E, Borderies P, Billiard M. Effects of zolpidem on the architecture and cyclical structure of sleep in poor sleepers. Drugs under Experimental and Clinical Research. 1995;21(4):161–169.6
Billiard M, Besset A, de Lustrac C, Brissaud L. Dose-response effects of zopiclone on night sleep and on nighttime and daytime functioning. Sleep. 1987;10(1):27–34.4
Biondi F, Casadei GL. Results of a multicenter trial with the hypnotic zolpidem in 1152 insomniac patients. Current Therapeutic Research - Clinical and Experimental. 1994;55(3):262–274.6
Blin O, Micallef-Rolle J, Legangneux E, Zobouyan I. Zolpidem modified-release 12.5 mg has no residual effects on psychomotor performance and cognitive function in health adult subjects. Sleep. 2005;28(Suppl):A246.(Poster)
Bliwise DL, Freeman A, Ingram CD, Rye DB, Chakravorty S, Watts RL. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, short-term trial of ropinirole in restless legs syndrome. Sleep Medicine. 2005;6(2):141–147.3
Blois R, Gaillard JM, Attali P, Coquelin JP. Effect of zolpidem on sleep in healthy subjects: a placebo-controlled trial with polysomnographic recordings. Clinical Therapeutics. 1993;15(5):797–809.4
Bocca ML, Le Doze F, Etard O, Pottier M, L'Hoste J, Denise P. Residual effect of zolpidem 10 mg and zopiclone 7.5 mg versus flunitrazepam 1 mg and placebo on driving performance and ocular saccades. Psychopharmacology. 1999;143(4):373–379.4
Boissl K, Dreyfus JF, Delmotte M. Studies on the dependence-inducing potential of zopiclone and triazolam. International Pharmacopsychiatry. 1982;17(2):242–247.4
Bond A, Lader M. Correlations among measures of response to benzodiazepines in man. Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior. Feb 1983;18(2):295–298.6
Boniface PJ, Martin IC, Nolan SL, Tan ST. Development of a method for the determination of zopiclone in whole blood. Journal of Chromatography - Biomedical Applications. 1992;584(2):199–206.2
Borgen L. Trial effects of oral Xyrem and Zolpidem on sleep-disordered breathing in obstructive sleep apnea patients. clinicaltrials.gov. 2004.2
Boulanger-Rostowsky L, Fayet H, Benmoussa N, Ferrandi J. Dependence on zolpidem: a report of two cases. Encephale. Mar-Apr 2004;30(2):153–155.1
Brunelle E, Rotily M, Lancon C, et al. Letter to the Editor: Zolpidem: Intravenous misuse in drug abusers. Addiction. Sep 2005;100(9):1377–1378.4
Burton JH, Lyon L, Dorfman T, Tomassoni AJ. Continuous flumazenil infusion in the treatment of zolpidem (Ambien(registered trademark)) and ethanol coingestion [1]. Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology. 1998;36(7):743–746.2
Busto UE, Sproule BA, Knight K, Herrmann N. Use of prescription and nonprescription hypnotics in a Canadian elderly population. Canadian Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 2001;8(4):213–221.6
Caldwell J, Caldwell JL. Comparison of the effects of zolpidem-induced prophylactic naps to placebo naps and forced rest periods in prolonged work schedules. Sleep. 1998;21(1):79–90.4
Cashman JN, Power SJ, Jones RM. Assessment of a new hypnotic imidazo- pyridine (zolpidem) as oral premedication. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 1987;24(1):85–92.4
Cashman JN, Power SJ. An evaluation of tests of psychomotor function in assessing recovery following a brief anaesthetic. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. 1989;33(8):693–697.2
Caville P. Homeopathy in dementia and agitation. Homeopathy. 2002;91(2):109–112.5
Chang M-Y, Lin J-L. Irreversible Ischemic Hand Following Intraarterial Injection of Zolpidem Powder. Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology. 2003;41(7):1025–1028.2
Channer KS, Dent M, Roberts CJC. The effect of posture at the time of administration on the central depressant effects on the new hypnotic zopiclone. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 1984;18(6):879–886.2
Cialdella P, Boissel JP, Belon P. Homeopathic specialities as a substitute for benzodiazepines: A double-blind vs. placebo study. Therapie. 2001;4:397–402.3
Cipriani A, Brambilla P, Furukawa T, et al. Fluoxetine versus other types of pharmacotherapy for depression [Systematic Review]. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2005;4:4.2
Clauss RP, Guldenpfennig WM, Nel HW, Sathekge MM, Venkannagari RR. Extraordinary arousal from semi-comatose state on zolpidem. South African Medical Journal. 2000;90(1):68–72.2
Cluydts R, De Roeck J, Cosyns P, Lacante P. Antagonizing the effects of experimentally induced sleep disturbance in healthy volunteers by lormetazepam and zolpidem. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. 1995;15(2):132–137.4
Cluydts R, Heyde K, De Volder I. Polysomnographic findings during non- continuous administration of zolpidem. Sleep Medicine Reviews. 2002;6(SUPPL. 1):S13–S19.6
Cluydts R, Peeters K, De Bouyalsky I, Lavoisy J. A pilot, randomized, double-blind study of zolpidem 10 mg comparing intermittent versus continuous administration. Sixth World Congress of Biological Psychiatry, Nice, France. June. 1997.6
Cluydts R, Peeters K, de Bouyalsky I, Lavoisy J. Comparison of continuous versus intermittent administration of zolpidem in chronic insomniacs: a double-blind, randomized pilot study. Journal of International Medical Research. 1998;26(1):13–24.6
Cluydts RJ, De Roeck JM, Jolie AM. A three week multicentre general practitioner study of zoldipem in 651 patients with insomnia. Acta Therapeutica. 1993;19(1):73–91.6
Cohn MA. Effects of zolpidem, codeine phosphate and placebo on respiration. A double-blind, crossover study in volunteers. Drug Safety. 1993;9(4):312–319.4
Coleman DE, Ota K. Hallucinations with zolpidem and fluoxetine in an impaired driver. Journal of Forensic Sciences. Mar 2004;49(2):392–393.4
Colle M, Rosenzweig P, Bianchetti G, et al. Nocturnal profile of growth hormone secretion during sleep induced by zolpidem: a double-blind study in young adults and children. Hormone Research. 1991;35(1):30–34.2
Colle M, Rosenzweig P, Bianchetti G, et al. Nocturnal profile of growth hormone secretion during sleep induced by zolpidem: a double-blind study in young adults and children. Hormone Research. 1991;35(1):30–34.2
Conway DH, Turner SJ, Eddleston J, Guthrie E. Sedation on intensive care: A pathway into dependence. Care of the Critically Ill. 2001;17(5):170–171.6
Corrigan MH, Gallen CC, Bonura ML, Merchant KM. Effectiveness of the selective D4 antagonist sonepiprazole in schizophrenia: A placebo-controlled trial. Biological Psychiatry. 2004;55(5):445–451.3
Coskunol H, Gokden O, Ercan ES, Bayraktar E, Tuglular I, Saygili R. Long-term efficacy of sertraline in the prevention of alcoholic relapses in alcohol-dependent patients: A single-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel- group study. Current Therapeutic Research - Clinical and Experimental. 2002;63(11):759–771.3
Danjou P, Paty I, Fruncillo R, et al. A comparison of the residual effects of zaleplon and zolpidem following administration 5 to 2 h before awakening. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 1999;48(3):367–374.4
Darko W, Guharoy R, Rose F, Lehman D, Pappas V. Myoclonus secondary to the concurrent use of trazodone and fluoxetine. Veterinary and Human Toxicology. 2001;43(4):214–215.3
Darwish M, Parker V, Harper D, Leister C, Raible D, Fruncillo R. The lack of drug interactions between zaleplon and venlafaxine extended release. 155th Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association. 2002.7
Darwish M. The effects of zaleplon at the time of peak plasma concentration versus zolpidem and triazolam. Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 1999;9(Suppl 5):S360.4
de Araujo Carlini EL, Galduroz JCF, Nappo SA. Evaluation of efficacy and safety of zolpiden in patients with occasional, transitory or chronic insomnia. Jornal Brasileiro de Psiquiatria. Sep-Oct 2004;53(5):271–279.1
Declerck AC, Ruwe F, O'Hanlon JF, Vermeeren A, Wauquier A. Effects of zolpidem and flunitrazepam on nocturnal sleep of women subjectively complaining of insomnia.[erratum appears in Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1992;109(1–2):254]. Psychopharmacology. 1992;106(4):497–501.6
Dehlin O, Bengtsson C, Rubin B. A comparison of zopiclone and propiomazine as hypnotics in outpatients: a multicentre, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group comparison of zopiclone and propiomazine in insomniacs. Current Medical Research & Opinion. 1997;13(10):565–572.6
Dehlin O, Rubin B, Rundgren A. Double-blind comparison of zopiclone and flunitrazepam in elderly insomniacs with special focus on residual effects. Current Medical Research & Opinion. 1995;13(6):317–324.6
Demicheli V, Rivetti D, Deeks JJ, Jefferson T, Pratt M. The effectiveness and safety of vaccines against human anthrax: a systematic review. Vaccine. 1998;16(9–10):880–884.3
Denise P, Bocca ML. Effects of zolpidem 10 mg, zopiclone 7.5 mg and flunitrazepam 1 mg on night-time motor activity. European Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003;13(2):111–115.4
Dietrich B, Emilien G, Salinas E. Zaleplon improves sleep efficiency in a phase- advance model of transient insomnia. XXIst Collegium Internationale Neuro psychopharmacologicum, Glasgow, Scotland. 12th 16th July. 1998.1
Dingemanse J, Bury M, Bock J, Joubert P. Comparative pharmacodynamics of Ro 41–3696, a new hypnotic, and zolpidem after night-time administration to healthy subjects. Psychopharmacology. 1995;122(2):169–174.4
Dingemanse J, Bury M, Hussain Y, van Giersbergen P. Comparative tolerability, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics of a metabolite of a quinolizinone hypnotic and zolpidem in healthy subjects. Drug Metabolism & Disposition. 2000;28(12):1411–1416.4
Disayavanish C, Srisurapanont M, Disayavanish P. Zopiclone in the treatment of insomnia: An open clinical trial. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand. 1998;81(6):393–397.6
D'Mello DA, Lyon DE, Colenda CC, Fernandes CL. Substance dependence and the use of pro re nata anxiolytic/hypnotic drugs in a hospital setting. Addictive Behaviors. 2000;25(3):441–443.2
Dorian P, Sellers EM, Kaplan H, Hamilton C. Evaluation of zopiclone physical dependence liability in normal volunteers. International Pharmacopsychiatry. 1982;17(2):228–234.4
Drover D, Lemmens H, Naidu S, Cevallos W, Darwish M, Stanski D. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and relative pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profiles of zaleplon and zolpidem. Clinical Therapeutics. 2000;22(12):1443–1461.4
Dujardin K, Guieu JD, Leconte-Lambert C, Leconte P, Borderies P, de La Giclais B. Comparison of the effects of zolpidem and flunitrazepam on sleep structure and daytime cognitive functions. A study of untreated unsomniacs. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1998;31(1):14–18.6
Dundar Y, Dodd S, Strobl J, Boland A, Dickson R, Walley T. Comparative efficacy of newer hypnotic drugs for the short-term management of insomnia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Human Psychopharmacology. 2004;19(5):305–322.1
Dundee JW, Elwood RJ, Hildebrand PJ, Singleton M. Dose-finding and premedication studies with zopiclone. Pharmacology. 1983;27(2):210–215.4
Duriez R, Barthelemy C, Rives H, et al. Clinical trial of zopiclone in insomnia. Therapie (Paris). 1979;34(3):317–325.6
Elger BS. Does insomnia in prison improve with time? Prospective study among remanded prisoners using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Medicine, Science & the Law. Oct 2003;43(4):334–344.6
Elger BS. Management and evolution of insomnia complaints among non- substance- misusers in a Swiss remand prison. Swiss Medical Weekly. 2004;134(33–34):486–499.6
Elie R, Deschenes JP. Efficacy and tolerance of zopiclone in insomniac geriatric patients. Rev Geriatr. 1994;19(1):45–50.1
Elwood RJ, Elliott P, Chestnutt WN, Hildebrand PJ, Dundee JW. A comparison of the onset and duration of action of zopiclone with diazepam [abstract]. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 1983;16.5
Emilien G, Salinas E. Zaleplon decreases sleep latency in outpatients after 4 weeks of treatment CONFERENCE ABSTRACT. 11th European College of Neuropsychopharmacology Congress. Paris, France. 31st October 4th November. 1998.5
Erman MK, Erwin CW, Gengo FM, et al. Comparative efficacy of zolpidem and temazepam in transient insomnia. Human Psychopharmacology. 2001;16(2):169–176.4
Erman, M., et al. Polysomnographic and patient-reorted evaluation of the efficacy and safety of eszopiclone in elderly subjects with chronic insomnia [abstract]. Paper presented at: Associated Professional Sleep Societies, 2004; Philadelphia, PA.AO
Erwin CW, Fry JM, Richardson GS, et al. A multicenter, placebo-controlled, polysomnographic study of zaleplon in elderly patients with chronic insomnia. XXIst Collegium Internationale Neuro psychopharmacologicum, Glasgow, Scotland. 12th 16th July. 1998.7
Evans SM, Funderburk FR, Griffiths RR. Zolpidem and triazolam in humans: behavioral and subjective effects and abuse liability. Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics. 1990;255(3):1246–1255.4
Fairweather DB, Kerr JS, Hindmarch I. The effects of acute and repeated doses of zolpidem on subjective sleep, psychomotor performance and cognitive function in elderly volunteers. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 1992;43(6):597–601.4
Fattapposta F, Sanarelli L, Valle E, et al. A double-blind study of the effects of zolpidem, a new imidazopyridine hypnotic, on contingent negative variation in patients with situational insomnia. Curr Ther Res Clin Exp. 1990;48(5):766–773.4
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Feinberg I, Maloney T, Campbell IG. Effects of hypnotics on the sleep EEG of healthy young adults: new data and psychopharmacologic implications. Journal of Psychiatric Research. 2000;34(6):423–438.4
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Finelli LA, Landolt HP, Buck A, et al. Functional neuroanatomy of human sleep states after zolpidem and placebo: A H215O-PET study. Journal of Sleep Research. 2000;9(2):161–173.4
Fischer W, Haase W, Ruther E, Clarenbach P, Hajak G. Problems in performing a double-blind multicenter study using a hypnotic in private practice. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol. 1992;30(11):474.5
Flanagan D, Goodchild JH. Comparison of triazolam and zaleplon for sedation of dental patients. Dentistry Today. 2005 Sep 2005;24(9):64–66.4
Fossen A, Godlibsen OB, Loyning Y, Dreyfus JF. Effects of hypnotics on memory. International Pharmacopsychiatry. 1982;17 Suppl 2:116–126.4
Foster AC, Pelleymounter MA, Cullen MJ, et al. In vivo pharmacological characterization of indiplon, a novel pyrazolopyrimidine sedative-hypnotic. Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics. Nov 2004;311(2):547–559.4
Frattola L, Maggioni M, Cesana B, Priore P. Double blind comparison of zolpidem 20 mg versus flunitrazepam 2 mg in insomniac in-patients. Drugs Under Experimental & Clinical Research. 1990;16(7):371–376.6
Garbarino S, Nobili L, Beelke M, Balestra V, Cordelli A, Ferrillo F. Sleep disorders and daytime sleepiness in state police shiftworkers. Archives of Environmental Health. 2002;57(2):167–173.2
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Gieschke R, Cluydts R, Dingemanse J, De Roeck J, De Cock W. Effects of bretazenil vs. zolpidem and placebo on experimentally induced sleep disturbance in healthy volunteers. Methods & Findings in Experimental & Clinical Pharmacology. 1994;16(9):667–675.4
Gillin JC, Buchsbaum MS, Valladares-Neto DC, et al. Effects of zolpidem on local cerebral glucose metabolism during non-REM sleep in normal volunteers: a positron emission tomography study. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1996;15(3):302–313.4
Ginsberg DL. Zolpidem Improvement of Cognition in Dementia. Primary Psychiatry. 2003;10(3):22–23.4
Girault C, Muir JF, Mihaltan F, et al. Effects of repeated administration of zolpidem on sleep, diurnal and nocturnal respiratory function, vigilance, and physical performance in patients with COPD. Chest. 1996;110(5):1203–1211.6
Gorenstein C, Tavares SM, Gentil V, Peres C, Moreno RA, Dreyfus JF. Psychophysiological effects and dose equivalence of zopiclone and triazolam administered to healthy volunteers. Methodological considerations. Brazilian Journal of Medical & Biological Research. 1990;23(10):941–951.4
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Greenblatt D, Zammit G, Harmatz JS, Weinling E, Legangneux E. Zolpidem modified-release demonstrates sustained and greater pharmacodynamic effects from 3 to 6 hours postdose as compared with standard zolpidem in health adult subjects. Paper presented at: 19th Annual Meeting of Associated Professional Sleep Societies, 2005; Denver, Colorado.5
Greenblatt DJ, Harmatz JS, von Moltke LL, et al. Comparative kinetics and dynamics of zaleplon, zolpidem, and placebo. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 1998;64(5):553–561.4
Greenblatt DJ, Harmatz JS, von Moltke LL, et al. Comparative kinetics and response to the benzodiazepine agonists triazolam and zolpidem: evaluation of sex-dependent differences. Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics. 2000;293(2):435–443.4
Greenblatt DJ, von Moltke LL, Harmatz JS, et al. Differential impairment of triazolam and zolpidem clearance by ritonavir. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS. 2000;24(2):129–136.4
Greenblatt DJ, von Moltke LL, Harmatz JS, et al. Kinetic and dynamic interaction study of zolpidem with ketoconazole, itraconazole, and fluconazole. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 1998;64(6):661–671.4
Griffiths AN, Jones DM, Richens A. Zopiclone produces effects on human performance similar to flurazepam m, lormetazepam and triazolam. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 1986;21(6):647–653.4
Griffiths RR, Suess P, Johnson M. Rameltion and triazolam in humans: behavior effects and abuse potential. Sleep. 2005;28(Suppliment):A4.5
Grobler LA, Schwellnus MP, Trichard C, Calder S, Noakes TD, Derman WE. Comparative effects of zopiclone and loprazolam on psychomotor and physical performance in active individuals. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 2000;10(2):123–128.4
Gunnar T, Ariniemi K, Lillsunde P. Determination of 14 benzodiazepines and hydroxy metabolites, zaleplon and zolpidem as tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives compared with other common silylating reagents in whole blood by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical & Life Sciences. Apr 25 2005;818(2):175–189.2
Hajak G, Clarenbach P, Fischer W, Rodenbeck A, Bandelow B, E Rt. Rebound insomnia after abrupt hypnotic withdrawal. 10th European College of Neuropsychopharmacology Congress. Vienna, Austria. 13th 17th September. 1997.8
Hajak G, Cluydts R, Declerck A, et al. Continuous versus non-nightly use of zolpidem in chronic insomnia: results of a large-scale, double-blind, randomized, outpatient study.[erratum appears in Int Clin Psychopharmacol 2002 Jul;17(4):206]. International Clinical Psychopharmacology. 2002;17(1):9–17.6
Hamad A, Sharma N. Acute zolpidem overdose leading to coma and respiratory failure [4]. Intensive Care Medicine, Supplement. 2001;27:1239.2
Harrigan EP, Miceli JJ, Anziano R, et al. A Randomized Evaluation of the Effects of Six Antipsychotic Agents on QTc, In the Absence and Presence of Metabolic Inhibition. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. 2004;24(1):62–69.2
Harrison C, Subhan Z, Hindmarch I. Residual effects of zopiclone and benzodiazepine hypnotics on psychomotor performance related to car driving. Drugs Under Experimental & Clinical Research. 1985;11(12):823–829.4
Hart CL, Haney M, Nasser J, Foltin RW. Combined effects of methamphetamine and zolpidem on performance and mood during simulated night shift work. Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior. Jul 2005;81(3):559–568.4
Hart CL, Ward AS, Haney M, Foltin RW. Zolpidem-related effects on performance and mood during simulated night-shift work. Experimental & Clinical Psychopharmacology. 2003;11(4):259–268.4
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Excluded Studies-Update 2

Excluded StudiesCode
Borja NL, Daniel KL. Ramelteon for the treatment of insomnia. Clin Ther. Oct 2006;28(10):1540–1555.5
Bradshaw DA, Ruff GA, Murphy DP. An oral hypnotic medication does not improve continuous positive airway pressure compliance in men with obstructive sleep apnea.[see comment]. Chest. Nov 2006;130(5):1369–1376.2
Capua T, Shapiro CM. Commentary on a critique for the Journal of Psychopharmacology: NICE--excellence or eccentricity? Reflections on the z-drugs as hypnotics review.[comment]. Journal of Psychopharmacology. Jan 2007;21(1):114–117.5
Cimolai N. Zopiclone: is it a pharmacologic agent for abuse? Can Fam Physician. Dec 2007;53(12):2124–2129.5
Corrigan M, McCall WV, Fava M, et al. Adjunctive eszopiclone and fluoxetine in major depressive disorder and insomnia: Effects on sleep and depression. Neuropsychopharmacology. Vol. 2005;30(1).5
Cotroneo A, Gareri P, Nicoletti N, et al. Effectiveness and safety of hypnotic drugs in the treatment of insomnia in over 70-year old people. Archives of Gerontology & Geriatrics. 2007;44 Suppl 1:121–124.6
Coyle MA, Mendelson WB, Derchak PA, James SP, Wilson MG. Ventilatory safety of zaleplon during sleep in patients with obstructive sleep apnea on continuous positive airway pressure. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. Jan 15 2005;1(1):97.2
Cubala WJ, Landowski J, Wichowicz HM. Zolpidem abuse, dependence and withdrawal syndrome: sex as susceptibility factor for adverse effects. Br J Clin Pharmacol. Mar 2008;65(3):444–445.5
Dolder C, Nelson M, McKinsey J. Use of non-benzodiazepine hypnotics in the elderly: are all agents the same? CNS Drugs. 2007;21(5):389–405.5
Kripke DF. Greater incidence of depression with hypnotic use than with placebo. BMC Psychiatry. 2007;7:42.6
Krystal A, Fava M, Rubens R, et al. Evaluation of eszopiclone discontinuation after cotherapy with fluoxetine for insomnia with coexisting depression. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. Feb 15 2007;3(1):48–55.6
Krystal AD. Treating the health, quality of life, and functional impairments in insomnia. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. Feb 15 2007;3(1):63–72.5
Lesser GT. Treatment of chronic insomnia with cognitive behavioral therapy vs zopiclone.[comment]. JAMA. 4/2/2008 2006;296(20):2435–2436; author reply 2436.5
Lieberman JA. Update on the safety considerations in the management of insomnia with hypnotics: incorporating modified-release formulations into primary care. Primary Care Companion to the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2007;9(1):25–31.5
Lundahl J, Staner L, Staner C, Loft H, Deacon S. Short-term treatment with gaboxadol improves sleep maintenance and enhances slow wave sleep in adult patients with primary insomnia. Psychopharmacology. Nov 2007;195(1):139–146.6
Melton ST, Wood JM, Kirkwood CK. Eszopiclone for insomnia. Ann Pharmacother. Oct 2005;39(10):1659–1666.5
Najib J. Eszopiclone, a nonbenzodiazepine sedative-hypnotic agent for the treatment of transient and chronic insomnia. Clin Ther. Apr 2006;28(4):491–516.5
Persaud R. Treatment of chronic insomnia with cognitive behavioral therapy vs zopiclone.[comment]. JAMA. Nov 22 2006;296(20):2435; author reply 2436.5
Puustinen J, Nurminen J, Kukola M, Vahlberg T, Laine K, Kivela S-L. Associations between Use of Benzodiazepines or Related Drugs and Health, Physical Abilities and Cognitive Function: A Non-Randomised Clinical Study in the Elderly. Drugs & Aging. 2007;24(12):1045–1059.6
Rosenberg RP. Sleep maintenance insomnia: strengths and weaknesses of current pharmacologic therapies.[see comment]. Ann Clin Psychiatry. Jan–Mar 2006;18(1):49–56.5
Siriwardena AN, Qureshi Z, Gibson S, Collier S, Latham M. GPs' attitudes to benzodiazepine and 'Z-drug' prescribing: a barrier to implementation of evidence and guidance on hypnotics.[see comment]. Br J Gen Pract. Dec 2006;56(533):964–967.6
Vallieres A, Morin CM, Guay B. Sequential combinations of drug and cognitive behavioral therapy for chronic insomnia: an exploratory study. Behav Res Ther. Dec 2005;43(12):1611–1630.6
Zammit GK, Corser B, Doghramji K, et al. Sleep and residual sedation after administration of zaleplon, zolpidem, and placebo during experimental middle-of- the-night awakening. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. Oct 15 2006;2(4):417–423.4
Copyright © 2008, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon.
Cover of Drug Class Review: Newer Drugs for Insomnia
Drug Class Review: Newer Drugs for Insomnia: Final Report Update 2 [Internet].
Carson S, McDonagh MS, Thakurta S, et al.
Portland (OR): Oregon Health & Science University; 2008 Oct.

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