Table 10Intake of fruit and vegetables and risk of developing AD

StudySample (n)Followup/EventsExposureCase definitionConfounding adjustmentResults
Dai et al., 200689Community cohort (1589)Mean 6.3 years (SD 2.6)

63 AD cases
Fruit and vegetable juice intake estimated from self-reported, self-administered semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaireNINCDS-ADRDA
DSM
Age
Sex
Educational level
Baseline cognitive status
Physical activity
BMI
Olfaction diagnostic group
Total energy intake
Intake of types of fat
APOE
Smoking
Alcohol use
Vitamin C, E, and multivitamin supplement use
Individuals who had fruit and vegetable juice at least once a week were less likely to get AD (trend p < 0.01)
HR for 1 to 2/week: 0.84 (95% CI 0.31 to 2.29)
HR for ≥ 3/week: 0.24 (0.09 to 0.61)
Hughes et al., 200988Other – Twin Registry cohort (3779)Mean 31.5 years (SD 0.91)Self report response on one question about fruit and vegetable consumptionNINCDS-ADRDA
DSM
Age
Sex
Educational level
Smoking
Alcohol use
Exercise
BMI
Angina
Marital status
Total food intake
Medium or great fruit and vegetable intake in mid-life associated with lower risk of AD (OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.41 to 0.86)
Medium or great fruit and vegetable intake in mid-life associated with lower risk of AD in women (OR 0.47; 0.31 to 0.73) but not men. Interaction OR 0.45 (0.21 to 0.98).
Medium or great fruit and vegetable intake in mid-life associated with lower risk of AD in those with angina (OR 0.32; 0.16 to 0.65), but not in those without angina. Interaction OR 0.44 (0.21 to 0.95).

Abbreviations: AD = Alzheimer’s disease; APOE = Apolipoprotein E gene; BMI = body mass index; CI = confidence interval; DSM = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; HR = hazard ratio; NINCDS-ADRDA = National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Diseases and Stroke-Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders Association; OR = odds ratio; SD = standard deviation

From: 3, Results

Cover of Preventing Alzheimer's Disease and Cognitive Decline
Preventing Alzheimer's Disease and Cognitive Decline.
Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 193.
Williams JW, Plassman BL, Burke J, et al.

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