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Table 27Years of education and risk of developing AD

StudySample (n)Followup/EventsExposureCase definitionConfounding adjustmentResults
Ngandu, et al., 2007182Community cohort (2000)Mean 21 years (4.9)

Number or AD cases NR
Self-reported educationNINCDS-ADRDA
DSM
Age
Sex
Followup time
Community of residence
SES variables
Vascular and lifestyle characteristics
APOE
Late-life diseases and depressive symptoms
Education associated with risk of dementia in a dose-dependent manner

Unadjusted ORs (95% CI) for AD:
Education ≤ 5 years = reference
6 to 8 years of education: OR 0.49 (0.24 to 1.00)
≥9 years of education: OR 0.15 (0.05 to 0.40)

None of the covariates were significant in the models, so the effect of education appears to be independent predictor of AD
Tyas et al., 2007183Community cohort (members of a religious order)1 to 11 years

Number or AD cases NR
Self-reported educationNot specifically stated, but appears to basically be consistent with DSMAge
APOE
Prior cognitive state
OR (95% CI) with age, education and APOE in the model and graduate school as the reference:

Transition from intact cognition to dementia:
≤ High school: 41.48 (4.0 to 42.4)
Undergraduate degree: 2.07 (0.28 to 15.1)

Transition from MCI to dementia:
≤ High school: 1.11 (0.49 to 2.53)
Undergraduate degree: 0.76 (0.45 to 1.29)

Abbreviations: AD = Alzheimer’s disease; APOE = apolipoprotein E gene; CI = confidence interval; DSM = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; NINCDS-ADRDA = National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Diseases and Stroke-Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders Association; NR = not reported; OR = odds ratio; RR = relative risk; SES = socioeconomic status

From: 3, Results

Cover of Preventing Alzheimer's Disease and Cognitive Decline
Preventing Alzheimer's Disease and Cognitive Decline.
Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 193.
Williams JW, Plassman BL, Burke J, et al.

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