Table 1Population Characteristics of Studies Measuring Hypogonadism in Men with Erectile Dysfunction

Study details1Study DesignSettingED ScaleAgeComorbiditySerum LevelsTest timeCut-off (T)Normal range(T)Assay
Mean (SD)Range
Jaffe 1996ProspectiveClinicNR55.3hypertensionTT, BT, PRL, LH, FSHmorningTT: <3ng/mL
BT: <1 ng/ml
Citron 1996ProspectiveEndocrinologyNR61.2 ±8.927–79Secondary hypogonadismTT, FT, BT, LHNR<2.3 ng/ml2.3–9.9 ng/mlRIA
Hatzichristou 2002ProspectiveAndrology outpatient clinicNR56 ± 14DM, cardiovascular disease, urinary tract pathology, neurological disease, endocrine pathologyTT, PRLNRNRNRNR
Martinez-Jabaloyas 2006ProspectiveUrology clinicIIEF-EF55 ± 10DM, dyslipidemia, hypertension, ischemic cardiopathyTT, FT, LH, FSH, PRLmorning 8–10 a.mTT: <2.8 ng/ml
FT: <0.228 ng/ml
2.8–8 ng/mLNR
Acar 2004ProspectiveNRIIEF-547±10.1chronic diseaseTT, PRL, FSH, LHmorning after 8 hours fasting<3ng/ml (2x)NSECLA
Earle 2003ProspectiveDepartment of Endocrinology and DiabetesNR54.916–82NRTT, PRL
LH and FSH if low TT
1st test NR
2nd test if TT low in first test, taken in the morning
NR11–37 nmol/LRIA
Rhoden 2002ProspectiveDepartment of urology, andrology devisionIIEF-56040–60NRTTmorning
<2.4 ng/mL2.4–8.3 ng/mLRIA
Bunch 2002RetrospectiveOutpatientsNR64.6 ± 10.851–85DM, IHD, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, depression, sleep apnea, CVA, AF, hypothyroidism, prostate cancer, CRF, head tumors, compression fracturesTT, LHNR<3 ng/ml<60: 3–8.9; >60: 2–7.2 ng/mlRIA
Fahmy 1999ProspectiveED clinicsexual activity questionnaireNRNRTT, FSH, PRLmorning (9–11 am)10 nmol/LNRNR
Buvat 1997RetrospectiveNRNRNRNRTT, PRLmorning post 20 min rest3 ng/ml (low 2–3; lowest <2)NRRIA
Akpunonu 1994ProspectivePrimary care clinicsNR55.4±1024–76Renal Failure, DMTT, PRL, LH, FSHns<10 nmol/L10–34.7 nol/LNR
Drinka 1993ProspectiveOutpatient departmentNR71.7 ± 6NRFTmorning (fasting)<9 pg/mL9–25 pg/mlRIA
Johnson 1992ProspectiveUrology clinicNRNRNRTT, PRL, LHNR<3 ng/dl2.2–7.7 ng/dlRIA
El-Sakka 2005ProspectiveEndocrinology clinicIIEFEndocrinopathy (297) -51.9 ± 12.2
No endocrinopathy (951) -52.3 ± 11.7
Obesity, diabetes, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, dyslipidemia, Cerebrovasular strokeTT, PRL, LH, FSHmorning<2.8 ng/mL (3x)2.8–8.8 ng/mLECLA
Tsujimura 2005ProspectiveSexual function clinicAMS, IIEF-556 (median)50–79NRTT,
<3.7 ng/mL (11nmol/L)2.7–10.7 ng/mlRIA
Guay 1991ProspectiveEndocrinology clinic-NRNRTT, LH, FSHmorningNRTT >3 ng/mL
FT 50–200 pg/mL
Forsberg 1990ProspectiveDepartment of urology and clinic for sexual therapyNR47 (median)Vascular disease, DMTT. LH, FSH, PRLsame time of dayLow <10 nmol/L
Borderline 10–15 nmol/L
Reyes-Vallejo 2006ProspectiveNRNR55.230–79Hypercholesterolemia, DM, hypertension, CAD, depressionTT, FT, FSH, LH, PRLNR<3 ng/mLNRECLA
El-Sakka 2006ProspectiveAndrology clinicIIEF53.9 ± 8.526–86overweight, DM, hypertension, IHD, dyslipidemia, psych. Dis.TT, PRLmorning<2.8 ng/mL (3x)2.8–8.8 ng/mLECLA
Hwang 2007ProspectiveCommunityIIEF-5NRsmokingcFT, TT, BT, FSH, LH, PRL9–12 in the morning≤11nmol/l>11nmol/lNR
Low 2006ProspectiveCommunityIIEF-559.3 ± 7.38depressioncFT, TT, BT, PRL, LHbefore 11 AMTT: ≤11nmol/l
FT: <0.02 nmol/dl
BT: <0.2 nmol/dl
NRdirect CMI
Guay 2007RetrospectiveclinicSHIMNRDM, metabolic syn., IHD, hyperlipidemia, neurological dys., pelvic surgeryFTNS<10 pg/mLNSRIA
Zohdy 2007RetrospectiveNRIIEF-540.3 ± 8.920–56NRTTmorning<2.8 ng/ml2.8–8 ng/mLECLA

Baseline serum levels: TT = total testosterone; FT = free testosterone; BT: bioavailable testosterone; Pr = prolactin; LH = luteinizing hormone; FSH = folicule-stimulant hormone SD = standard deviation; n = number of events; N = total number of participants; % = prevalence

Assay: chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (cmi); electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLA), radioimunoassay (RIA)


calculated free testosterone

Scales: Sex Health Inventory for Men (SHIM); Sexual Functioning Questionnaire (SFQ); International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) and Aging Males Symptoms (AMS)

From: 3, Results

Cover of Diagnosis and Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction
Diagnosis and Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction.
Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 171.
Tsertsvadze A, Yazdi F, Fink HA, et al.

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