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This targeted systematic review was undertaken to assist the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) in updating its previous recommendation on screening and interventions for overweight in children and adolescents. Based on our previous systematic review in 2005, the USPSTF found insufficient evidence to recommend screening for overweight, due to uncertainties about the effectiveness of behavior counseling or other interventions with overweight children and adolescents that could be conducted in primary care settings or to which primary care clinicians can make referrals. Given recent work on another systematic review, Effectiveness of Weight Management Programs in Children and Adolescents, the USPSTF determined to focus its update on what was considered the critical evidence gap at the time of our last systematic review to allow an efficient and timely updating of their recommendation. Thus, for this targeted updated systematic review, we examine previous and newly available evidence on behavioral * Words found in the glossary (located after the text) are italicized on first mention. and pharmacological weight management interventions for overweight and/or obese children and adolescents (defined as those between 2 and 18 years of age that meet criteria for increased body mass index [BMI] appropriate to their age and sex) that are relevant to primary care practice. Readers should note that while this current review builds on our previous USPSTF review, it also differs in scope and definitions of overweight and obesity used in that review. Specifically, the USPSTF has decided to upgrade the terminology it uses to define categories of increased BMI (see Table 1) to align its definitions with other major bodies addressing this issue. Attention to these differences in terminology is key, as children and adolescents defined as “overweight” in the 2005 report would now be defined as “obese”.

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