Table 6Uncorrected Refractive Error - Randomized Controlled Trials

Study, Year
Title
Study design
Purpose of study
Country
PatientsIntervention
Duration of follow-up
ResultsQuality score
Coleman et al, 200683
Treatment of uncorrected refractive error improves vision-specific quality of life
RCT
To evaluate the benefits of eyeglasses and magnifiers in elderly patients with uncorrected refractive error U.S.
N=131
Mean age 80.4 years (SD 8.2)
72% female
63% White; 18% Black; 8% Asian; 3% Hispanic; 8% Other Mean baseline visual acuity 20/63
Intervention group: Received vision correction aids immediately (glasses, magnifier or both)
Control group: Received a voucher and prescription to obtain vision correction aids at the conclusion of the trial (3 months later) 3-month follow-up
Mean change from baseline at 3 months, with glasses vs without glasses National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire: Composite score: 6.5 (SD 9.3) vs -0.8 (SD 10.8); p<0.01 Selected individual components: -General health: 4.2 (SD 18.0) vs -0.4 (SD 17.4); p=.17 -General vision: 10.4 (SD 18.2) vs -2.1 (SD 14.0); p<0.01 -Near vision: 7.6 (SD 19.1) vs 0.4 (SD 17.4); p=0.04 -Distance vision: 3.3 (SD 23.2) vs -6.3 (SD 22.7); p=0.03 -Social functioning: 4.5 (SD 21.0) vs -0.9 (SD 19.6); p=0.17 -Mental health: 11.2 (SD 25.3) vs 0.4 (SD 24.2); p=0.02 GDS score -0.3 (SD 1.9) vs -0.1 (SD 2.1); p=0.58 Rosow-Breslau functioning scale: 0.07 (SD 1.3) vs -0.4 (SD 1.4); p=0.07 Distance visual acuity: 5.5 (SD 10.0) vs 3.9 (10.4); p=0.41 Near visual acuity: 6.1 (SD 13.3) vs 2.2 (SD 11.4); p=0.10Fair
Owsley et al, 200784
Effect of refractive error correction on health-related quality of life and depression in older nursing home residents
RCT
To examine the effect of treating uncorrected refractive error through spectacle correction on vision-targeted health-related quality of life and depressive symptoms in nursing home residents U.S.
N=151
Mean age 78.7 years (SD 8.3)
76% female
Immediate (within 1 week) refractive error correction with glasses vs delayed correction
(glasses dispensed 2 months later)
2-month follow-up
Immediate vs delayed correction at 2 months:
NHVQoL subscale score - range 0–100
  • General vision: 77.3 vs 65.0; p<0.001
  • Reading: 92.9 vs 84.7; p<0.001
  • Ocular symptoms: 81.4 vs 78.3; p=0.23
  • mobility: 91.5 vs 90.0; p=0.24
  • Psychological distress: 76.0 vs 70.7; p=0.02
  • Activities of daily living: 99.7 vs 99.1; p=0.17
  • Activities and hobbies: 98.0 vs 94.0; p=0.04
  • Adaptation and coping: 92.4 vs 90.0; p=0.11
  • Social interaction: 97.3 vs 94.1; p=0.03

VF-14 total score - range 0–100
95.7 vs 83.1; p<0.001
SF-36 score - range 0–100
  • Mental component summary 81.9 vs 80.8; p=0.96
  • Physical component summary 47.6 vs 46.1; p=0.24

GDS score 3.6 vs 4.9; p=0.003
Fair

Abbreviations: GDS = geriatric depression scale, SD = standard deviation, SF-36 = Medical Outcomes Study - Short Form Health Survey 36, VF-14 = Health survey questionnaire designed specifically for ophthalmology. “VF” stands for Visual Function, and “14” refers to the 14 questions in the main section of the questionnaire.

From: 3, Results

Cover of Screening for Visual Impairment in Older Adults
Screening for Visual Impairment in Older Adults: Systematic Review to Update the 1996 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation [Internet].
Evidence Syntheses, No. 71.
Chou R, Dana T, Bougatsos C.

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