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Anemia caused by low iron - children

Anemia - iron deficiency - children

Last reviewed: February 25, 2014.

Anemia is a problem in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells bring oxygen to body tissues.

Iron helps make red blood cells, so a lack of iron in the body may lead to anemia. The medical name of this problem is iron deficiency anemia.

Causes

Anemia caused by a low iron level is the most common form of anemia. The body gets iron through certain foods. It also reuses iron from old red blood cells.

A diet that does not have enough iron is the most common cause. During periods of rapid growth during puberty, even more iron is needed.

Toddlers who drink too much cow's milk may also become anemic if they are not eating other healthy foods that have iron. Other causes may be:

  • The body is not able to absorb iron well, even though the child is eating enough iron
  • Slow blood loss over a long period, often due to menstrual periods or bleeding in the digestive tract

Iron deficiency in children can also be related to lead poisoning.

Symptoms

Mild anemia may have no symptoms. As the iron level and blood counts becomes lower, your child may:

With more severe anemia, your child may have:

Exams and Tests

The health care provider will perform a physical exam.

Blood tests that measure iron level in the body include:

A measurement called iron saturation (serum iron/TIBC) often can show whether the child has enough iron in the body.

Treatment

Since children only absorb a small amount of the iron they eat, most children need to have 8 to 10 mg of iron per day.

Eating healthy foods is the most important way to prevent and treat iron deficiency. Good sources of iron include:

  • Apricots
  • Chicken, turkey, fish, and other meats
  • Dried beans, lentils, and soybeans
  • Eggs
  • Molasses
  • Oatmeal
  • Peanut butter
  • Prune juice
  • Raisins and prunes
  • Spinach, kale and other greens

If a healthy diet does not prevent or treat your child's low iron level and anemia, the doctor will likely recommend iron supplements for your child. These are taken by mouth.

Do not give your child iron supplements or vitamins with iron without checking with your child's doctor. The doctor will prescribe the right kind of supplement for your child. If your child takes too much iron, it can cause poisoning.

Outlook (Prognosis)

With treatment, the outcome is likely to be good. In most cases, the blood counts will return to normal in 2 months. It is important that the doctor find the cause of your child's iron deficiency.

Possible Complications

Anemia caused by a low iron level can affect a child's ability to learn in school. A low iron level can cause decreased attention span, reduced alertness, and learning problems in children.

A low iron level can cause the body to absorb too much lead.

Prevention

Eating healthy foods is the most important way to prevent and treat iron deficiency.

References

  1. Baker RD. Greer FR, American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition. Clinical report -- diagnosis and prevention of iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia in infants and young children (0-3 years of age). Pediatrics. 2010;doi: 10.1542/peds.2010-2576.
  2. Lerner NB, Sills R. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW III, et al., eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 449.

Review Date: 2/25/2014.

Reviewed by: Sameer Patel, MD, Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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Copyright © 2013, A.D.A.M., Inc.

A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among the first to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy, editorial process and privacy policy. A.D.A.M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch).

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only — they do not constitute endorsementscof those other sites. © 1997–2011 A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

Copyright © 2013, A.D.A.M., Inc.

What works?

  • Iron treatment for adults and children with reduced kidney functionIron treatment for adults and children with reduced kidney function
    Anaemia often occurs in people who have kidney damage, especially those who need dialysis treatment. Anaemia can cause tiredness, reduce exercise tolerance and increase heart size. A common cause of anaemia is reduced production of a hormone, erythropoietin. Iron deficiency can make anaemia worse, and reduce response to drugs that stimulate erythropoietin production. Iron can be taken orally (by mouth) or injected intravenously (via a vein). Intravenous (IV) iron is given under supervision in hospitals. There is uncertainty about whether IV iron should be used rather than oral iron. In this review of 28 studies (2098 participants), IV iron resulted in higher levels of haemoglobin (a measure of anaemia) and blood iron levels compared with oral iron, and a reduction in the amount of erythropoietin required for people receiving dialysis. IV iron resulted in a small number of allergic reactions not seen with oral iron, but oral iron caused more vomiting, nausea, constipation and diarrhoea than IV iron. No differences were found in other outcomes (deaths from any cause, deaths due to heart disease, quality of life) but these were reported in few (9/28) studies. No studies investigated the impact on patients who did not need dialysis of coming to hospital to receive IV iron. Although the results confirm that IV iron is more effective in raising iron and haemoglobin levels compared with oral iron, we found insufficient data to determine if the benefits of IV iron are justified by improved quality of life (fewer gastric upsets) despite the small risk of potentially serious allergic effects in some patients given IV iron.
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Figures

  • Red blood cells, target cells.
    Formed elements of blood.
    Hemoglobin.

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