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A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia [Internet]. Atlanta (GA): A.D.A.M.; 2013.

A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia.

Hysterectomy

Vaginal hysterectomy; Abdominal hysterectomy; Supracervical hysterectomy; Radical hysterectomy; Removal of the uterus; Laparoscopic hysterectomy; Laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy; LAVH; Total laparoscopic hysterectomy; TLH; Laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy; Robotically assisted hysterectomy

Last reviewed: March 11, 2014.

Hysterectomy is surgery to remove a woman's womb (uterus). The uterus is a hollow muscular organ that nourishes the developing baby during pregnancy.

Description

You may have all or part of the uterus removed during a hysterectomy. The fallopian tubes and ovaries may also be removed.

There are many different ways to perform a hysterectomy. It may be done through:

  • A surgical cut in the belly (called open or abdominal)
  • 3 to 4 small surgical cuts in the belly and then using a laparoscope
  • A surgical cut in the vagina, and using a laparoscope
  • 3 to 4 small surgical cuts in the belly, in order to perform robotic surgery

You and your doctor will decide which type of procedure. The choice will depend on your medical history and the reason for the surgery.

Hysterectomy

Why the Procedure Is Performed

There are many reasons a woman may need a hysterectomy, including:

Hysterectomy is a major surgery. Some conditions can be treated with less invasive procedures such as:

Pelvic laparoscopy

Risks

Risks of any surgery are:

Risks of a hysterectomy are:

Before the Procedure

Before deciding to have a hysterectomy, ask your doctor or nurse what to expect after the procedure. Many women notice changes in their body and in how they feel about themselves after a hysterectomy. Talk with your doctor, nurse, family, and friends about these possible changes before you have surgery.

Tell your health care team about all the medicines you are taking. These include herbs, supplements, and other medicines you bought without a prescription.

During the days before the surgery:

  • You may be asked to stop taking aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), clopidogrel (Plavix), warfarin (Coumadin), and any other drugs like these.
  • Ask your doctor which drugs you should still take on the day of your surgery.
  • If you smoke, try to stop. Ask your doctor or nurse for help quitting.

On the day of your surgery:

  • You will usually be asked not to drink or eat anything for 8 hours before the surgery.
  • Take any medicines your doctor told you to take with a small sip of water.
  • Arrive at the hospital on time.

After the Procedure

After surgery, you will be given pain medicines.

You may also have a tube, called a catheter, inserted into your bladder to pass urine. Most of the time, the catheter is removed before leaving the hospital.

You will be asked to get up and move around as soon as possible after surgery. This helps prevent blood clots from forming in your legs and speeds recovery.

You will be asked to get up to use the bathroom as soon as you are able. You may return to a normal diet as soon as you can without causing nausea or vomiting.

How long you stay in the hospital depends on the type of hysterectomy.

  • You can likely go home the next day when surgery is done through the vagina using a laparoscope or after robotic surgery.
  • When a larger surgical cut (incision) in the abdomen is made, you may need to stay in the hospital 1 to 2 days. You may need to stay longer if the hysterectomy is done because of cancer.

Outlook (Prognosis)

How long it takes you to recover depends on the type of hysterectomy. Average recovery times are:

A hysterectomy will cause menopause if you also have your ovaries removed. Removal of the ovaries can also lead to a decreased sex drive. Your doctor may recommend estrogen replacement therapy. Discuss with your doctor the risks and benefits of this therapy.

If the hysterectomy was done for cancer, you may need further treatment.

References

  1. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Committee Opinion No. 444: Choosing the route of hysterectomy for benign disease. Obstet Gynecol. 2009 (Reaffirmed 2011);114:1156-1158. [PubMed: 20168127]
  2. Giudice LC. Clinical practice. Endometriosis. N Engl J Med. 2010 Jun 24;362(25):2389-98. [PMC free article: PMC3108065] [PubMed: 20573927]
  3. Jones HW III. Gynecologic surgery. In: Townsend CM, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, eds. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery. 19th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 71.
  4. Middleton LJ, Champaneria R, Daniels JP, et al. Hysterectomy, endometrial destruction, and levonorgestrel releasing intrauterine system (Mirena) for heavy menstrual bleeding: systematic review and meta-analysis of data from individual patients. BMJ. 2010;341:c3929. [PMC free article: PMC2922496] [PubMed: 20713583]
  5. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines): Cervical cancer. Version 2.2013. Available at: http://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/cervical.pdf. Accessed February 22, 2012.

Review Date: 3/11/2014.

Reviewed by: Susan Storck, MD, FACOG, Chief, Eastside Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound, Bellevue, Washington; Clinical Teaching Faculty, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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What works?

  • Hysterectomy versus hysterectomy plus oophorectomy for premenopausal womenHysterectomy versus hysterectomy plus oophorectomy for premenopausal women
    Removing the ovaries at the time of hysterectomy could potentially improve longevity as it reduces the risk of ovarian cancer and the need for future gynaecological procedures. However, women who have had their ovaries removed have also been reported to have an increase in cardiovascular disease. Currently, there are no good quality studies of the benefits or harms of removing the ovaries at the time of hysterectomy. Until well‐designed studies that compare women undergoing hysterectomy with women undergoing hysterectomy and removing ovaries are undertaken, removing the ovaries at the time of hysterectomy should be approached with caution.
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Figures

  • Pelvic laparoscopy.
    Hysterectomy.
    Uterus.

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