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A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia [Internet]. Atlanta (GA): A.D.A.M.; 2013.

A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia.

Trisomy 18

Edwards syndrome

Last reviewed: September 8, 2013.

Trisomy 18 is a genetic disorder in which a person has a third copy of material from chromosome 18, instead of the usual two copies.

Causes

Trisomy 18 occurs in 1 in 6,000 live births. It is three times more common in girls than boys.

The syndrome occurs when there is extra material from chromosome 18. The extra material affects normal development.

Symptoms

Exams and Tests

An exam during pregnancy may show an unusually large uterus and extra amniotic fluid. There may be an unusually small placenta when the baby is born.

A physical exam of the infant may show unusual fingerprint patterns. X-rays may show a short breast bone. Chromosome studies will show trisomy 18, partial trisomy, or translocation.

Other signs include:

There are often signs of congenital heart disease, such as:

Tests may also show kidney problems, including:

Treatment

There are no specific treatments for trisomy 18. Which treatments are used depend on the patient's individual condition.

Support Groups

Outlook (Prognosis)

Half of infants with this condition do not survive beyond the first week of life, and 90% of the children will die by one year of age. Some children have survived to the teenage years, but with serious medical and developmental problems.

Possible Complications

Complications depend on the specific defects and symptoms.

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Genetic counseling can help families understand the condition, the risks of inheriting it, and how to care for the patient.

Prevention

Tests can be done during pregnancy to find out if the child has this syndrome.

Genetic testing is recommended for parents who have a child with this syndrome and who want to have more children.

References

  1. Summar K, Lee B. Cytogenetics. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW III, Shor NF, Behrman RE, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 76.

Review Date: 9/8/2013.

Reviewed by: Chad Haldeman-Englert, MD, FACMG, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Section on Medical Genetics, Winston-Salem, NC. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only — they do not constitute endorsementscof those other sites. © 1997–2011 A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

Copyright © 2013, A.D.A.M., Inc.

A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among the first to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy, editorial process and privacy policy. A.D.A.M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch).

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only — they do not constitute endorsementscof those other sites. © 1997–2011 A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

Copyright © 2013, A.D.A.M., Inc.

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