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A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia [Internet]. Atlanta (GA): A.D.A.M.; 2013.

A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia.

Stuttering

Children and stuttering; Speech disfluency; Stammering

Last reviewed: June 12, 2012.

Stuttering is a speech disorder in which sounds, syllables, or words are repeated or last longer than normal. These problems cause a break in the flow of speech (called disfluency).

Causes, incidence, and risk factors

About 5% of children (1 out of every 20 children) aged 2 - 5 will develop some stuttering during their childhood. It may last for several weeks to several years.

For a small number of children (less than 1%), stuttering does not go away and it may get worse. This is called developmental stuttering, and it is the most common type of stuttering.

Stuttering tends to run in families. Genes that cause stuttering have been identified.

There is also evidence that stuttering may be a result of some brain injuries, such as stroke or traumatic brain injuries.

Stuttering may rarely be caused by emotional trauma (called psychogenic stuttering).

Stuttering is more common in boys than girls. It also tends to persist into adulthood more often in boys than in girls.

Symptoms

Stuttering may start with repeating consonants (k, g, t). If stuttering becomes worse, words and phrases are repeated.

Later, vocal spasms develop. There is a forced, almost explosive sound to speech. The person may appear to be struggling to speak.

Stressful social situations and anxiety can make symptoms worse.

Symptoms of stuttering may include:

  • Feeling frustrated when trying to communicate
  • Pausing or hesitating when starting or during sentences, phrases, or words, often with the lips together
  • Putting in (interjecting) extra sounds or words ("We went to the...uh...store")
  • Repeating sounds, words, parts of words, or phrases ("I want...I want my doll," "I...I see you," or "Ca-ca-ca-can")
  • Tension in the voice
  • Very long sounds within words ("I am Booooobbbby Jones" or "Llllllllike")

Other symptoms that might be seen with stuttering include:

  • Eye blinking
  • Jerking of the head or other body parts
  • Jaw jerking

Children with mild stuttering are often unaware of their stuttering. In more severe cases, children may be more aware. Facial movements, anxiety, and increased stuttering may occur when they are asked to speak.

Some people who stutter find that they don't stutter when they read aloud or sing.

Signs and tests

No testing is usually necessary. The diagnosis of stuttering may require consultation with a speech pathologist.

Treatment

There is no one best treatment for stuttering. Most early cases are short-term and resolve on their own.

Speech therapy may be helpful if:

  • Stuttering has lasted more than 3 - 6 months, or the "blocked" speech lasts several seconds
  • The child appears to be struggling when stuttering, or is embarrassed
  • There is a family history of stuttering

Speech therapy can help make the speech more fluent or smooth, and can help the child feel better about the stuttering.

Parents are encouraged to:

  • Avoid expressing too much concern about the stuttering, which can actually make matters worse by making the child more self-conscious
  • Avoid stressful social situations whenever possible
  • Listen patiently to the child, make eye contact, don't interrupt, and show love and acceptance. Avoid finishing sentences for them.
  • Set aside time for talking
  • Talk openly about stuttering when the child brings it up, letting them know you understand their frustration
  • Talk with the speech therapist about when to gently correct the stuttering

Drug therapy has NOT been shown to be helpful for stuttering.

It is not clear whether electronic devices help with stuttering.

Self-help groups are often helpful for both the child and family.

Expectations (prognosis)

In most children who stutter, the phase passes and speech returns to normal within 3 or 4 years. Stuttering that begins after a child is 8 - 10 years old is more likely to last into adulthood.

Complications

Possible complications of stuttering include social problems caused by the fear of ridicule, which may make a child avoid speaking entirely.

Calling your health care provider

Call your provider if:

  • Stuttering is interfering with your child's school work or emotional development
  • The child seems anxious or embarrassed about speaking
  • The symptoms last for more than 3 - 6 months

Prevention

There is no known way to prevent stuttering.

References

  1. Prasse JE, Kikano GE. Stuttering: an overview. Am Fam Physician. 2008;77(9):1271-1276. [PubMed: 18540491]
  2. Stuttering. National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. NIDCD. NIH Pub. No. 10-4232. Updated March 2010. Reviewed OCtober 2008.

Review Date: 6/12/2012.

Reviewed by: David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc. Neil K. Kaneshiro, MD, MHA, Clinical Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine.

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Copyright © 2013, A.D.A.M., Inc.

A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among the first to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy, editorial process and privacy policy. A.D.A.M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch).

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only — they do not constitute endorsementscof those other sites. © 1997–2011 A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

Copyright © 2013, A.D.A.M., Inc.

What works?

  • Treatments for long‐lasting and painful erection of the penis in boys and men with sickle cell disease
    Priapism (the prolonged painful erection of the penis) is common in males with sickle cell disease (SCD). The length of time priapism lasts differs for different types and so does the medical treatment for it. Self‐management approaches may be helpful. We looked for randomised controlled trials of different treatments to find the best option. We found one study set in Jamaica in 1985 with 11 people. In the study, stilboestrol was compared to placebo. The study only reports one of the outcomes from the review, how often stuttering priapism occurs. There is no difference between treatment groups for this outcome. Due to lack of evidence, we are not able to conclude the best treatment of priapism in SCD. Alpha agonists have become the treatment of choice for acute fulminant priapism and to prevent stuttering priapism. However, this is not supported by a randomised controlled trial. More research is needed. One trial is under way in the UK at this moment in time.
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