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A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia [Internet]. Atlanta (GA): A.D.A.M.; 2013.

A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia.

Acidosis

Last reviewed: November 7, 2013.

Acidosis is a condition in which there is too much acid in the body fluids. It is the opposite of alkalosis (a condition in which there is too much base in the body fluids).

Causes

The kidneys and lungs maintain the balance (proper pH level) of chemicals called acids and bases in the body. Acidosis occurs when acid builds up or when bicarbonate (a base) is lost. Acidosis is classified as either respiratory or metabolic acidosis.

Respiratory acidosis develops when there is too much carbon dioxide (an acid) in the body. This type of acidosis is usually caused when the body is unable to remove enough carbon dioxide through breathing. Other names for respiratory acidosis are hypercapnic acidosis and carbon dioxide acidosis. Causes of respiratory acidosis include:

  • Chest deformities, such as kyphosis
  • Chest injuries
  • Chest muscle weakness
  • Chronic lung disease
  • Overuse of sedative drugs

Metabolic acidosis develops when too much acid is produced in the body. It can also occur when the kidneys cannot remove enough acid from the body. There are several types of metabolic acidosis:

  • Diabetic acidosis (also called diabetic ketoacidosis and DKA) develops when substances called ketone bodies (which are acidic) build up during uncontrolled diabetes.
  • Hyperchloremic acidosis is caused by the loss of too much sodium bicarbonate from the body, which can happen with severe diarrhea.

Lactic acidosis is a buildup of lactic acid. This can be caused by:

  • Cancer
  • Drinking too much alcohol
  • Exercising vigorously for a very long time
  • Liver failure
  • Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia)
  • Medications, such as salicylates
  • MELAS (a very rare genetic mitochondrial disorder that affects energy production)
  • Prolonged lack of oxygen from shock, heart failure, or severe anemia

Other causes of metabolic acidosis include:

Symptoms

Metabolic acidosis symptoms depend on the underlying disease or condition. Metabolic acidosis itself usually causes rapid breathing. Confusion or lethargy may also occur. Severe metabolic acidosis can lead to shock or death.

Respiratory acidosis symptoms can include confusion, fatigue, lethargy, shortness of breath, and sleepiness.

Exams and Tests

The doctor will perform a physical examination and ask about your symptoms.

Laboratory tests that may be ordered include:

Other tests may be needed to determine the cause of the acidosis.

Treatment

Treatment depends on the cause.

Outlook (Prognosis)

Acidosis can be dangerous if untreated. Many cases respond well to treatment.

Possible Complications

Complications depend on the specific type of acidosis.

When to Contact a Medical Professional

All the types of acidosis will cause symptoms that require treatment by your health care provider.

Prevention

Prevention depends on the cause of the acidosis. Many causes of metabolic acidosis can be prevented, including diabetic ketoacidosis and some causes of lactic acidosis. Normally, people with healthy kidneys and lungs do not have serious acidosis.

References

  1. Seifter JL. Acid-base disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 120.

Review Date: 11/7/2013.

Reviewed by: Brent Wisse, MD, Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology & Nutrition, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only — they do not constitute endorsementscof those other sites. © 1997–2011 A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

Copyright © 2013, A.D.A.M., Inc.

A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among the first to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy, editorial process and privacy policy. A.D.A.M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch).

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only — they do not constitute endorsementscof those other sites. © 1997–2011 A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

Copyright © 2013, A.D.A.M., Inc.

What works?

  • Risk of fatal and nonfatal lactic acidosis with metformin use in type 2 diabetes mellitusRisk of fatal and nonfatal lactic acidosis with metformin use in type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Metformin, a medication used to lower glucose levels in patients with diabetes mellitus, has long been thought to increase the risk for a metabolic disorder known as lactic acidosis. This review summarised data from all known comparative and observational studies lasting at least one month, and found no cases of fatal or nonfatal lactic acidosis in 70,490 patient‐years of metformin use, or in 55,451 patient‐years for those not on metformin. Average lactate levels measured during metformin treatment were no different than for placebo or for other medications used to treat diabetes. In summary, there is no evidence at present that metformin is associated with an increased risk for lactic acidosis when prescribed under the study conditions.
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