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A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia [Internet]. Atlanta (GA): A.D.A.M.; 2013.

A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia.

Strongyloidiasis

Last reviewed: November 10, 2012.

Strongyloidiasis is infection with the roundworm Strongyloides stercoralis (S. stercoralis).

Causes, incidence, and risk factors

S. stercoralis is a roundworm that is fairly common in warm, moist areas. In rare cases, it can be found as far north as Canada.

People catch the infection when their skin comes in contact with soil contaminated with the worms.

The tiny worm is barely visible to the naked eye. Young roundworms can move through a person's skin and into the bloodstream to the lungs and airways.

They then move up to the throat, where they are swallowed into the stomach. The worms then move to the small intestine, where they attach to the wall. Later, they produce eggs, which hatch into tiny larvae (immature worms) and pass out of the body.

Unlike other worms, these larvae can reenter the body through the skin around the anus, which allows an infection to grow. Areas where the worms go through the skin can become red and painful.

This infection is uncommon in the United States. Most cases in North America are brought by travelers who have visited or lived in South America or Africa.

Symptoms

Most of the time, there are no symptoms.

If there are symptoms, they may include:

Signs and tests

The following tests may be done:

Treatment

The goal of treatment is to eliminate the worms with anti-worm medications such as ivermectin or albendazole.

In some cases, people with no symptoms are treated. This includes people who take drugs that suppress the immune system.

Expectations (prognosis)

With proper treatment, worms can be removed and full recovery expected. Sometimes treatment needs to be repeated.

Infections that are severe or affect many areas of the body (disseminated infection) often have a poor outcome, especially in people with weakened immune systems.

Complications

Calling your health care provider

Call for an appointment with your health care provider if you have symptoms of strongyloidiasis.

Prevention

Good personal hygiene can reduce the risk of strongyloidiasis. Public health services and sanitary facilities provide good infection control.

References

  1. Maguire JW. Intestinal nematodes (roundworms). In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolan R, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill-Livingstone; 2009:chap 287.
  2. Diemert DJ. Intestinal nematode infections. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011: chap 365.

Review Date: 11/10/2012.

Reviewed by: Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Assistant in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital. Also reviewed by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc., Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, David R. Eltz, Stephanie Slon, and Nissi Wang.

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The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only — they do not constitute endorsementscof those other sites. © 1997–2011 A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

Copyright © 2013, A.D.A.M., Inc.

A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among the first to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy, editorial process and privacy policy. A.D.A.M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch).

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only — they do not constitute endorsementscof those other sites. © 1997–2011 A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

Copyright © 2013, A.D.A.M., Inc.

Figures

  • Strongyloidiasis, creeping eruption on the back.
    Digestive system organs.

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