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A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia [Internet]. Atlanta (GA): A.D.A.M.; 2013.

A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia.

Malignant hypertension

Accelerated hypertension; Arteriolar nephrosclerosis; Nephrosclerosis - arteriolar; Hypertension - malignant; High blood pressure - malignant

Last reviewed: April 5, 2013.

Malignant hypertension is very high blood pressure that comes on suddenly and quickly. The lower (diastolic) blood pressure reading, which is normally less than 80 mmHg, is often above 130 mmHg.

Causes

The disorder affects about 1% of people with high blood pressure, including both children and adults. It is more common in younger adults, especially African-American men.

It also occurs in people with:

You are at high risk for malignant hypertension if you have had:

Symptoms

Exams and Tests

Malignant hypertension is a medical emergency.

A physical exam commonly shows:

  • Extremely high blood pressure
  • Swelling in the lower legs and feet
  • Abnormal heart sounds and fluid in the lungs
  • Changes in thinking, sensation, muscle ability, and reflexes

An eye examination will reveal changes that indicate high blood pressure, including:

Kidney failure, as well as other complications, may develop.

Tests to determine damage to the kidneys may include:

A chest x-ray may show congestion in the lung and an enlarged heart.

This disease may also affect the results of the following tests:

Treatment

You will need to stay in the hospital until the severe high blood pressure is under control. Medications will be given through a vein to reduce your blood pressure.

If there is fluid in your lungs, you will be given medicines called diuretics, which help the body remove fluid. Your doctor will consider giving you medications to protect the heart if there is evidence of heart damage.

After the severe high blood pressure is brought under control, blood pressure medicines taken by mouth can control blood pressure. Your medication may need to be changed sometimes. High blood pressure can be difficult to control.

Outlook (Prognosis)

Many body systems are at serious risk from the extreme rise in blood pressure. Many organs, including the brain, eyes, blood vessels, heart, and kidneys may be damaged.

The blood vessels of the kidney are very likely to be damaged by pressure. Kidney failure may develop, which may be permanent and need dialysis (kidney machine).

If treated right away, malignant hypertension can often be controlled without causing permanent problems. If it is not treated right away, complications may be severe and life-threatening.

Possible Complications

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Go to the emergency room or call your local emergency number (such as 911) if you have symptoms of malignant hypertension. This is an emergency condition and it can be life-threatening.

Call your health care provider if you know you have poorly controlled high blood pressure.

Prevention

If you have high blood pressure, carefully monitor your blood pressure and take your medicines properly to help reduce the risk. Eat a healthy diet that is low in salt and fat.

References

  1. Badr KF, Brenner BM. Vascular injury to the kidney. In: Fauci A , Kasper D, Longo DL, et al, eds. Harrison's Principals of Internal Medicine. 17th ed. New York, NY: McGraw Hill; 2008:chap 280.
  2. Shayne P, Stettner E. Hypertension. In: Wolfson AB, Hendey GW, Ling LJ, et al, eds. Harwood-Nuss' Clinical Practice of Emergency Medicine. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2009:chap 89.

Review Date: 4/5/2013.

Reviewed by: Jacob L. Heller, MD, MHA, Emergency Medicine, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, Washington. Also reviewed by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc., Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, Stephanie Slon, and Nissi Wang.

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The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only — they do not constitute endorsementscof those other sites. © 1997–2011 A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

Copyright © 2013, A.D.A.M., Inc.

A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among the first to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy, editorial process and privacy policy. A.D.A.M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch).

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only — they do not constitute endorsementscof those other sites. © 1997–2011 A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

Copyright © 2013, A.D.A.M., Inc.

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