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A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia [Internet]. Atlanta (GA): A.D.A.M.; 2013.

A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia.

Cardiogenic shock

Shock - cardiogenic

Last reviewed: May 13, 2014.

Cardiogenic shock is when the heart has been damaged so much that it is unable to supply enough blood to the organs of the body.

Causes

Cardiogenic shock occurs when the heart is unable to pump as much blood as the body needs.

The most common causes are serious heart complications. Many of these occur during or after a heart attack (myocardial infarction). These complications include:

Symptoms

Exams and Tests

An exam will show:

  • Low blood pressure (most often less than 90 systolic)
  • Blood pressure that drops more than 10 points when you stand up after lying down (orthostatic hypotension)
  • Weak (thready) pulse

To diagnose cardiogenic shock, a catheter (tube) may be placed in the lung artery (right heart catheterization). Tests may show that blood is backing up into the lungs and the heart is not pumping well.

Tests include:

Other studies may be done to find out why the heart is not working properly.

Lab tests include:

Treatment

Cardiogenic shock is a medical emergency. You will need to stay in the hospital, most often in the Intensive Care Unit. The goal of treatment is to find and treat the cause of shock to save your life.

You may need medicines to increase blood pressure and improve heart function, including:

These medicines may help in the short-term. They are not often used for a long time.

When a heart rhythm disturbance (dysrhythmia) is serious, urgent treatment may be needed to restore a normal heart rhythm. This may include:

  • Electrical "shock" therapy (defibrillation or cardioversion)
  • Implanting a temporary pacemaker
  • Medications given through a vein (IV)

You may also receive:

  • Pain medicine
  • Fluids, blood, and blood products through a vein (IV)

Other treatments for shock may include:

Outlook (Prognosis)

In the past, the death rate from cardiogenic shock ranged from 80 - 90%. In more recent studies, this rate has decreased to 50 - 75%.

When cardiogenic shock is not treated, the outlook is poor.

Possible Complications

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Go to the emergency room or call the local emergency number (such as 911) if you have symptoms of cardiogenic shock. Cardiogenic shock is a medical emergency.

Prevention

You may reduce the risk of developing cardiogenic shock by:

References

  1. Gheorghiade M, Filippatos GS, Felker GM. Diagnosis and management of acute failure syndromes. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; 2011:chap 27.
  2. Hollenberg S. Cardiogenic shock. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 107.

Review Date: 5/13/2014.

Reviewed by: Michael A. Chen, MD, PhD, Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington Medical School, Seattle, Washington. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only — they do not constitute endorsementscof those other sites. © 1997–2011 A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

Copyright © 2013, A.D.A.M., Inc.

A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among the first to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy, editorial process and privacy policy. A.D.A.M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch).

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only — they do not constitute endorsementscof those other sites. © 1997–2011 A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

Copyright © 2013, A.D.A.M., Inc.

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