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About - Trachea

The airway that leads from the larynx (voice box) to the bronchi (large airways that lead to the lungs). Also called windpipe.

Results: 7

The added value of water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions to mass drug administration for reducing the prevalence of trachoma: a systematic review examining

Trachoma is the leading cause of infectious blindness worldwide. The SAFE strategy, the World Health Organization-recommended method to eliminate blinding trachoma, combines developments in water, sanitation, surgery, and antibiotic treatment. Current literature does not focus on the comprehensive effect these components have on one another. The present systematic review analyzes the added benefit of water, sanitation, and hygiene education interventions to preventive mass drug administration of azithromycin for trachoma. Trials were identified from the PubMed database using a series of search terms. Three studies met the complete criteria for inclusion. Though all studies found a significant change in reduction of active trachoma prevalence, the research is still too limited to suggest the impact of the "F" and "E" components on trachoma prevalence and ultimately its effects on blindness.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

Antibiotics reduce the prevalence of ocular infection with trachoma

Trachoma is common in people living in poor communities and is the most common infectious cause of vision loss. Repeated bouts of conjunctivitis (inflammation of the membranes of the eyes) caused by Chlamydia infection eventually lead to scarring and inward turning of the eyelid. The lashes rub on the cornea causing opacification and blindness. Antibiotics can be used to treat the Chlamydia infection and may be given as an ointment or by mouth. This review included 14 trials in 3587 people with ocular trachoma and eight community‐based trials (67 communities). Antibiotic treatment reduce conjunctivitis caused by trachoma ('active trachoma') and ocular infection in individuals. Community‐based trials provided evidence that azithromycin treatment reduces the prevalence of active trachoma and ocular Chlamydia infection.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Face washing promotion for reducing active trachoma

Trachoma is an infectious eye disease. Active infection usually begins in childhood and is characterized by eye discharge, redness and irritation. Poor facial hygiene can lead to the disease spreading from person to person through eye‐seeking flies or contaminated fingers. Face washing is promoted as part of the World Health Organization ' SAFE' strategy to eliminate blindness around the world. The review authors identified two randomized controlled trials with a total of 2560 participants set in Australia and Tanzania. One trial had face washing in combination with tetracycline as the intervention and tetracycline ointment alone as the control. The second trial compared eye washing to no treatment or to topical tetracycline alone or to a combination of eye washing and tetracycline drops in children with follicular trachoma. Both trials reported on active trachoma as an outcome measure but only one trial reported on severe trachoma and percentage of clean faces. The trials included in this review evaluated the effect of face washing over a three to 12 month period. There is some evidence that face washing combined with topical tetracycline can be effective in reducing severe trachoma and in increasing the prevalence of clean faces.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Environmental sanitation measures to reduce trachoma transmission

Trachoma is the commonest cause of preventable vision loss and is common in poor communities. Repeated bouts of conjunctivitis caused by chlamydia infection lead to scarring and turning in of the eyelid. The lashes rub the cornea causing opacification and blindness. Environmental sanitation is a package of measures aimed at eliminating factors that encourage proliferation of flies and the spread of the disease. Some of these interventions include provision of water and latrines as well insecticide spray to control flies and health education programmes to improve the personal and environmental hygienic practices of the people. We included six studies involving 12,294 participants of different ages and both sexes in this review. The trials were conducted in The Gambia, Mali, Tanzania, Niger and Ethiopia. Two studies looked at insecticide spray, one looked at insecticide spray and provision of latrines, one study looked at provision of latrines, and two studies looked at health education with one of them having health education combined with water supply. Prevalence of active trachoma, prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and fly count measures were the main outcomes assessed. Two studies conducted in the same area found insecticide spray effective in reducing active trachoma but one study in a different setting found the spray ineffective. A separate study found health education on personal and environmental hygiene to be effective in reducing active trachoma, however, another study found that a modest health education programme combined with a modest water supply was not effective in reducing active trachoma. One study on latrine provision found no impact on trachoma. However, more research is needed.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Interventions for trachoma trichiasis, in‐turning of the upper eye lashes caused by a chronic infectious inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eye that can lead to blindness

Trachoma is a form of chronic inflammation of the transparent mucous membrane that lines the eyelids and covers the white of the eye (conjunctiva). It is a bacterial infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis that is associated with poverty and is most prevalent in hot dry areas. Repeated infections cause scarring of the conjunctiva of the upper eyelid, which causes the eyelid to turn in (entropion) so that the eyelashes touch the cornea at the front of the eye. This is known as trachoma trichiasis. Every movement of the eye or eyelids causes trauma to the corneal surface so that it eventually turns opaque and the person becomes blind. Improved facial cleanliness and environmental hygiene may reduce the spread of trachoma. Antibiotic treatment may also be useful but surgery to correct the eye lid deformity is the only treatment that is likely to be helpful in the late stages of the disease. The review authors searched the medical literature and identified seven randomised controlled studies (2331 participants) investigating surgical and non‐surgical treatments as a way of reducing the recurrence of trichiasis. Three studies compared different surgical interventions. These trials suggested that the most effective surgery requires full‐thickness incision and rotation of the edge of the eyelid. Community‐based surgery was more convenient for patients by reducing the time and expense of travelling to a conventional hospital and it did not increase the risk of complications or recurrence. Surgery performed by ophthalmologists and by integrated eye workers were both similarly effective. The addition of azithromycin treatment at the time of surgery did not reduce the recurrence of trichiasis in a single study (426 participants). Non‐surgical methods included removing the eye lashes (epilation) using electrolysis or cryotherapy and taping the eyelid back. One trial found that the use of double‐sided sticking plaster was more effective than removing the eye lashes as a temporary measure but the tape had to be replaced weekly. Destroying the lashes appeared to have low success rates and the equipment required is costly and can be difficult to maintain. The included studies were carried out in China, Gambia, Ethiopia and Oman.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Shared sanitation versus individual household latrines: a systematic review of health outcomes

BACKGROUND: More than 761 million people rely on shared sanitation facilities. These have historically been excluded from international sanitation targets, regardless of the service level, due to concerns about acceptability, hygiene and access. In connection with a proposed change in such policy, we undertook this review to identify and summarize existing evidence that compares health outcomes associated with shared sanitation versus individual household latrines.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Allergen-Specific Immunotherapy for the Treatment of Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis and/or Asthma: Comparative Effectiveness Review [Internet]

Allergic rhinitis is highly prevalent in North America, affecting 20 to 40 percent of the population. Nearly 9 percent of Americans suffer from asthma, with more than half having evidence of atopy. This comparative effectiveness review describes the effectiveness and safety of subcutaneous immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy (off-label use of subcutaneous-aqueous allergens for sublingual desensitization) compared with other therapies for treatment of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma.

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: March 2013
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