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Treatment options for generalized anxiety disorder

Generalized anxiety disorder can dominate the life of the person who has it and often persists for a long time. But there are a number of different approaches that can be learned to better manage the anxiety and cope well in everyday life. Some medications are also effective.People who have generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are not afraid of specific things or situations, but of practically everything, which is why it is referred to as “generalized” anxiety. This can take a great emotional toll and also cause a number of physical symptoms including drowsiness, muscle tension and a racing heartbeat. Being in a state of constant worry is exhausting, but there are different treatments that can help reduce the anxiety down to a tolerable level.Unlike other kinds of anxiety disorders, generalized anxiety disorder often first develops in people between the ages of 30 and 35. But generally speaking, an anxiety disorder can affect people of all ages.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: August 13, 2014

Gingivitis and periodontitis: Overview

Gingivitis (inflamed gums) is usually harmless and goes away quickly. But sometimes gingivitis can spread to the tissues that support our teeth and keep them firmly in place (periodontium). This is called periodontitis. You can read about what can be done to stop it from getting worse and preventative oral hygiene.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: June 18, 2014

Gingivitis and periodontitis: Treatment of periodontitis: Cleaning, scaling, care

Advanced periodontitis can cause teeth to loosen and fall out. Treating the disease in a systematic way can usually stop periodontitis from getting worse. Good oral hygiene is absolutely essential for treatment success.Besides caring for teeth and gums, there are several different ways for dentists to prevent or treat periodontitis. Systematic treatment of periodontitis consists of the following steps:Improved oral hygiene and professional teeth-cleaningRemoving film and deposits below the gumline (subgingival scaling) and planing the roots of the teethConfirmation of treatment successSurgery with local anesthetic, if neededFollow-up careStatutory insurers in Germany will cover some of the costs involved in the systematic treatment of periodontitis, but a special request must be filed in advance. This should include a treatment and cost plan provided by your dentist. Your health insurer can let you know which services will be covered in your specific case.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: June 18, 2014

Wisdom teeth: Overview

Most people associate wisdom teeth with having them pulled – and a swollen cheek with an icepack to match. Having wisdom teeth removed is usually unpleasant and may have side effects as well. But is it always necessary to have them pulled – even if they aren’t causing any trouble?

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: June 18, 2014

Should you have your wisdom teeth pulled?

Some people believe that removing wisdom teeth is a waste of time if they are not causing any problems. Others think that the teeth will only cause trouble and have no real function anyway. There actually are good reasons for carefully considering whether you should have them removed.There are still many unanswered questions about wisdom teeth. This is one of the reasons why there are so many contradictory ideas about them. Some dentists recommend removing wisdom teeth no matter what – even if they are not causing any problems. Their reasoning is that the wisdom teeth will usually end up causing problems anyway and leave you with unattractive teeth. Another argument for removal is that we simply no longer need wisdom teeth.It has now become common to only recommend pulling wisdom teeth if they have already caused trouble or if problems are highly likely. Removing the teeth is quite unpleasant and may cause side effects. It has also not yet been proven whether pulling wisdom teeth that do not cause any problems has any possible health benefit. So it is a good idea to weigh the pros and cons of having an operation.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: June 18, 2014

Osteoarthritis: Overview

At first your knee just feels a little stiff in the morning, and then it starts hurting when you climb the stairs – lots of older people are familiar with that.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: July 16, 2014

Exercise, weight loss and osteoarthritis

Weight loss and exercise - both are often recommended to people with osteoarthritis. Losing weight can especially help people with osteoarthritis of the knee. Exercise therapies can relieve pain and improve mobility for people with knee or hip osteoarthritis.Painful osteoarthritis can make it more difficult to get enough exercise - and that can lead to weight gain. And if you gain more weight, it could make the osteoarthritis worse, especially if it affects your knees. But what results can be expected from losing weight? And what kind of exercise is suitable for people with osteoarthritis?Most of the people who took part in these studies had knee osteoarthritis. People with hip osteoarthritis only took part in the exercise therapy studies listed here.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: July 16, 2014

Can lavage and debridement help with osteoarthritis of the knee?

One option for treating osteoarthritis of the knee is arthroscopy to clean the surface of the knee joint and where necessary smooth the cartilage. But studies show that this surgery has no advantages over other non-operative treatments.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: July 16, 2014

Warts: Overview

Almost everyone has a wart at some point in their life. They are contagious and hard to get rid of. Children and young people are especially at risk: They often get them at the swimming pool or after doing sports. How can you protect yourself from these annoying warts – and how can you get rid of them?

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: July 30, 2014

What treatment options are there for warts?

Warts are almost always harmless and usually go away on their own after a few weeks or months. But they can be bothersome and unattractive. They may also cause pain, especially on the feet. Different treatments are available that can help warts go away faster.Warts are caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV), of which there are more than 100 different types. Warts are most common on the hands and feet, and on your face. They may also appear in the genital and anal areas. This information does not cover treatment of genital warts.Warts are more common in children and young people. They usually appear one at a time and usually go away on their own within a few weeks or months. So many people decide not to have them treated and just wait until they disappear.Warts can be very bothersome and a real annoyance if they are on a prominent part of the body. Some people also have a lot of warts that have not cleared up. Many of them are interested in getting effective treatment.There are a number of different treatments that can improve the chances of getting rid of warts faster, but they do not always work. There is not yet a treatment that has been shown to help with warts on the bottom of the feet. Because these warts also press inwards, they are especially difficult to treat. Also, new warts may continue to develop afterwards, because a successful treatment does eliminate the possibility of viruses or infected skin cells growing back.Two common treatments for warts are salicyclic acid and cryotherapy. There have also been the most thorough studies into the effectiveness of these treatments.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: July 30, 2014

Small objects in the eye: Overview

Riding a bike, doing home improvements - there are many situations where you can get something into your eye. If a foreign object gets into the eye, it can injure the cornea. Mild corneal erosions usually heal within a couple of hours or days. But how do you remove a foreign object from your eye? And when do you need to see a doctor?

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: May 7, 2014

Small objects in the eye: Minor eye scratches: Do they heal better with or without an eye patch?

Eye patches probably do not help small scratches to the cornea to heal faster, and may even slow down recovery and cause other problems.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: May 7, 2014

Ankle fractures: Overview

If you are unlucky, twisting your ankle very badly can break your upper ankle too. This is a more serious injury that may affect one or several bones. Is surgery always needed? And what kinds of rehabilitation can best improve recovery?

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: April 23, 2014

Ankle fractures: What can help get you back on your feet again?

Using a removable brace or splint and starting gentle exercises or physiotherapy within days of ankle fracture surgery can have short-term benefits. But early movement can also cause problems with wound healing.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: April 23, 2014

Pregnancy and birth: HIV test in pregnancy

This information is intended to help during antenatal appointments and describes why all pregnant women in Germany are offered an HIV test. If you have further questions you can contact your local health department or other AIDS support center.The key points:HIV can be transmitted to babies during pregnancy, birth and breastfeeding.This makes it essential to detect any HIV infection as soon as possible. If treatment is started early enough there is a good chance that the baby can be kept from infection. Even when an HIV infection is first detected later in the pregnancy, treatment can still help to protect the baby.It is possible to have an anonymous HIV test.You have the right to have an HIV test. Of course, you can also choose not to have an HIV test.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: December 17, 2014

Pregnancy and birth: Overview

A pregnancy is associated with a great deal of change, especially if it is the woman’s first. Parents-to-be often feel a whole spectrum of emotions, ranging from joy to hope to anxiety: How will everything go?  How will life change once the baby has arrived?

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: March 12, 2014

Pregnancy and birth: Depression after childbirth – What can help?

Pregnant women usually expect the days and weeks following the birth of their child to be a happy time. But many have also heard of severe mood swings that often start a few days after giving birth, known as the baby blues. If the sadness does not go away, it might be the start of a depression.Depression after childbirth is called postnatal (or postpartum) depression. It is quite similar to the kind of depression that can affect people in any phase of life. Except for one major difference: mothers often feel very guilty about not being able to care for their baby because they are so unwell. Many mothers feel too ashamed to speak with others about how they are feeling. They are afraid of not living up to the idea of a “good mother” and might become more and more withdrawn. Some women say that they no longer recognized themselves.Taking care of a newborn baby is a real challenge. Some women do not get the emotional and practical help that they need. It is not always easy to deal with all of the changes that need to be made to care full-time for a new baby. Coping with the everyday stress and getting used to your new life can be very difficult – and sometimes it may even be depressing. But these phases usually do not last and go away by themselves once things have settled down a bit. If it turns into a lasting depression, though, it can seriously affect the mother’s relationship with her child. So it is important to take deep unhappiness and mood swings after childbirth seriously, and get more support.The first step towards doing that is to see that there is a problem. Sometimes people who are depressed do not realize that they need help. One of the features of depression is that it can be hard to recognize that you are depressed, and that your mood swings are no longer “normal.”Or you might feel so bad that you are not able to reach out for the help you need. So it might be a doctor, midwife, partner, friend or family member who will need to realize what is happening, and help get more support so that the woman can start enjoying life with her new baby.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: December 18, 2013

Pregnancy and birth: Depression after childbirth: Can psychosocial and psychological treatment approaches help?

In some women, the “baby blues” they have directly after childbirth develops into clinical depression. Non-directive counselling, cognitive behavioral therapy and interpersonal psychotherapy can help relieve postnatal depression in many women.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: December 18, 2013

Pregnancy and birth: What helps women lose weight again after having a baby?

After gaining weight in pregnancy, it is normal for women to only lose it gradually in the months following childbirth. Combining changes in diet with extra physical exercise can help them get back to their old weight again.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: March 19, 2014

Pregnancy and birth: Weight gain in pregnancy

It is important for pregnant women to have a balanced diet, both for themselves and their child. This helps them put on a good amount of weight. But how much weight gain is considered to be “normal” in pregnancy? Can mothers-to-be eat as much as they like? And how can they lose weight again afterwards?“Don’t worry – the weight will soon drop off when you start breastfeeding!”, “Be careful – I never lost the weight after my second baby”, “Eat anything you want – you’re eating for two!”… As with so many issues surrounding pregnancy, it can seem as though everyone has an opinion about weight gain. With all the contradictory advice going around, it can be hard to know what to do.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: March 19, 2014

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