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Genome-based approaches for the diagnosis of breast cancer: a review with perspective

Bibliographic details: Ziogas DE.  Genome-based approaches for the diagnosis of breast cancer: a review with perspective. Breast Cancer Management 2014; 3(2): 173-193

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

[Intraoperative implant of regional sustained-release 5-FU chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer: a meta-analysis]

Bibliographic details: Yuan DB, Wen XN, Wang YH, Xu XC, Li T.  [Intraoperative implant of regional sustained-release 5-FU chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer: a meta-analysis]. Journal of Practical Oncology 2013; 28(4): 400-404

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

Prognostic significance of VEGF-C expression in patients with breast cancer: a meta-analysis

Bibliographic details: Liang B, Li Y.  Prognostic significance of VEGF-C expression in patients with breast cancer: a meta-analysis. Iranian Journal of Public Health 2014; 43(2): 128-135 Available from: http://ijph.tums.ac.ir/index.php/IJPH/article/view/5246

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Effect of exercise on cancer-related fatigue: a meta-analysis

Numerous randomized controlled trials have been conducted to determine efficacy of exercise on cancer-related fatigue. However, many trials lacked sufficient power to demonstrate significant differences, and little is known about how the effect of exercise differs depending on patient- and intervention-level characteristics. A meta-analysis was performed to determine whether exercise reduces fatigue compared with usual care or nonexercise control intervention in patients with cancer. The authors searched Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and CINAHL. Two authors independently extracted the data. Randomized controlled trials comparing exercise with control intervention in cancer patients in which fatigue was quantified were eligible. Seventy-two randomized controlled trials were identified, 71 in adults and 1 in children. Exercise had a moderate effect on reducing fatigue compared with control intervention. Exercise also improved depression and sleep disturbance. Type of exercise did not significantly influence the effect on fatigue, depression, or sleep disturbance. Exercise effect was larger in the studies published 2009 or later. There was only one pediatric study. The results of this study suggest that exercise is effective for the management of cancer-related fatigue.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

The use of optical spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer

In order to investigate the effectiveness of optical spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of cervical pre-cancerous conditions, a series of published studies are surveyed. The six optical technologies investigated include fluorescence spectroscopy, reflectance spectroscopy, and their combination using point probe or multispectral imaging approaches. Searching in the well-known databases, the most recent published works were sought out. Various aspects of the studies were evaluated including the details of the technology used, the pathologic threshold for tissue classification and the gold standard, the study population and prevalence of disease in this population, the method of measurement, the number of clinicians involved in the study, the classification and validation algorithms, and the performance in terms of sensitivity, specificity and, when available, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Forty-four studies conducted from 1994 to 2012 were evaluated. The data are gathered in two comprehensive tables, and five illustrations are provided to simplify a comparison between studies from different points of view. There is a broad band of studies from small pilot studies through phase III clinical trials. Among the reviewed articles, only three factors were found to influence the performance of the optical spectroscopy studies. Multispectral approaches show higher specificity than the point probe approaches (p = 0.001). The use of acetic acid before measurement and prevalence of disease among the studied population, also, have an impact on the sensitivity and specificity of the studies (p < 0.05), respectively.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Care for the cancer caregiver: a systematic review

OBJECTIVE: Informal caregivers (ICs) are relatives, friends, and partners who have a significant relationship with and provide assistance (i.e., physical, emotional) to a patient with a life- threatening, incurable illness. The multidimensional burden that results from providing care to a patient with cancer is well documented, and as a result, a growing number of psychosocial interventions have been developed specifically to address this burden. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the state of the science of psychosocial interventions for informal cancer caregivers.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

Thymidine kinase 1 as a diagnostic tumor marker is of moderate value in cancer patients: a meta-analysis

Thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) is an enzyme involved in nucleic acid synthesis and is therefore considered to be an important tumor proliferation marker. The aim of the present study was to determine the diagnostic role of TK1 measurement in cancer. An extensive electronic search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library using the keywords 'thymidine kinase 1' and 'tumor' and synonyms. This study was conducted as part of a project to establish evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. A total of 453 abstracts were screened, after which the full text of 40 studies were selected for further investigation, including screening of the references cited by studies in the original search. Fifteen studies were enrolled following full-text evaluation. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for the radioenzymatic assay (REA), the chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) and the total were 0.88, 0.75 and 0.8, respectively. These results were all between <0.9 and >0.7, which suggested a moderate diagnostic efficacy. The positive likelihood ratio of the CLIA method was the highest (10.229), which demonstrated that CLIA exhibited a satisfactory specificity in tumor diagnosis. However, TK1 as a single diagnostic tumor marker was not of significant value and the combination of more tumor markers in the diagnosis of tumors may be preferable.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

Chemoradiotherapy for squamous cell cancer of the anal canal: a systematic review

Squamous cell cancer of the anal canal is a rare tumour for which there remains uncertainty regarding optimal therapy. A systematic review was conducted to summarise the evidence examining concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy or different chemotherapy regimens in combination with radiotherapy. MEDLINE, EMBASE and conference proceedings were searched for relevant randomised controlled trials. Outcomes of interest were colostomy rate, local failure, overall survival, disease-free survival, adverse effects and quality of life. Six randomised controlled trials were identified. Two trials reported lower colostomy and local failure rates for concurrent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) plus mitomycin C (MMC) and radiotherapy compared with radiotherapy alone. The omission of MMC from this regimen resulted in higher colostomy and local failure rates and lower disease-free survival. Induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent 5-FU plus cisplatin and radiotherapy resulted in a higher colostomy rate than concurrent 5-FU plus MMC and radiotherapy. Haematological toxicity rates were lower in patients who received radiotherapy with 5-FU alone or 5-FU plus cisplatin compared with 5-FU plus MMC. No benefit was seen for the addition of induction or maintenance chemotherapy to concurrent chemoradiotherapy. The available evidence continues to support the use of radiotherapy with concurrent 5-FU and MMC as standard treatment for cancer of the anal canal to decrease colostomy and local failure rates.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

18F-FDG PET or PET/CT for detecting extensive disease in small-cell lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the published literature to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of fluorine-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (F-FDG) PET or PET/computed tomography (CT) in the pretherapeutic staging of patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). The authors conducted a systematic MEDLINE search of published articles. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality of each study. We estimated the pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+ and LR-), and summary receiver operating characteristic curves in the detection of extensive disease (ED) in patients with SCLC. Twelve studies with a total of 369 patients met the inclusion criteria. The pooled estimates of sensitivity, specificity, LR+, and LR- of F-FDG PET or PET/CT for the detection of ED in SCLC were 97.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 94.2-99.2%], 98.2% (95% CI, 94.9-99.6%), 19.86 (95% CI, 9.79-40.30), and 0.06 (95% CI, 0.03-0.10), respectively. Whole-body F-FDG PET or PET/CT is a valuable imaging tool for the pretherapeutic assessment of ED in patients with SCLC.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Effects of hormone replacement therapy on the rate of recurrence in endometrial cancer survivors: a meta-analysis

BACKGROUND: To quantify the effect of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on the recurrence in endometrial cancer (EC) survivors through a meta-analysis.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Use of myocardial strain imaging by echocardiography for the early detection of cardiotoxicity in patients during and after cancer chemotherapy: a systematic review

The literature exploring the utility of advanced echocardiographic techniques (such as deformation imaging) in the diagnosis and prognostication of patients receiving potentially cardiotoxic cancer therapy has involved relatively small trials in the research setting. In this systematic review of the current literature, we describe echocardiographic myocardial deformation parameters in 1,504 patients during or after cancer chemotherapy for 3 clinically-relevant scenarios. The systematic review was performed following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines using the EMBASE (1974 to November 2013) and MEDLINE (1946 to November 2013) databases. All studies of early myocardial changes with chemotherapy demonstrate that alterations of myocardial deformation precede significant change in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Using tissue Doppler-based strain imaging, peak systolic longitudinal strain rate has most consistently detected early myocardial changes during therapy, whereas with speckle tracking echocardiography (STE), peak systolic global longitudinal strain (GLS) appears to be the best measure. A 10% to 15% early reduction in GLS by STE during therapy appears to be the most useful parameter for the prediction of cardiotoxicity, defined as a drop in LVEF or heart failure. In late survivors of cancer, measures of global radial and circumferential strain are consistently abnormal, even in the context of normal LVEF, but their clinical value in predicting subsequent ventricular dysfunction or heart failure has not been explored. Thus, this systematic review confirms the value of echocardiographic myocardial deformation parameters for the early detection of myocardial changes and prediction of cardiotoxicity in patients receiving cancer therapy.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Treatment and prognostic factors of radiation-associated angiosarcoma (RAAS) after primary breast cancer: a systematic review

BACKGROUND: Radiation-associated angiosarcoma (RAAS) of the breast is a rare, aggressive disease. The incidence is increasing with the prolonged survival of women irradiated for primary breast cancer. Surgery is the current treatment of choice. Prognosis is poor. This review aims to evaluate all publications on primary treatment of RAAS to identify prognostic factors and evaluate treatment modalities.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

What is the value of the routine use of patient-reported outcome measures toward improvement of patient outcomes, processes of care, and health service outcomes in cancer care? A systematic review of controlled trials

PURPOSE: The systematic use of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) has been advocated as an effective way to standardize cancer practice. Yet, the question of whether PROMs can lead to actual improvements in the quality of patient care remains under debate. This review examined whether inclusion of PROM in routine clinical practice is associated with improvements in patient outcomes, processes of care, and health service outcomes during active anticancer treatment.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Comparative efficacy and safety of treatments for localised prostate cancer: an application of network meta-analysis

CONTEXT: There is ongoing uncertainty about the optimal management of patients with localised prostate cancer.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Comparative meta-analysis of prognostic gene signatures for late-stage ovarian cancer

BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer deaths in women in the United States. Numerous gene signatures of patient prognosis have been proposed, but diverse data and methods make these difficult to compare or use in a clinically meaningful way. We sought to identify successful published prognostic gene signatures through systematic validation using public data.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

The effect of vitamin D supplementation on skeletal, vascular, or cancer outcomes: a trial sequential meta-analysis

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with many disorders, leading to calls for widespread supplementation. Some investigators suggest that more clinical trials to test the effect of vitamin D on disorders are needed.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Single-agent versus combination chemotherapy as first-line treatment for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer and performance status 2: a literature-based meta-analysis of randomized studies

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of first-line treatment with combination versus single agent chemotherapy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and performance status (PS) 2.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Meta-analysis of first-line therapies in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer harboring EGFR-activating mutations

INTRODUCTION: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors gefitinib, erlotinib, and afatinib have been compared with chemotherapy as first-line therapies for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer harboring epidermal growth factor receptor-activating mutations. This meta-analysis compares gefitinib, erlotinib, afatinib, and chemotherapy.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Second-line chemotherapy in advanced biliary cancer: a systematic review

The randomized NCRN phase III ABC-02 trial provided level-A evidence for first-line chemotherapy with cisplatin and gemcitabine combination in advanced biliary cancer (ABC). This systematic literature review aims to evaluate the level of evidence for the use of second-line chemotherapy for patients with ABC in terms of overall survival (OS), response, toxicity and quality of life. Eligible studies were identified using Medline, ASCO, ESMO and the World Gastrointestinal Congress databases. Searches were last updated on 15 December 2013. Eligible studies reported survival and/or response data for patients with ABC receiving second-line systemic chemotherapy. This systematic review was registered in the PROSPERO database (No. CRD42013004205). Five hundred and fifty-eight studies were identified from the searches in Medline (n = 342), ASCO (n = 160), ESMO (n = 27) and World Gastrointestinal Congress (n = 29). Twenty-five studies were eligible: 14 phase II clinical trials, 9 retrospective analyses and 2 case reports. In total, data from 761 patients were reported with median number of patients included in each study of 22 (range 9-96). The mean OS was 7.2 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 6.2-8.2] [phase II: 6.6 (95% CI 5.1-8.1); retrospective analysis: 7.7 (95% CI 6.5-8.9)]. The mean progression-free survival (PFS), response rate (RR) and disease control rate were 3.2 months (95% CI 2.7-3.7), 7.7% (95% CI 4.6-10.9) and 49.5% (95% CI 41.4-57.7), respectively. The best correlations were between OS and PFS for all studies (r = 0.54; P = 0.01) and between OS and PFS (r = 0.61; P = 0.04) and OS and RR (r = 0.62; P = 0.03) for phase II studies, respectively. Biliary tract cancer is known to be a chemo-responsive disease. There is insufficient evidence (level C) to recommend a second-line chemotherapy schedule in ABC, although the available data suggest that a cohort of patients may benefit. Further prospective and randomized studies are needed to clarify the relative value of second-line chemotherapy in this setting.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Prognostic value of CpG island methylator phenotype among colorectal cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

BACKGROUND: Divergent findings regarding the prognostic value of CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients exist in current literature. We aim to review data from published studies in order to examine the association between CIMP and CRC prognosis.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

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