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Ty21a and Vi polysaccharide vaccines are effective in reducing typhoid fever; new vaccines are promising

Typhoid fever is a bacterial infection found mainly among children and adolescents in south and east Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean. Typhoid fever is spread by food, drink, or contaminated water. It is characterized by fever, abdominal symptoms, headache, loss of appetite, cough, weakness, sore throat, dizziness and muscle pains. The infection also sometimes causes psychosis and confusion. Mortality varies and can reach 10% of cases. Treatment normally consists of antibiotics, but problems with drug‐resistant strains have been reported. Improved sanitation and food hygiene are important control measures. However, these are associated with socioeconomic progress that has been slow in most affected areas. Therefore vaccination is an effective way to try to prevent this disease. The review found 18 trials (17 with usable data): Six evaluated vaccine effectiveness only; six evaluated vaccine effectiveness and adverse events; and six provided data only on adverse events. The two major vaccines currently licensed for use, Ty21a and Vi polysaccharide, were effective in reducing typhoid fever; adverse events such as nausea, vomiting and fever were rare. Other vaccines, such as a new, modified, conjugated Vi vaccine called Vi‐rEPA, are in development and appear promising. A vaccine that could be given to infants would be helpful as they are probably at increased risk of this infection.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Fluoroquinolones for treating enteric fever

Researchers in The Cochrane Collaboration conducted a review of the effect of fluoroquinolone antibiotics in people enteric fever. After searching for relevant studies, they identified 26 studies involving 3033 patients. Their findings are summarized below.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Infectious diarrhea: Traveler's diarrhea

When people travel to faraway countries, their stomach and bowel often have to get used to new foods and new ways of preparing food. Diarrhea is quite common during travels to distant countries. Traveler's diarrhea typically only lasts a few days and usually doesn't need to be treated. There are certain things you can do to try to avoid getting it.The risk is higher in the tropics and subtropics. There are a number of reasons for this. For instance, your stomach and bowel might have a hard time coping with unfamiliar foods such as very spicy dishes and exotic ingredients. Poor hygiene, high temperatures and inadequate cooling of foods make it easier for bacteria to thrive in foods or water. Traveler's diarrhea is most often caused by bacteria. But viruses can also be transmitted through foods or water.If diarrhea is severe or lasts a long time, it is particularly important to replace the lost fluids and salts. You should see a doctor if the symptoms don't improve or if you develop severe diarrhea within a few days or weeks of returning from travels to a distant country.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: May 4, 2016

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