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Results: 5

Pharmacotherapy for weight loss in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Obesity is closely related to type 2 diabetes and weight reduction is an important part of the care delivered to obese persons with diabetes. This review of drugs for weight loss among adults with type 2 diabetes revealed weight loss of between 2.0 and 5.1 kg for fluoxetine, orlistat and sibutramine at follow‐up of up to 57 weeks. The long‐term effects remain uncertain. Adverse events were common in all three drugs: gastrointestinal side effects with orlistat; tremor, somnolence, and sweating with fluoxetine; and palpitations with sibutramine. There were few studies examining other drugs used for weight loss in populations with diabetes.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Long‐term effects of weight‐reducing drugs in people with elevated blood pressure

Doctors often recommend that people who are overweight or obese with elevated blood pressure lose weight, which may include taking anti‐obesity drugs to assist in weight and blood pressure reduction. Two active ingredients (rimonabant and sibutramine) were withdrawn from the market in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Current guidelines for the pharmacological management of obesity quote five medications (orlistat, lorcaserin, phentermine/topiramate, naltrexone/bupropion, and liraglutide) that have been approved for long‐term weight reduction by the US Food and Drug Administration. However, two of these drugs (phentermine/topiramate and lorcaserin) did not obtain approval in Europe.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Long‐term drug pharmacotherapy for obesity and overweight

This review assessed the long‐term benefits and risks of approved anti‐obesity drugs in clinical trials of 1 to 4 years duration. Sixteen orlistat (10,631 patients), 10 sibutramine (2623 patients) and four rimonabant (6635 patients) studies were examined. High drop‐out rates (30% to 40%) were a limitation of nearly all studies. Compared to placebo, all three drugs reduced weight by around five kg or less and orlistat reduced the number of high‐risk patients who developed diabetes. No data to show that any of the three drugs lowers the risk of death or cardiovascular disease were found. The most prominent side effects were gastrointestinal for orlistat, cardiovascular for sibutramine (raised blood pressure and/or pulse rate) and psychiatric for rimonabant (mood disorders). In Europe, rimonabant is contraindicated for patients with severe depression and/or patients who are treated with antidepressive medications. Rimonabant is furthermore not recommended for patients with other untreated psychiatric conditions.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Treating obesity in children

Childhood obesity affects both the physical and psychosocial health of children and may put them at risk of ill health as adults. More information is needed about the best way to treat obesity in children and adolescents. In this review, 64 studies were examined including 54 studies on lifestyle treatments (with a focus on diet, physical activity or behaviour change) and 10 studies on drug treatment to help overweight and obese children and their families with weight control. No surgical treatment studies were suitable to include in this review. This review showed that lifestyle programs can reduce the level of overweight in child and adolescent obesity 6 and 12 months after the beginning of the program. In moderate to severely obese adolescents, a reduction in overweight was found when either the drug orlistat, or the drug sibutramine were given in addition to a lifestyle program, although a range of adverse effects was also noted. Information on the long‐term outcome of obesity treatment in children and adolescents was limited and needs to be examined in some high quality studies.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

The effect of antidepressants for women with polycystic ovary syndrome

The prevalence of depression in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is high; a study has shown it to be four times that of women without PCOS. Therefore, systematic evaluation of the effectiveness and safety of antidepressants for women with PCOS is important. We found no evidence to support the use or non‐use of antidepressants in women with PCOS, with or without depression. Well‐designed and well‐conducted randomised controlled trials with double blinding should be conducted.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

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