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Results: 6

Palivizumab for reducing the risk of severe RSV infection in children

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is a major cause of acute respiratory infections in children. RSV infection can lead to morbidity and mortality in children, resulting in hospitalization, admission to an intensive care unit, the need for intensive medical therapies and death.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Antibiotics for persistent cough or wheeze following acute bronchiolitis in children

Bronchiolitis is a common lung infection, affecting children across the world. It is usually caused by a virus called RSV (respiratory syncytial virus) but other viruses can cause this too. Young children with bronchiolitis normally have a cough, fast and difficult breathing, and poor feeding. Antibiotics are not normally prescribed to children with bronchiolitis unless there is concern of a secondary bacterial infection. However, some children continue to have ongoing problems (i.e. wheeze, cough) after the acute viral infection (> 14 days); increasing the risk of burden of disease and cost to the health system. These children often re‐present for further medical care in the community (general practitioners and health providers) or in hospital (emergency departments). Antibiotics may help treat these ongoing symptoms and get rid of the bacteria in the lungs.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Heliox inhalation therapy for bronchiolitis in infants

Bronchiolitis is the leading cause of hospitalisation among infants in high‐income countries. Common symptoms include a runny nose, cough and dyspnoea (difficulty breathing) often with bronchospasm (sudden narrowing of the airways) and resultant wheezing. Approximately 20% of all infants experience wheezing associated with respiratory syncytial virus in the first year of life, and 2% to 3% require hospitalisation for this illness. In this review, we selected trials that objectively assessed the effect of the addition of heliox to standard medical care for acute bronchiolitis. Heliox is a mixture of oxygen and the gas helium.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Nebulised deoxyribonuclease for viral bronchiolitis in children younger than 24 months

Bronchiolitis is the most common respiratory illness leading to hospitalisations in infants. Viral infections, particularly respiratory syncytial virus, are the usual cause, which lead to blockage of the small airways of the lungs due to inflammation and increased mucus production. Afflicted children have fever, cough, wheezing and difficulty breathing. Treatment is usually supportive. In bronchiolitis, the mucus produced contains large amounts of DNA, which makes it thicker and stickier. Removal of this DNA facilitates clearance of the mucus. RhDNase is an enzyme that breaks down DNA and hence may improve symptoms. We performed this review to assess the effect of rhDNase delivered through a nebuliser in children under 24 months old hospitalised for bronchiolitis.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Antibiotics for bronchiolitis in children under two years of age

We reviewed the evidence on the effect of antibiotics on clinical outcomes in children with bronchiolitis.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Helium‐oxygen (heliox) treatment for croup in children

Croup is an acute illness commonly seen in children up to six years of age but mostly by the age of two. It is triggered by viral infections causing upper airway obstruction with varying degrees of respiratory distress. Mostly, it is mild and transient and resolves with supportive care. Croup is characterised by a barking cough, hoarseness, varying degrees of inspiratory stridor (abnormal breathing sound) and chest wall retractions and is usually preceded by one to three days of upper respiratory tract infection symptoms. The peak croup seasons are autumn and winter but can occur at any time.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

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