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Results: 16

The recent update confirms that a regular physical and yearly mammogram are as effective as more intense methods of examination in detecting recurrent breast cancer.

Follow‐up examinations are common for women after primary treatment for breast cancer. This is done to detect recurrences at an early stage and begin treatment for any relapses quickly. These tests can include liver scans, tumour markers, chest x‐rays and blood and liver function tests. The review of trials found that follow‐up programs based on a regular physical exam and yearly mammogram appear to be as effective as the more intensive approaches. This was measured by detection of recurrences of cancers, overall survival and quality of life.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Smart Health Choices: Making Sense of Health Advice

This book aims to help consumers and practitioners develop the skills to assess health advice – and hopefully to make decisions that will improve the quality of their care. For some people, making better-informed decisions could be life saving. We hope that it will be useful if you are struggling to come to terms with an illness or injury, and the best ways of managing it. Or you may simply want to lead a healthier life, and may be wondering how to make sense of the often conflicting flood of health information that deluges us every day, through the media, and from our friends and health practitioners.

Hammersmith Press.

Version: 2008
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Testing Treatments: Better Research for Better Healthcare. 2nd edition

How do we know whether a particular treatment really works? How reliable is the evidence? And how do we ensure that research into medical treatments best meets the needs of patients? These are just a few of the questions addressed in a lively and informative way in Testing Treatments. Brimming with vivid examples, Testing Treatments will inspire both patients and professionals.

Pinter & Martin.

Version: 2011
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Cancer Screening Overview (PDQ®): Patient Version

Information about measuring the effectiveness of cancer screening tests and about weighing the strength of the evidence obtained from cancer screening research studies.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: July 2, 2014

Overview: Breast cancer

In breast cancer, new, malignant tissue starts growing in a mammary gland. Being diagnosed with breast cancer often makes people feel very frightened and anxious. Getting cancer can really turn your life upside down for a while. It is helpful to know that if you get breast cancer for the first time and it has not spread, there’s a good chance that treatment will lead to a full recovery nowadays. There are also many support services that help people in everyday life, to return to work and cope emotionally with breast cancer.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: November 21, 2013

Overview: Rheumatoid arthritis

There are many different rheumatic diseases. Rheumatoid arthritis, also known as chronic polyarthritis, is the most common inflammatory rheumatic disease.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: November 22, 2013

Thyroid hormone therapy or minimally invasive treatments for benign thyroid nodules

Nodules (lumps) within the thyroid gland are common and usually benign. They are more frequent in women, the elderly and in iodine‐deficient areas. Thyroid nodules are often observed as an incidental finding in the course of ultrasonography of the thyroid, nodules of more than 1 cm in size are usually detected by palpation of the thyroid gland during a physical examination. Thyroid nodules may occur as a single nodule or as multiple nodules and may contain fluid (cyst). About 5 in 100 palpable thyroid nodules have a risk of becoming malignant (thyroid cancer). Thyroid nodules are often treated with thyroid hormones in order to reduce the size of the nodule. If thyroid nodules cause problems such as pressure symptoms or cosmetic complaints, surgery may be performed. Other therapies try to destroy the thyroid nodule by means of minimally invasive procedures (techniques which are less invasive than open surgery) and are usually performed on an outpatient basis.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Overview: Alzheimer's disease

Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia. The disease takes its name from the psychiatrist Alois Alzheimer, who in the early twentieth century was the first person to describe the disease. Over time, people who have Alzheimer’s lose their memory and ability to concentrate. Spatial and temporal orientation become more difficult, and it is also harder for them to manage on their own in everyday life. People who have Alzheimer’s disease will need more support as the disease progresses.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: September 18, 2013

Overview: Eczema

Skin rash and severe itching are typical symptoms of eczema. This inflammatory skin condition is common in children. It often gets better over time and it may also go away for a while or altogether. The acute symptoms of eczema can really affect your quality of life. Itching in particular might be very unpleasant, affecting your sleep and ability to concentrate. Some people who have eczema feel “uncomfortable in their own skin” and feel embarrassed when they have a rash that others can see. But regular skin care, medication and other steps can relieve the symptoms and keep them from affecting people's daily life too much.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: October 10, 2013

Internal versus external registration of contractions during induced or augmented labour

Induction and augmentation of labour are common procedures within obstetric practice with various indications for mother and child. When contractions are stimulated by intravenous oxytocin, registration of the frequency of contractions is important for determination of the right dosage of medication. Uterine contractions can be monitored through the abdominal wall of the mother by using a small device that is placed on the skin using a belt to hold it in position, where the device measures changes in the shape of the uterus (external tocodynamometry (ET)), or by positioning an intrauterine pressure catheter inside the uterus next to the baby (internal tocodynamometry (IT)). Use of IT is only possible after rupture of the membranes and is an easy, painless procedure done during vaginal examination by the midwife or doctor in charge. During induction or augmentation of labour with intravenous oxytocin, some clinicians choose to monitor contractions with an IT rather than with ET. An intrauterine pressure catheter measures the contractions more accurately and could result in a better dosage of the oxytocin. This could, therefore, reduce the risk of hyperstimulation, for example too frequent contractions, and subsequently reduce the risk for fetal distress. Moreover with the modern central monitoring systems and the accurate registration with the use of IT there is no need for the caregivers to be physical present in the labour room to assess the frequency of contractions. However, besides higher costs of IT, insertion of an intrauterine catheter in the uterus of the mother has rare but potentially hazardous risks for both mother and child, like placental and fetal vessel damage.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Routine compared with selective ultrasound in early pregnancy

Ultrasound is an electronic technology, which uses the reflection of pulses of high frequency sound to produce an image. Ultrasound may be used in a variety of circumstances during pregnancy. It has been assumed that the routine use of ultrasound in early pregnancy will result in the earlier detection of problems and improved management of pregnancy complications when compared with selective use for specific indications such as after clinical complications (e.g. bleeding in early pregnancy), or where there are concerns about fetal growth.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

In the later stages of Parkinson's disease, side effects occur because of the use of levodopa treatment.

Cabergoline has been compared with the older agonist bromocriptine in five studies including 1071 patients. Only one of the smaller studies was medium term (36 weeks), the others all being short term (12 ‐15 weeks). The time patients spent in the immobile off state was reduced with both agonists but slightly more by cabergoline compared with bromocriptine. This small advantage of cabergoline did not reach statistical significance. Dyskinesia reported as a side effect was significantly increased with cabergoline compared with bromocriptine. Physical impairment and disability were measured in four of the studies but no statistically significant advantage for cabergoline was found. The number of patients rated as much or very much improved on a clinician's global impression scale was similar with both agonists. Levodopa dose reduction was no different between cabergoline and bromocriptine. There was significantly more confusion with cabergoline. Otherwise, dopaminergic side effects were comparable with these agonists and no significant difference in the withdrawal rate from the trials was found.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

In the later stages of Parkinson's disease, side effects occur because of the use of levodopa treatment.

Three trials have compared ropinirole with bromocriptine in 482 patients in the later stages of Parkinson's disease. Two studies were conducted over the short term (8 and 16 weeks), and used relatively low doses of ropinirole (9 mg/d) and bromocriptine (17.5 and 22.5mg/d). The other study was medium term (25 weeks) and used ropinirole doses in line with the current UK licensed maximum (24 mg/d).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

In the later stages of Parkinson's disease, side effects occur because of the use of levodopa treatment.

Three trials have compared ropinirole with an inactive placebo in 263 patients in the later stages of Parkinson's disease. Two studies were relatively small, were conducted over the short term (12 weeks), and used relatively low doses of ropinirole (maximum allowed 8 and 10 mg/d) in a twice daily administration regime. For these reasons, the results of these trials have not been included in a statistical overview. The other study was medium term (26 weeks) and used ropinirole doses in line with the current UK licensed maximum (24 mg/d) in a three times a day regime. The conclusions of this review are based on this single trial and thus should be viewed with some caution.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

In the later stages of Parkinson's disease, side effects occur because of the use of levodopa treatment.

Cabergoline has been compared with inactive placebo in two smaller and shorter (6 ‐ 12 weeks) studies and one larger, medium term trial (24 weeks). These trials included 268 patients with Parkinson's disease and motor complications. The average reduction in the time patients spent in the immobile off state was 1.1 hours greater with cabergoline compared with placebo, although this was not statistically significant. Inadequate data on dyskinesia was collected to allow a conclusion to be drawn. A small but significant advantage of cabergoline over placebo was seen in one study for activities of daily living and physical functioning. No such advantage was seen in one other study due to small numbers of patients and the comparatively low doses of cabergoline used. Levodopa dose reduction was greater with cabergoline by 145 mg per day. There was a trend towards more side effects with cabergoline but towards fewer withdrawals from cabergoline treatment.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

After a heart attack: How do clopidogrel and prasugrel compare?

Treatment with prasugrel and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) aims to lower the risk of complications for people after a heart attack and associated intervention. Prasugrel and ASA seem to lower especially the risk of having more non-fatal heart attacks better than clopidogrel and ASA. But prasugrel does more often lead to serious bleeding.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: October 26, 2011

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