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Oral immunotherapy for the treatment of peanut allergy

Allergy to peanut can result in potentially life‐threatening reactions and, on occasions, death. Unlike many other forms of food allergy, allergy to peanut is typically life‐long. There is currently no cure for peanut allergy and people with this allergy must constantly be careful to avoid accidentally eating peanut or peanut‐containing foods.  If a person with a peanut allergy accidentally ingests peanut, he or she may develop serious allergic reactions necessitating emergency treatment with epinephrine (adrenaline).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Diagnostic accuracy of specific IgE to components in diagnosing peanut allergy: a systematic review

The diagnostic accuracy of skin prick test (SPT) and specific IgE (sIgE) to peanut extract in diagnosing peanut allergy is suboptimal. Recent studies have evaluated sIgE to peanut components as a possible new diagnostic tool. The aim of our review was to systematically search the literature to assess the diagnostic value of sIgE to peanut components in diagnosing peanut allergy. A literature search was performed in PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library. Results were subsequently screened for in- and exclusion criteria. The quality of eligible studies was assessed using a standardized quality assessment tool (QUADAS-2). Data on sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios were extracted or calculated for a descriptive analysis. Twenty-two studies were eligible, of which 21 studies in paediatric populations. Most studies reported on sIgE to peanut extract (15) and sIgE to Ara h 2 (12), followed by SPT (9) and sIgE to Ara h 1 (7). All studies were at risk of bias or caused applicability concerns on at least one item of the quality assessment tool. The best combination of diagnostic accuracy measures of all diagnostic tests was found for sIgE to Ara h 2. This finding was independent of geographical location. Compared to SPT and sIgE to peanut extract, sIgE to Ara h 2 was mainly superior in diagnosing peanut allergy in case of a positive test result. Worst diagnostic accuracy measures were found in general for sIgE to Ara h 8 and sIgE to Ara h 9. sIgE to Ara h 2 showed the best diagnostic accuracy of all diagnostic tests to diagnose peanut allergy. Compared to the currently used SPT and sIgE to peanut extract, sIgE to Ara h 2 was superior in diagnosing peanut allergy and should therefore replace these tests in daily clinical practice, especially in children.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Efficacy of allergen-specific immunotherapy for peanut allergy: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Peanut allergy is one of the most common food allergies. Allergen-specific oral immunotherapy (OIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for peanut allergy aim to induce desensitization and then tolerance to peanuts. However, there is still considerable uncertainty about the safety of these two approaches and if the risk is justified by the benefit of the therapy. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the efficacy and safety of OIT and SLIT in patients with peanut allergy. We performed searches of the MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, and Cochrane databases (through March 18, 2013) for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared OIT or SLIT with a placebo in patients with peanut allergy. The study selection and data extraction were independently performed by two reviewers. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients whose condition improved. We also analyzed immunologic changes and adverse events. A meta-analysis was performed using a random effects model. Three RCTs that comprised a total of 86 subjects were analyzed. OIT or SLIT had a significantly positive effect on peanut allergy (odds ratio [OR], 38.44; 95% confidential interval [CI], 6.01-245.81). Several immunologic changes associated with the induction of tolerance were improvements. There is no difference between the OIT or SLIT group and placebo group in the number of patients who required epinephrine during the study (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.03-10.20). This study showed a statistically significant benefit of peanut immunotherapy in patients with peanut allergy. However, these findings are based on an analysis of a small number of RCTs. Additional larger, well-designed and double-blind RCTs are needed.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Food Allergy in Children and Young People: Diagnosis and Assessment of Food Allergy in Children and Young People in Primary Care and Community Settings

Food allergy is an adverse immune response to a food. It can be classified into IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated reactions. Many non-IgE reactions, which are poorly defined both clinically and scientifically, are believed to be T-cell-mediated. Some reactions involve a mixture of both IgE and non-IgE responses and are classified as mixed IgE and non-IgE allergic reactions. Food allergy may be confused with food intolerance, which is a non-immunological reaction that can be caused by enzyme deficiencies, pharmacological agents and naturally occurring substances. Food intolerance will not be covered in this guideline. The starting point for the guideline is a suspicion of food allergy, and the use of an allergy-focused clinical history will help to determine whether a food allergy is likely.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (UK).

Version: February 2011
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The diagnosis of food allergy: a systematic review and meta-analysis

BACKGROUND: We investigated the accuracy of tests used to diagnose food allergy.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Maternal dietary antigen avoidance during pregnancy or lactation, or both, for preventing or treating atopic disease in the child

Evidence is inadequate to advise women to avoid specific foods during pregnancy or breastfeeding to protect their children from allergic diseases like eczema and asthma.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Diagnosis and management of food allergies: new and emerging options: a systematic review

It is reported that 6% of children and 3% of adults have food allergies, with studies suggesting increased prevalence worldwide over the last few decades. Despite this, our diagnostic capabilities and techniques for managing patients with food allergies remain limited. We have conducted a systematic review of literature published within the last 5 years on the diagnosis and management of food allergies. While the gold standard for diagnosis remains the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, this assessment is resource intensive and impractical in most clinical situations. In an effort to reduce the need for the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, several risk-stratifying tests are employed, namely skin prick testing, measurement of serum-specific immunoglobulin E levels, component testing, and open food challenges. Management of food allergies typically involves allergen avoidance and carrying an epinephrine autoinjector. Clinical research trials of oral immunotherapy for some foods, including peanut, milk, egg, and peach, are under way. While oral immunotherapy is promising, its readiness for clinical application is controversial. In this review, we assess the latest studies published on the above diagnostic and management modalities, as well as novel strategies in the diagnosis and management of food allergy.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Atopic Eczema in Children: Management of Atopic Eczema in Children from Birth up to the Age of 12 Years

Atopic eczema (atopic dermatitis) is a chronic inflammatory itchy skin condition that develops in early childhood in the majority of cases. It is typically an episodic disease of exacerbation (flares, which may occur as frequently as two or three per month) and remissions, except for severe cases where it may be continuous. Certain patterns of atopic eczema are recognised. In infants, atopic eczema usually involves the face and extensor surfaces of the limbs and, while it may involve the trunk, the napkin area is usually spared. A few infants may exhibit a discoid pattern (circular patches). In older children flexural involvement predominates, as in adults. Diagnostic criteria are discussed in Chapter 3. As with other atopic conditions, such as asthma and allergic rhinitis (hay fever), atopic eczema often has a genetic component. In atopic eczema, inherited factors affect the development of the skin barrier, which can lead to exacerbation of the disease by a large number of trigger factors, including irritants and allergens. Many cases of atopic eczema clear or improve during childhood while others persist into adulthood, and some children who have atopic eczema `will go on to develop asthma and/or allergic rhinitis; this sequence of events is sometimes referred to as the ‘atopic march’. The epidemiology of atopic eczema is considered in Chapter 5, and the impact of the condition on children and their families/caregivers is considered in Sections 4.2 and 4.3.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: December 2007
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Diagnosing and managing common food allergies: a systematic review

This review concluded that best practices for management and prevention of food allergies were greatly hindered by a lack of uniformity of criteria for making a diagnosis. Given the limited quality of the studies and heterogeneity among studies, the authors’ conclusions seem appropriate, but interpretation should take into account potential for review bias.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2010

Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Adults: Diagnosis and Management of Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Primary Care [Internet]

This guideline covers areas relevant to the diagnosis and management of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) reflecting the complete patient journey, from the person presenting with IBS symptoms, positive diagnosis and management, targeted at symptom control. The guideline incorporates Cochrane reviews, published NICE clinical and public health guidance, Health Technology Assessment reports, systematic and health economic reviews produced by the National Collaborating Centre for Nursing and Supportive Care. Recommendations are based on clinical and cost effectiveness evidence, and where this is insufficient, the GDG used all available information sources and experience to make consensus recommendations using nominal group technique.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Nursing and Supportive Care (UK).

Version: February 2008
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Family History and Improving Health

This systematic review aimed to evaluate, within unselected populations: Question 1 (Q1) key elements of family history (FH) which usefully predict subsequent disease; Question 2 (Q2) the accuracy of reporting FH; Question 3 (Q3) the impact of FH-based risk information on the uptake of preventive interventions; Question 4 (Q4) the potential for harms associated with collecting cancer FH; Question 5 (Q5) factors that facilitate or hinder the collection of family history; and, Question 6 (Q6) future directions.

Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: August 2009
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Constipation in Children and Young People: Diagnosis and Management of Idiopathic Childhood Constipation in Primary and Secondary Care

Without early diagnosis and treatment, an acute episode of constipation can lead to anal fissure and become chronic. By the time the child or young person is seen they may be in a vicious cycle. Children and young people and their families are often given conflicting advice and practice is inconsistent, making treatment potentially less effective and frustrating for all concerned. Early identification of constipation and effective treatment can improve outcomes for children and young people. This guideline provides strategies based on the best available evidence to support early identification, positive diagnosis and timely, effective management. Implementation of this guideline will provide a consistent, coordinated approach and will improve outcomes for children and young people.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: 2010
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Anaphylaxis: Assessment to Confirm an Anaphylactic Episode and the Decision to Refer After Emergency Treatment for a Suspected Anaphylactic Episode

Anaphylaxis is a severe, life-threatening, generalised or systemic hypersensitivity reaction. It is characterised by rapidly developing, life-threatening problems involving: the airway (pharyngeal or laryngeal oedema) and/or breathing (bronchospasm with tachypnoea) and/or circulation (hypotension and/or tachycardia). In most cases, there are associated skin and mucosal changes.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (UK).

Version: December 2011
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Safety of Probiotics to Reduce Risk and Prevent or Treat Disease

To catalog what is known about the safety of interventions containing Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Saccharomyces, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, and/or Bacillus strains used as probiotic agents in research to reduce the risk of, prevent, or treat disease.

Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: April 2011
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A systematic review and cost-effectiveness analysis of specialist services and adrenaline auto-injectors in anaphylaxis

Study found a lack of good data to inform the effectiveness of anaphylaxis intervention but concluded that both referral to a specialist service (SS) and prescription of adrenaline injectors are likely to be cost-effective, and so consideration of randomised controlled trials of the components of care in SSs was recommended.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: April 2013
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Coeliac Disease: Recognition, Assessment and Management

Coeliac disease is an autoimmune condition associated with chronic inflammation of the small intestine, which can lead to malabsorption of nutrients. Dietary proteins, known as glutens, which are present in wheat, barley and rye activate an abnormal mucosal immune response. Clinical and histological improvements usually follow when gluten is excluded from the diet.

NICE Guideline - Internal Clinical Guidelines Team (UK).

Version: September 2015
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The Effectiveness of Interventions to Treat Severe Acute Malnutrition in Young Children: A Systematic Review

Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) arises as a consequence of a sudden period of food shortage and is associated with loss of a person's body fat and wasting of their skeletal muscle. Many of those affected are already undernourished and are often susceptible to disease. Infants and young children are the most vulnerable as they require extra nutrition for growth and development, have comparatively limited energy reserves and depend on others. Undernutrition can have drastic and wide-ranging consequences for the child's development and survival in the short and long term. Despite efforts made to treat SAM through different interventions and programmes, it continues to cause unacceptably high levels of mortality and morbidity. Uncertainty remains as to the most effective methods to treat severe acute malnutrition in young children.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: April 2012

Capnography for Monitoring End-Tidal CO2 in Hospital and Pre-hospital Settings: A Health Technology Assessment [Internet]

Anesthesiologists have been using capnography for decades to monitor end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) in patients receiving general anesthesia. ETCO2 monitoring using capnography devices has application across several hospital and pre-hospital settings, including monitoring the effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), continuous monitoring of patients in the emergency room or intensive care unit (ICU), during ambulatory transport, to confirm the correct placement of an endotracheal tube (ETT), and monitoring post-operative patients with a history of sleep apnea or who have received high doses of opioids. Depending on the clinical area, the technology is at various stages of adoption.

CADTH Health Technology Assessment - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: March 2016
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Nutrition in Cancer Care (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the causes and management of nutritional problems that occur in patients with cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: January 8, 2016

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