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Results: 1 to 20 of 77

Ovarian cancer: Can a PET scan improve treatment?

Positron emission tomography (PET) alone or PET in combination with computed tomography (PET/CT) can detect recurrence of ovarian cancer more reliably than conventional tests and examinations. It is unclear, however, whether PET and PET/CT do indeed lead to better treatment of women with ovarian cancer.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: November 7, 2012

Ovarian Low Malignant Potential Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of ovarian low-malignant potential tumors.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: June 12, 2014

Ovarian Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about tests used to detect or screen for ovarian cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: August 8, 2013

Ovarian Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about factors that may influence the risk of developing ovarian cancer and about research aimed at the prevention of this disease.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: December 6, 2013

Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of ovarian germ cell tumors.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: August 25, 2014

No evidence to suggest tamoxifen benefits patients with relapsed ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer often spreads before symptoms show. Cytotoxic drugs are often only partly effective and cause severe side‐effects. The main aims of treatment for relapsed disease are symptom control and prolongation of life. No data from RCTs or non‐RCTs were found, so there was no evidence that tamoxifen was effective and safe as a treatment for relapsed ovarian cancer. Laboratory studies suggest tamoxifen may be effective as a treatment for women with ovarian cancer. Although, uncontrolled non‐comparative trials on patients with relapsed ovarian cancer showed tamoxifen may shrink or stabilise tumours in a small number, there is a strong need for an RCT or good quality non‐randomised comparative studies to determine the effectiveness and safety of tamoxifen in terms of overall survival, tumour response, symptom control, quality of life and adverse events.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Laparoscopy versus laparotomy (open surgery) for early‐stage ovarian cancer

Stage I ovarian cancer is diagnosed when the tumour is confined to one or both ovaries, without spread to lymph nodes or other parts of the body. Approximately 25% of women with ovarian cancer will be diagnosed at an early stage, thus the diagnosis often occurs due to an accidental finding. The intention of surgical staging is to establish a diagnosis, to assess the extent of the cancer and to remove as much tumour as possible. The latter is particularly important as women with ovarian cancer survive for longer when all visible tumour has been removed.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Secondary surgical efforts to remove recurrent ovarian cancer in women who are no longer in remission

Ovarian cancer is the sixth most common cancer among women. Epithelial ovarian cancer is a disease in which malignant cells form in the tissue covering the ovary. It accounts for about 90% of ovarian cancers., the remaining 10% arise from germ cells and the sex cord and stroma of the ovary. Women with epithelial ovarian cancer that has returned after primary surgery (recurrent disease) may need secondary surgery to remove all or part of the cancer. The option of surgery (debulking or cytoreductive surgery) is currently offered to a select group of women with recurrent ovarian cancer. It is important to ascertain whether this surgery helps women with recurrent disease to survive for longer than if they only got chemotherapy.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Intraperitoneal chemotherapy (administered into the peritoneal cavity) for advanced ovarian cancer improves both overall and disease‐free survival

Ovarian cancer commonly spreads through the peritoneal cavity and usually responds to intravenous (IV) chemotherapy. This review compared the effectiveness of IV chemotherapy to chemotherapy administered directly into the peritoneal cavity (intraperitoneal, or IP). The evidence suggests an improvement in survival if some of the chemotherapy is administered via the intraperitoneal route. The disadvantage is an increase in adverse effects principally relating to the presence of a peritoneal catheter, including pain, catheter blockage, gastrointestinal effects and infection.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Platinum‐based chemotherapy shows small benefit over non‐platinum for advanced ovarian cancer. Paclitaxel trials were not reviewed

Ovarian cancer is the seventh commonest female cancer worldwide. Single‐drug or combination chemotherapy is used routinely to treat it. This review found a small benefit in platinum‐based chemotherapy over non‐platinum therapy. It also found that platinum combinations may offer improved survival over single platinum and that cisplatin and carboplatin are equally effective. The trials were done when paclitaxel (an effective new drug) was not used routinely. The results therefore, will need to be looked at in the light of new evidence from paclitaxel trials.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Interval debulking surgery for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer frequently presents at an advanced stage so it may not be possible to remove all tumours during surgery. Several cycles of chemotherapy are generally given after primary surgery. Secondary surgery, performed after a few cycles of chemotherapy before further cycles of chemotherapy, is called interval debulking surgery (IDS). This review compares the survival of women with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer, who had IDS performed between cycles of chemotherapy after primary surgery, with survival of women who had conventional treatment (primary debulking surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy). It found similar survival rates in women who did and did not receive IDS. Not enough information about adverse effects was available. Information on quality of life of the women was also inconclusive.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Laparoscopy for diagnosing resectability of disease in patients with advanced ovarian cancer

Background: The presence of residual tumour after primary debulking surgery is the most important prognostic factor in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. In up to 60% of cases, residual tumour of more than 1 cm is left behind, stressing the necessity of accurately selecting those patients who should be treated with primary debulking surgery and those who should receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy instead.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Chemotherapy for adult women diagnosed with a rare type of ovarian cancer of all stages (malignant germ cell cancer of the ovary)

Malignant germ cell cancer of the ovary (type of ovarian cancer) is a very rare type of cancer. Malignant ovarian germ cell cancer is a term used to describe a group of heterogeneous rare tumours affecting the ovaries. These tumours start in the egg (ovum) producing cells of the ovary, whereas the more common epithelial ovarian cancers start in the cells that cover the surface of the ovary. Unlike epithelial ovarian cancers, these tumours are often diagnosed early and a combination of surgery and chemotherapy usually results in favourable long term overall survival. Due to its rarity, this review is based on only one very small RCT and one small retrospective study. The data from these studies were too sparse to adequately assess the effectiveness and safety of chemotherapy after surgery (adjuvant chemotherapy) in the treatment of malignant germ cell ovarian cancer. All comparisons were restricted to single study analyses and this review was only based on 32 women, so it was not adequately powered to detect differences in survival. Adverse effects of treatment and recurrence‐free survival were incompletely documented and QoL was not reported in any of the studies. We did not find any studies that reported specifically on adults as this disease usually afflicts younger people as opposed to the older population, so there were problems in separating data on adults and children in many of the studies. Many of the treatments used were taken from experiences of treating patients with testicular cancer, as they look similar under the microscope and behave similar clinically. Due to the small number of patients with malignant germ cell cancer in the two studies, our review shows that there were no good quality studies assessing the role of chemotherapy in this disease, be it in early or late stages. There was insufficient evidence to conclude that any form of chemotherapy or best supportive care is superior over the other. This review highlights the need for future good quality, well designed studies.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Maintenance chemotherapy for ovarian cancer

Of all the gynaecological cancers, ovarian cancer has the highest death rate and epithelial ovarian cancer accounts for about 90% of all cases. Surgery and six courses of platinum‐based chemotherapy is the standard treatment and 75% of the women may not have any evidence of disease at the end of this treatment. However, 75% of the women who respond to initial treatment will relapse within 18 to 28 months and only 20% to 40% of all women will survive beyond five years.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Evaluation of follow‐up strategies for patients with epithelial ovarian cancer following completion of primary treatment

Ovarian cancer is the sixth most common cancer and seventh commonest cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Traditionally, many people who have been treated for cancer undergo long‐term follow‐up in a hospital outpatient setting. However, it has been suggested that the use of routine review (check‐ups) may not result in women with ovarian cancer living longer. We set out to review the evidence for different types of follow‐up for women who have completed treatment for the commonest type of ovarian cancer. Only one randomised study was found, and it did not find that immediate treatment with chemotherapy for relapse (identified by a tumour marker ‐ CA125 ‐ blood test) produced a benefit compared to delaying treatment until the women developed symptoms. The limited evidence suggests that there may be no benefit from early detection of recurrence of ovarian cancer and starting chemotherapy before symptoms develop. In addition, early treatment of recurrence with chemotherapy may reduce overall quality of life.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Centralisation of care may prolong survival in women with ovarian cancer, and possibly more generally, gynaecological cancer

Gynaecological cancers are cancers affecting the ovaries, uterus, cervix, vulva, and vagina.  They are the second most common cancers among women, after breast cancer. It is often suggested that outcomes are improved by centralising care within highly specialised services that include expert surgeons, radiologists, pathologists, oncologists who specialise in chemotherapy and radiotherapy, specialist nurses and other health professionals. However, consensus is lacking on whether centralisation of care for gynaecological cancer helps patients to live longer. This review investigated this issue by comparing the survival of women diagnosed with gynaecological cancer who received care from specialised and unspecialised centres.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Surgery compared to non‐surgical treatment to relieve symptoms of bowel obstruction in ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer is the sixth most common cancer among women and is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage. Bowel obstruction is a common feature of advanced or recurrent ovarian cancer and causes vomiting, pain and diarrhoea. Patients with bowel obstruction are generally in poor physical condition with only a short time left to live. Therefore, maintaining their QoL with effective symptom control is the main purpose of the management of bowel obstruction.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Nutrition for women who are having surgery for ovarian cancer

Women who have ovarian cancer, (a cancer which develops in the two organs (ovaries) that produce eggs in women) are more likely to have difficulties with food and with eating a nourishing diet in comparison to women with other types of gynaecological cancers. One reason may be because the symptoms of ovarian cancer can be difficult to recognise. Women may have a lack of interest in food, feel full, feel sick or have a painful or swollen abdomen. Some women become thinner in parts of their bodies while becoming bigger around their abdomen due to an abnormal build up of fluid or large tumours. There may be no change in body weight or weight may increase, this can make it difficult to know which women are developing problems due to a poor food intake.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Post‐surgery (adjuvant) chemotherapy for early stage epithelial ovarian cancer

Chemotherapy with platinum‐containing drugs, given after surgery to remove ovarian cancers that have not spread beyond the pelvis, saves lives but is probably unnecessary when the tumour has been surgically proven not to have spread outside of the ovary (stage I), particularly if the specific cell type is not aggressive.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Is there an increased risk of ovarian cancer in women treated with drugs for subfertility?

Drugs to stimulate ovulation have been widely used for various types of subfertility since the early 1960s and their use has increased in recent years. Subfertile women are commonly exposed to these agents, which may be administered at high doses for long periods of time during treatment for subfertility. There is uncertainty about the safety of these drugs and the potential risk of causing cancers associated with their use.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

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