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Occupational therapy for cognitive impairment in stroke patients

Cognitive impairment is common after stroke and can affect a person's ability to do everyday activities such as dressing, feeding, and showering. Occupational therapy aims to help people reach their maximum level of functional independence. This review of one trial including 33 participants found that there is currently insufficient evidence to establish the effectiveness of occupational therapy for cognitive impairment in people who have had a stroke. More well‐designed clinical trials which test occupational therapy interventions for cognitive impairment post‐stroke are needed.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Occupational therapy as supportive treatment for people with multiple sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the nervous system which affects young and middle‐aged adults. MS causes disruption of the ability of nerves to conduct electrical impulses, leading to symptoms such as muscle weakness, fatigue and loss of control over the limbs. Occupational therapy (OT) is used to try to help people with MS participate in the physical and social activities of their daily lives. The review found that there is currently no reliable evidence that OT improves outcomes for people with MS, although there was some suggestion that fatigue might be improved.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

Occupational therapy for patients with problems in activities of daily living after stroke

Occupational therapy aims to help people reach their maximum level of function and independence in all aspects of daily living. Reviewing nine studies with 1258 participants, people who had a stroke were more independent in personal activities of daily living (feeding, dressing, bathing, toileting and moving about) and more likely to maintain these abilities if they received treatment from an occupational therapist. However, we still need to understand the best form of this occupational therapy input (for example, what should be provided, when it should be provided, how often and for how long) before we can plan how to best use it in health and social care settings.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

There is inadequate evidence to evaluate the effect of occupational therapy for people with Parkinson's disease.

Parkinson's disease is a progressive disabling neurodegenerative disease. Symptoms can include problems with movement such as being stiff, slow, and shaky, and sometimes non‐motor symptoms such as problems with communication, mood, vision, and problem solving abilities. The role of the occupational therapist is to support individuals with Parkinson's disease and to enable them to maintain their usual level of self‐care, work and leisure activities for as long as possible. The review found inadequate evidence from randomised controlled trials to evaluate the effect of occupational therapy for people with Parkinson's disease.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Occupational therapy for care home residents with stroke

Stroke is the leading cause of disability worldwide and is prevalent in the care home population. Whilst care home residents with stroke are likely to be more impaired and dependent than those with stroke residing in their own homes, they are less likely to receive ongoing stroke specialist rehabilitation such as occupational therapy. Occupational therapy aims to help people achieve their maximum level of independence in everyday activities. Evidence can be found to support the benefits of occupational therapy for community‐dwelling stroke survivors. However, the care home population with stroke differs from the community‐dwelling population. For example, they are more likely to have high levels of immobility, incontinence and confusion, along with other co‐morbidities. This review of one trial including 118 participants found that evidence is currently insufficient to conclusively state the benefits of occupational therapy for care home residents with stroke. Additional randomised controlled trials that test occupational therapy interventions for care home residents with stroke are needed. One such trial is currently ongoing.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Occupational therapy for rheumatoid arthritis

To answer this question, scientists analysed 38 studies. The studies tested over 1700 people who had rheumatoid arthritis. People were either counseled, trained in skills or trained to move or do daily chores with less pain, taught to protect their joints, given splints, taught to use assistive devices, or had no therapy. Not all studies were high quality but this Cochrane Review provides the best evidence about occupational therapy that we have today.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

Spasticity in Children and Young People with Non-Progressive Brain Disorders: Management of Spasticity and Co-Existing Motor Disorders and Their Early Musculoskeletal Complications

This guideline covers the management of spasticity and co-existing motor disorders and their early musculoskeletal complications in children and young people (from birth up to their 19th birthday) with non-progressive brain disorders.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: July 2012
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The effectiveness of occupational therapy for children with developmental coordination disorder: a review of the qualitative literature

Bibliographic details: Morgan R, Long T.  The effectiveness of occupational therapy for children with developmental coordination disorder: a review of the qualitative literature. British Journal of Occupational Therapy 2012; 75(1): 10-18 Available from: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/cot/bjot/2012/00000075/00000001/art00005

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

Older adults' experiences of occupational therapy predischarge home visits: a systematic thematic synthesis of qualitative research

Bibliographic details: Atwal A, Spiliotopoulou G, Plastow N, McIntyre A, McKay EA.  Older adults' experiences of occupational therapy predischarge home visits: a systematic thematic synthesis of qualitative research. British Journal of Occupational Therapy 2012; 75(3): 118-127 Available from: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/cot/bjot/2012/00000075/00000003/art00002

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

The effectiveness of local authority social services' occupational therapy for older people in Great Britain: a critical literature review

Bibliographic details: Boniface G, Mason M, Macintyre J, Synan C, Riley J.  The effectiveness of local authority social services' occupational therapy for older people in Great Britain: a critical literature review. British Journal of Occupational Therapy 2013; 76(12): 538-547 Available from: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/cot/bjot/2013/00000076/00000012/art00004

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

The effectiveness of community-based occupational therapy education and functional training programs for older adults: a critical literature review

BACKGROUND: This paper examines the results of a critical literature review describing the provision of education and functional training programs by occupational therapists with older adults to maximize their occupational performance.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2003

[The effectiveness of occupational therapy for persons with moderate and severe dementia]

An occupational therapy tailored for persons concerned with moderate to severe dementia is effective. Occupational therapy applies in a targeted manner activities as therapeutic measure. Aim is a high quality of life in everyday life - also without drugs. Mental capacity and independence in daily routine shall be maintained as long as possible. Occupational therapy can be more cost-effective than medical treatment because it reduces the nursing expenditures.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

Occupational therapy for stroke patients: a systematic review

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Occupational therapy (OT) is an important aspect of stroke rehabilitation. The objective of this study was to determine from the available literature whether OT interventions improve outcome for stroke patients.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2003

Occupational therapy for community dwelling elderly people: a systematic review

OBJECTIVE: Occupational therapy might play an important role in maintaining independent living for community dwelling elderly people. The aim of this systematic review is to determine whether occupational therapy improves outcome for people who are >/=60 years and are living independently.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2004

Parkinson's: Non-drug treatment

In addition to medication, exercises and speech therapy are important elements of treatment for Parkinson's disease.Many people with Parkinson’s do exercises or sports to prevent restrictions in movement and stiff muscles or to become more flexible again. The aim of occupational therapy is to maintain independence in everyday life. If speech becomes increasingly difficult, speech therapy can be a good idea. Relaxation exercises and therapies like progressive muscle relaxation, heat therapy and massages are sometimes also used.These therapies aim to relieve symptoms that cannot be improved enough by taking medication. But the positive psychological effect of movement, relaxation and other exercises should not be underestimated – and nor should the active support of therapists.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: April 8, 2015

Low back pain: Treating chronic back pain with exercise and physiotherapy

Studies show that multidisciplinary treatment programs, massage and manual therapy might be able to relieve chronic low back pain, at least in the short term – especially if physical activity is increased at the same time. Similar things can be said of acupuncture.There are only a few treatments for chronic low back pain that are proven to help. Many treatments have not been studied well enough to be able to say whether they can effectively relieve pain  or improve quality of life in the long term. The same is true of many conservative, that is to say non-operative, treatments for low back pain, such as exercise programs and physiotherapy techniques.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: March 1, 2012

Physical conditioning as part of a return to work strategy to reduce sickness absence for workers with back pain

We reviewed the evidence about the effect of physical conditioning as part of a return to work strategy in people with low back pain. We found 25 studies.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Occupational therapy interventions to improve performance of daily activities at home for older adults with low vision: a systematic review

The impact of age-related vision loss on older adults' independence at home is profound. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify the effectiveness of interventions within the scope of occupational therapy practice to maintain, restore, and improve performance in daily activities at home for older adults with low vision. We searched and screened abstracts from multiple electronic databases and identified 17 studies that fulfilled our inclusion and exclusion criteria. Three themes in intervention approaches emerged: multicomponent intervention, single-component intervention, and multidisciplinary intervention. Strong evidence of effectiveness was found in studies that applied a multicomponent approach; these interventions involved teaching knowledge and skills that older adults with low vision need to help overcome the disablement process. Evidence also suggests that multiple sessions of training with low vision devices and special viewing skills to compensate for vision loss are necessary to have a positive effect on daily activities. Finally, multidisciplinary intervention that focused on personal goals yielded greater positive outcomes than interventions that were not personalized.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

Parents' experiences with physical and occupational therapy for their young child with cerebral palsy: a mixed studies review

Understanding the experiences of parents with their child's intervention might help meet the needs of parents and, subsequently get them engaged in their child's intervention. As parents' early beliefs regarding their child's intervention has consequences for treatment participation, it is important to understand these parental perspectives. The aim of this mixed studies review was to give an overview of the experiences and related factors of parents of young children (0-5 years of age) with cerebral palsy in relation to the physical and/or occupational therapy of their child in a rehabilitation setting. The literature was searched systematically for qualitative and quantitative studies published between January 1990 and July 2011. Inclusion criteria were (1) the study population consisted of parents of children with cerebral palsy, with at least 25% of children under the age of five; (2) children had received physical and/or occupational therapy in a rehabilitation setting; and (3) the experiences of the parents with their child's therapy were addressed. Data were synthesized with the framework synthesis method resulting in a conceptual framework describing the factors that are related to the parents' experiences with their child's interventions. A total of 13 studies (eight qualitative and five quantitative) were included and evaluated. Parents expressed various aspects in context, process and outcomes when asked about their experiences with their child's intervention. They had different needs over time and needed time to build a collaborative relationship with their child's therapists. The proposed framework acknowledges the various aspects in context, process and outcomes that parents reported when asked about their experiences. Knowing this, the importance of the broader context of the child in a family should be acknowledged; realizing the impact that the demands of daily life, supports and resources provided to parents, attitudes in the community and culture have on parental experiences.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Physiotherapy and occupational therapy interventions for people with benign joint hypermobility syndrome: a systematic review of clinical trials

PURPOSE: This study assessed the literature to determine the efficacy and effectiveness of physiotherapy and occupational therapy interventions in the treatment of people with benign joint hypermobility syndrome (BJHS).

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

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