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Long-acting Reversible Contraception: The Effective and Appropriate Use of Long-Acting Reversible Contraception

Contraception can be divided into two broad categories: hormonal and nonhormonal. There are two categories of hormonal contraception: combined oestrogen and progestogen and progestogen-only. Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) is defined in this guideline as methods that require administering less than once per cycle or month.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health (UK).

Version: October 2005
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Fertility: Assessment and Treatment for People with Fertility Problems

This guideline offers best practice advice on assisting people of reproductive age who have problems conceiving.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health (UK).

Version: February 2013
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Combined hormonal contraception and bone health: a systematic review

This systematic review examined whether women who use combined hormonal contraception experience changes in risk of fracture or bone mineral density (BMD) that differ from nonusers. We identified 86 articles from PubMed and EMBASE (published 1966 to August 2005) that reported on fracture or BMD outcomes by use of combined hormonal contraceptives. The evidence relating to combined oral contraceptives (COCs) and fracture is inconclusive, as results from the available studies conflict. Studies of adolescent and young adult women generally found lower BMD among COC users than nonusers. Evidence for premenopausal adult women suggested no differences in BMD between COC users and nonusers. COC use in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women preserved bone mass, while nonusers lost BMD, but BMD among former COC users in this age group was the same as for never-users. Evidence for other combined hormonal methods was very limited, with one study indicating no effect of combined hormonal injectable use among premenopausal women on BMD and one study suggesting lower BMD among premenopausal users of the NuvaRing than in nonusers.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2006

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