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Drug Class Review: Beta Adrenergic Blockers: Final Report Update 4 [Internet]

Beta blockers inhibit the chronotropic, inotropic, and vasoconstrictor responses to the catecholamines, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. Beta blockers differ in their duration of effect (3 hours to 22 hours), the types of beta receptors they block (β1-selective or β1/β2-nonselective), whether they are simultaneously capable of exerting low level heart rate increases (intrinsic sympathomimetic activity [ISA]), and in whether they provide additional blood vessel dilation effects by also blocking alpha-1 receptors. All beta blockers are approved for the treatment of hypertension. Other US Food and Drug Administration-approved uses are specific to each beta blocker and include stable and unstable angina, atrial arrhythmias, bleeding esophageal varices, coronary artery disease, asymptomatic and symptomatic heart failure, migraine, and secondary prevention of post-myocardial infarction. The objective of this review was to evaluate the comparative effectiveness and harms of beta blockers in adult patients with hypertension, angina, coronary artery bypass graft, recent myocardial infarction, heart failure, atrial arrhythmia, migraine or bleeding esophageal varices.

Drug Class Reviews - Oregon Health & Science University.

Version: July 2009
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Drug Class Review: Agents for Overactive Bladder: Final Report Update 4 [Internet]

Overactive bladder is defined by the International Continence Society as a syndrome of urinary frequency and urgency, with or without urge incontinence, appearing in the absence of local pathological factors. Treatment of overactive bladder syndrome first requires a clear diagnosis. In patients with incontinence, multiple forms can be present and it is important to determine which form is dominant. Non-pharmacologic, non-surgical treatment consists of behavioral training (prompted voiding, bladder training, pelvic muscle rehabilitation), transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, catheterization, and use of absorbent pads. Pharmacologic treatment for overactive bladder syndrome includes darifenacin, flavoxate hydrochloride, hyoscyamine, oxybutynin chloride, tolterodine tartrate, trospium chloride, scopolamine transdermal, and solifenacin succinate. The purpose of this systematic review is to compare the benefits and harms of drugs used to treat overactive bladder syndrome.

Drug Class Reviews - Oregon Health & Science University.

Version: March 2009
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Drug Class Review: Triptans: Final Report Update 4 [Internet]

Triptans, also called serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(1B/1D) agonists, are used to treat migraine and certain other headaches. Triptans act by binding to serotonin receptors in the brain, which leads to a reversal of blood vessel swelling. Triptans may be taken subcutaneously, orally as tablets, capsules, or quick-dissolving wafers, or intranasally as a spray. Currently, 7 triptans are available in the United States (almotriptan, eletriptan, frovatriptan, naratriptan, rizatriptan, sumatriptan and zolmitriptan), as well as a fixed-dose combination product containing sumatriptan plus naproxen. Comparing the clinical efficacy and harms of the different triptans has been an area of considerable interest to researchers and patients, but is complex because of the large variety of outcome measures that can be measured in studies. The purpose of this review is to compare the efficacy, effectiveness, and harms of triptans.

Drug Class Reviews - Oregon Health & Science University.

Version: June 2009
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