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Results: 6

Azathioprine as an oral corticosteroid sparing agent for asthma

Asthma can be treated with drugs that aim to reduce inflammation in the airways. Inhaled corticosteroids are frequently used, but occasionally individuals require oral steroids for adequate control. However, oral steroids are frequently associated with severe side‐effects. Azathioprine has been suggested as a useful 'add‐on' therapy to oral steroid treatment with the aim of reducing the dose requirement in such cases of severe asthma. The review found two small studies which did not provide adequate evidence as to whether azathioprine could be offered to reduce oral steroid treatment. There is a need for well‐designed trials addressing this question before recommendations can be made.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Paliperidone palmitate for schizophrenia

Paliperidone palmitate is a long‐acting intramuscular formulation of paliperidone, an active metabolite of risperidone that was previously available only in an oral formulation. We evaluated the efficacy, adverse effects, and safety of paliperidone palmitate in the treatment of people with schizophrenia and schizophrenia‐like illnesses. In short‐term studies, paliperidone palmitate is a more effective antipsychotic than placebo. The adverse effects of paliperidone palmitate are similar to those of oral paliperidone, oral risperidone, and risperidone long‐acting injection. In two short‐term studies, flexibly‐dosed paliperidone palmitate is roughly equivalent in efficacy and tolerability to flexibly‐dosed risperidone long‐acting injection.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Beta radiation in glaucoma surgery

The aim of glaucoma surgery is to lower the pressure in the eye. The outcome of glaucoma surgery can be affected by the rate at which the surgical wound heals. Beta radiation has been proposed as a rapid and simple treatment to slow down the healing response. It is applied during the operation using a radioactive applicator which emits beta rays which have only a very local penetration to a depth of less than one millimetre. The intensity of the emission from the applicator (usually Strontium‐90) determines the duration it is applied to the surgical site in order to deliver the required dose of radiation which effectively prevents scar tissue formation.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Oral paliperidone for schizophrenia

Paliperidone, 9‐hydroxy‐risperidone, is an active metabolite of risperidone that is now commercially available in an oral formulation. We evaluated the efficacy, adverse effects, and safety of oral paliperidone in the treatment of people with schizophrenia and schizophrenia‐like illnesses. In short‐term studies, oral paliperidone is a more effective antipsychotic than placebo. The adverse effects of paliperidone are similar to those of risperidone. No data comparing the efficacy of paliperidone to risperidone over a meaningful period of time was available for this review; in a six‐day trial comparing paliperidone to risperidone we identified no difference in recurrence of psychotic symptoms or adverse effects. The manufacturer is also developing an intramuscular long‐acting formulation, but it is not yet commercially available; its use in the treatment of schizophrenia will be considered in a separate review.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Codeine, alone and with paracetamol (acetaminophen), for cancer pain

Codeine is an opioid medication commonly used worldwide to treat pain including cancer pain. Oral codeine, either alone or in combination with paracetamol, provided good pain relief for some people with cancer pain, based on limited amounts of information.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Ciclesonide compared to budesonide and fluticasone in the treatment of asthma in children

Asthma is a common disease in childhood. Most children with chronic asthma are treated with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) to control airway inflammation and reduce asthma symptoms. Although these drugs are considered to be very safe and effective, not all children achieve full asthma control and some parents are concerned about the possibility of reduced growth or local side effects such as hoarseness. The challenge for newer ICS is to achieve improved asthma control with fewer side effects. This could be achieved by small‐particle‐size ICS, leading to better lung deposition as they penetrate deeper into the small airways. Therefore, asthma control could be achieved with lower daily doses and with fewer side effects. In children, particle size of ICS might be even more important because of their smaller airways.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

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