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Red flags to screen for malignancy in patients with lowback pain

Background: The identification of serious pathologies, such as spinal malignancy, is one of the primary purposes of the clinical assessment of patients with lowback pain (LBP). Clinical guidelines recommend awareness of "red flag" features from the patient's clinical history and physical examination to achieve this. However, there are limited empirical data on the diagnostic accuracy of these features and there remains very little information on how best to use them in clinical practice.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Physical examination for lumbar radiculopathy due to disc herniation in patients with lowback pain

Background: Lowback pain with leg pain (sciatica) may be caused by a herniated intervertebral disc exerting pressure on the nerve root. Most patients will respond to conservative treatment, but in carefully selected patients, surgical discectomy may provide faster relief of symptoms. Primary care clinicians use patient history and physical examination to evaluate the likelihood of disc herniation and select patients for further imaging and possible surgery.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Low back pain: Overview

Most people will end up experiencing low back pain at some point in their lives. It usually starts without warning and then goes away again after a few days or weeks. It is only rarely caused by a serious health problem. Exercise can be effective at preventing low back pain.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: March 1, 2012

Interventions for improving the appropriate use of imaging in people with musculoskeletal conditions

Imaging is the production of a clinical image of the human body using medical techniques such as x‐rays, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance (MRI). Imaging is commonly performed for musculoskeletal conditions and is an important aspect of the management of these conditions. In some instances, imaging may not be appropriate, for example x‐rays for acute low back pain, and in other instances, imaging is under utilised, for example bone mineral density testing to diagnose people at risk for osteoporosis. The identification of interventions that improve the appropriate use of imaging (either decreasing inappropriate use or increasing appropriate use) for musculoskeletal conditions would be of great value, potentially resulting in improved health outcomes for patients and reduced healthcare costs. The aim of this systematic review was to identify those interventions that improve appropriate use of imaging and to quantify their effects.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Understanding tests used to detect bone problems

Just like other tissues and organs in our body, bones can be affected by medical conditions too. These include things like fractures, signs of wear and tear, inflammations and cancer. Injuries and fractures are common in younger people. As we grow older, diseases like osteoporosis and osteoarthritis are more likely to develop. Various tests and examinations can be used to find out what is causing problems like pain or difficulties moving.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: November 7, 2013

Slipped disk: Overview

When most people hear "slipped disk" they think of very sudden, severe back pain. But most slipped disks go unnoticed and do not have to be treated. What happens if a slipped disk causes pain and how do you know whether you should see a doctor?

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: October 9, 2014

Comparison of surgical techniques for the treatment of patients with lumbar stenosis

Laminectomy is the "gold standard" surgical treatment for low back spinal stenosis. The goal of this surgical procedure is to alleviate symptoms such as pain, numbness and weakness of the legs and buttocks.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Anti‐TNF‐alpha drugs for treating ankylosing spondylitis

Researchers looked at trials done up to June 2014 on the effect of anti‐TNF drugs (adalimumab (Humira®), etanercept (Enbrel®), golimumab (Simponi®), and infliximab (Remicade®)) on ankylosing spondylitis. They found 21 trials with 3308 participants. Most studies were funded by pharmaceutical companies.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Acute pancreatitis: Overview

Acute pancreatitis is an inflammation of the pancreas that typically causes very sudden stomach ache.The pain is usually so severe that most people go straight to a doctor. The most common causes are gallstones blocking the opening of the pancreas and excessive alcohol consumption.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: April 22, 2015

Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of childhood ependymoma.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: June 25, 2015

Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors Treatment Overview (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of various childhood brain tumors.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: June 25, 2015

Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of childhood liver cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: August 22, 2014

Pituitary Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of pituitary tumors.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: June 26, 2015

Adrenocortical Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: June 26, 2015

Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of childhood soft tissue sarcomas.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: July 23, 2015

Lymphedema (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of lymphedema, a condition in which lymph fluid builds up in tissues and causes swelling.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: May 29, 2015

Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of cervical cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: June 12, 2015

Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the health problems that continue or appear after cancer treatment has ended.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: June 26, 2015

Adult Primary Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of adult primary liver cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: June 15, 2015

Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of unusual cancers of childhood such as cancers of the head and neck, chest, abdomen, reproductive system, skin, and others.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: July 24, 2015

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