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Alcohol Use Disorders: Diagnosis and Clinical Management of Alcohol-Related Physical Complications [Internet]

Alcohol is the most widely used psychotropic drug in the industrialised world; it has been used for thousands of years as a social lubricant and anxiolytic. In the UK, it is estimated that 24% of adult men and 13% of adult women drink in a hazardous or harmful way. Levels of hazardous and harmful drinking are lowest in the central and eastern regions of England (21–24% of men and 10–14% of women). They are highest in the north (26–28% of men, 16–18% of women). Hazardous and harmful drinking are commonly encountered amongst hospital attendees; 12% of emergency department attendances are directly related to alcohol whilst 20% of patients admitted to hospital for illnesses unrelated to alcohol are drinking at potentially hazardous levels. Continued hazardous and harmful drinking can result in dependence and tolerance with the consequence that an abrupt reduction in intake might result in development of a withdrawal syndrome. In addition, persistent drinking at hazardous and harmful levels can also result in damage to almost every organ or system of the body. Alcohol-attributable conditions include liver damage, pancreatitis and the Wernicke’s encephalopathy. Key areas in the investigation and management of these conditions are covered in this guideline.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: 2010
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Radiofrequency-assisted versus clamp-crush liver resection: a systematic review and meta-analysis

BACKGROUND: Conflicting results were found between radiofrequency-assisted liver resection (RF-LR) and clamp-crush liver resection (CC-LR) during liver surgery. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis that included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs to compare the effectiveness and safety of RF-LR versus CC-LR during liver surgery.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Percutaneous needle aspiration does not seem to help patients with uncomplicated amoebic liver abscesses

Amoebiasis (disease caused by the protozoan Entameoba histolytica) remains an important clinical problem in countries around the world, with 40 to 50 million people affected. Mortality rates are significant, with 40,000 to 110,000 deaths each year. In fact, amoebiasis mortality is second only to malaria as cause of death from protozoan parasites. The most common complication of amoebiasis is the formation of a pus‐filled mass inside the liver (liver abscess). Metronidazole is the drug of choice for treatment of amoebic liver abscesses followed by a luminal agent to eradicate the asymptomatic carrier state. Cure rates are 95% with disappearance of fever, pain, and anorexia within 72 to 96 hours. This review compares the standard treatment with a more invasive alternative, where pus‐filled mass is drained by image‐guided percutaneous procedure (performed through the skin). Seven low quality randomised trials were included. All the seven studies included a total of 310 patients, but due to selective outcome reporting bias, less patients could be included in our analyses. Pooled analysis of three homogenous trials showed that needle aspiration did not significantly increase the proportion of patients with fever resolution. Benefits could be observed in resolution time of pain and tenderness. No additional benefit has been found with percutaneous needle aspiration plus metronidazole versus metronidazole alone for uncomplicated amoebic liver abscesses in hastening clinical and radiologic resolution. However, this conclusion is based on trials with methodological flaws and with insufficient sample sizes, and requires further confirmation in larger well‐designed, randomised trials.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Meta-analysis of laparoscopic vs open liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma

AIM: To conduct a meta-analysis to determine the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) and open liver resection (OLR) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

Local Hepatic Therapies for Metastases to the Liver From Unresectable Colorectal Cancer [Internet]

To characterize the comparative effectiveness and harms of various local hepatic therapies for metastases to the liver from unresectable colorectal cancer (CRC) in two distinct populations: patients with liver-dominant metastases (i.e., majority of disease located in the liver) who are not eligible for continued systemic chemotherapy because their disease is refractory (i.e., they have experienced disease progression while on therapy), and patients who are candidates for local liver therapies as an adjunct to systemic chemotherapy. Local hepatic therapies include ablation, embolization, and radiotherapy approaches.

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: December 2012
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Referral Guidelines for Suspected Cancer in Adults and Children [Internet]

The guideline is divided into sections which cover in detail specific topics relating to twelve groups of cancers: lung, upper gastrointestinal cancers, lower gastrointestinal cancers, breast cancer, gynaecological cancers, urological cancers, haematological cancers, skin cancers, head and neck including oral cancers, brain/central nervous system cancers, bone and sarcoma, and children’s and young people’s cancers.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - Clinical Governance Research and Development Unit (CGRDU), Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester.

Version: June 2005
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Long-acting Reversible Contraception: The Effective and Appropriate Use of Long-Acting Reversible Contraception

Contraception can be divided into two broad categories: hormonal and nonhormonal. There are two categories of hormonal contraception: combined oestrogen and progestogen and progestogen-only. Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) is defined in this guideline as methods that require administering less than once per cycle or month.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health (UK).

Version: October 2005
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The Management of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Men [Internet]

The guideline covers men (18 and over) with a clinical working diagnosis of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Options for conservative, pharmacological, surgical, and complementary or alternative treatments are considered in terms of clinical and cost effectiveness.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: 2010
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Diagnosis and Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Adults [Internet]

Methods for diagnosing and treating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are cumbersome, resource-intensive, and often inconvenient for the patient.

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: July 2011
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Primary Care Management of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding [Internet]

The Vanderbilt Evidence-based practice Center systematically reviewed evidence about interventions for symptomatic abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB), both irregular and cyclic. We focused on interventions that are suitable for use in primary care practice including medical, behavioral, and complementary and alternative medicine approaches.

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: March 2013
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Heavy Menstrual Bleeding

Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) has an adverse effect on the quality of life of many women. It is not a problem associated with significant mortality. Many women seek help from their general practitioners and it is a common reason for referral into secondary care.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: January 2007
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Comparative Effectiveness of Therapies for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer [Internet]

This report summarizes evidence comparing the relative effectiveness and safety of treatment options for clinically localized prostate cancer. The report addresses the following questions: 1) What are the comparative risks, benefits, short- and long-term outcomes of therapies for clinically localized prostate cancer? 2) How do specific patient characteristics, e.g., age, race/ethnicity, presence or absence of comorbid illness, preferences (e.g., tradeoff of treatment-related adverse effects vs. potential for disease progression), affect the outcomes of these therapies, overall and differentially? 3) How do provider/hospital characteristics affect outcomes overall and differentially (e.g., geographic region and volume)? 4) How do tumor characteristics, e.g., Gleason score, tumor volume, screen vs. clinically detected tumors, affect the outcomes of these therapies, overall and differentially?

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: February 2008

Local Therapies for Unresectable Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma [Internet]

To characterize the comparative effectiveness and harms of various local hepatic therapies for patients with unresectable primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who are not candidates for surgical resection or liver transplantation. Local hepatic therapies include those related to ablation, embolization, and radiotherapy.

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: May 2013
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Tuberculosis: Clinical Diagnosis and Management of Tuberculosis, and Measures for Its Prevention and Control

This is the full version of NICE clinical guideline 117. It contains details of the methods and evidence used to develop the guideline. It updates and replaces the full version of ‘Tuberculosis: clinical diagnosis and management of tuberculosis, and measures for its prevention and control’ that was developed by the National Collaborating Centre for Chronic Conditions and published by the Royal College of Physicians in March 2006. The updated recommendations have been developed by the Centre for Clinical Practice at NICE following the NICE short clinical guideline process. New recommendations on the use of interferon-gamma tests for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis have been added.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (UK).

Version: March 2011
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Safety of Probiotics to Reduce Risk and Prevent or Treat Disease

To catalog what is known about the safety of interventions containing Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Saccharomyces, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, and/or Bacillus strains used as probiotic agents in research to reduce the risk of, prevent, or treat disease.

Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: April 2011
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Enhancing the Use and Quality of Colorectal Cancer Screening

To conduct a systematic review of the use and quality (including underuse, overuse, and misuse) of appropriate colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, including factors associated with screening, effective interventions to improve screening rates, current capacity, and monitoring and tracking the use and quality. Trends in the use and quality of CRC screening tests is also presented.

Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: February 2010
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Surgical resection of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer: a systematic review of published studies

No consensus on the indications for surgical resection of colorectal liver metastases exists. This systematic review has been undertaken to assess the published evidence for its efficacy and safety and to identify prognostic factors. Studies were identified by computerised and hand searches of the literature, scanning references and contacting investigators. The outcome measures were overall survival, disease-free survival, postoperative morbidity and mortality, quality of life and cost effectiveness, and a qualitative summary of the trends across all studies was produced. Only 30 of 529 independent studies met all the eligibility criteria for the review, and data on 30-day mortality and morbidity only were included from a further nine studies. The best available evidence came from prospective case series, but only two studies reported outcomes for all patients undergoing surgery. The remainder reported outcomes for selected groups of patients: those undergoing hepatic resection or those undergoing curative resection. Postoperative mortality rates were generally low (median 2.8%). The majority of studies described only serious postoperative morbidity, the most common being bile leak and associated perihepatic abscess. Approximately 30% of patients remained alive 5 years after resection and around two-thirds of these are disease free. The quality of the majority of published papers was poor and ascertaining the benefits of surgical resection of colorectal hepatic metastases is difficult in the absence of randomised trials. However, it is clear that there is group of patients with liver metastases who may become long-term disease-free survivors following hepatic resection. Such survival is rare in apparently comparable patients who do not have surgical treatment. Further work is needed to more accurately define this group of patients and to determine whether the addition of adjuvant treatments results in improved survival.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2006

Comparative Effectiveness of In-Hospital Use of Recombinant Factor VIIa for Off-Label Indications vs. Usual Care [Internet]

This report evaluates the level of evidence currently available to support the effectiveness and safety of using recombinant activated coagulation factor VII (rFVIIa) for clinical indications not approved by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). rFVIIa is approved for a variety of uses in hemophilia patients who have developed antibody inhibitors that compromise the use of standard factor replacement. Use of this costly biologic product has expanded beyond these hemophilia-related indications to encompass a range of off-label uses, most of which are in-hospital uses. These uses differ substantially from the drug’s FDA approved label. The purpose of this report is two-fold: (1) To document the full range of clinical indications for which rFVIIa is being used and the types of studies available to evaluate these uses and (2) To provide a comparative effectiveness review of rFVIIa vs. usual care for several in-hospital clinical indications: intracranial hemorrhage, massive bleeding secondary to trauma, and the selected surgical procedures of cardiac surgery, liver transplantation, and prostatectomy.

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: May 2010
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Diagnosis and Management of Metastatic Malignant Disease of Unknown Primary Origin

The term “cancer of unknown primary” refers to a condition in which a patient has metastatic malignancy without an identified primary source. This is a very heterogeneous disease in which the type of tumour, the extent of spread, and the outcome of treatment all vary widely. When categorising patients with cancer of unknown primary, one important factor initially considered is the cell type of origin of the metastatic disease. The majority of patients have malignancy which appears to derive from epithelial cells, and hence are regarded as having carcinoma of unknown primary. Patients with tumours of non-epithelial lineage (melanoma, sarcoma, lymphoma, germ-cell) form a distinct and important minority, since subsequent management can often be satisfactorily undertaken even in the absence of an identifiable primary source. Such patients are not considered in this guideline, since their care is adequately defined in existing guidelines for their specific tumour type. The term “carcinoma of unknown primary” (CUP) is used henceforth to refer to those patients with metastatic malignancy of epithelial, neuroendocrine or undifferentiated lineage whose investigation and management is considered within the scope of this guideline.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Cancer (UK).

Version: July 2010
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Methotrexate for treatment of chronic active ulcerative colitis

Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease characterized by abdominal cramping, fecal urgency and bloody diarrhea. Methotrexate is a drug that suppresses the body's natural immune responses and may suppress inflammation associated with ulcerative colitis. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the effectiveness and side effects of methotrexate used to induce remission in patients with active ulcerative colitis.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

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