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Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Measures for Guiding Antibiotic Treatment for Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia [Internet]

To conduct a systematic review of the use of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) measures or strategies to dose and monitor intravenous (IV) antibiotics in the treatment of adults with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP).

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: November 2014
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Making Health Care Safer II: An Updated Critical Analysis of the Evidence for Patient Safety Practices

To review important patient safety practices for evidence of effectiveness, implementation, and adoption.

Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: March 2013

Urinary Tract Infection in Children: Diagnosis, Treatment and Long-term Management

In the past 30–50 years, the natural history of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children has changed as a result of the introduction of antibiotics and improvements in health care. This change has contributed to uncertainty about the most appropriate and effective way to diagnose and treat UTI in children and whether or not investigations and follow-up are justified.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: August 2007
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Screening, Isolation, and Decolonization Strategies for Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci or Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Organisms: A Systematic Review of the Clinical Evidence and Health Services Impact [Internet]

Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is an increasing problem in Canada and worldwide. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are strains of Enterococcus faecium or Enterococcus faecalis that contain genes conferring resistance to vancomycin. Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumonia (K. pneumonia), and other gram-negative bacteria may produce the enzymes known as extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL). These have the ability to inactivate beta lactam antibiotics such as penicillin, ampicillin, and the cephalosporins.

Rapid Response Report: Systematic Review - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: September 2012
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Alcohol Use Disorders: Diagnosis and Clinical Management of Alcohol-Related Physical Complications [Internet]

Alcohol is the most widely used psychotropic drug in the industrialised world; it has been used for thousands of years as a social lubricant and anxiolytic. In the UK, it is estimated that 24% of adult men and 13% of adult women drink in a hazardous or harmful way. Levels of hazardous and harmful drinking are lowest in the central and eastern regions of England (21–24% of men and 10–14% of women). They are highest in the north (26–28% of men, 16–18% of women). Hazardous and harmful drinking are commonly encountered amongst hospital attendees; 12% of emergency department attendances are directly related to alcohol whilst 20% of patients admitted to hospital for illnesses unrelated to alcohol are drinking at potentially hazardous levels. Continued hazardous and harmful drinking can result in dependence and tolerance with the consequence that an abrupt reduction in intake might result in development of a withdrawal syndrome. In addition, persistent drinking at hazardous and harmful levels can also result in damage to almost every organ or system of the body. Alcohol-attributable conditions include liver damage, pancreatitis and the Wernicke’s encephalopathy. Key areas in the investigation and management of these conditions are covered in this guideline.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: 2010
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Procalcitonin-Guided Antibiotic Therapy [Internet]

To systematically review comparative studies of the use of procalcitonin in the clinical management of adult and pediatric patients with suspected local or systemic infection.

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: October 2012
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Antibiotics for Early-Onset Neonatal Infection: Antibiotics for the Prevention and Treatment of Early-Onset Neonatal Infection

Early-onset neonatal bacterial infection (infection with onset within 72 hours of birth) is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in newborn babies. Parent organisations and the scientific literature report that there can be unnecessary delays in recognising and treating sick babies. In addition, concern about the possibility of early-onset neonatal infection is common. This concern is an important influence on the care given to pregnant women and newborn babies. There is wide variation in how the risk of early-onset neonatal infection is managed in healthy babies. The approach taken by the NHS needs to: prioritise the treatment of sick babies, minimise the impact of management pathways on healthy women and babies, use antibiotics wisely to avoid the development of resistance to antibiotics. These drivers have not always been addressed consistently in the NHS, and this guideline was commissioned to ensure they would be addressed in future.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: August 2012
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Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs in Inpatient Settings: A Systematic Review [Internet]

It is estimated that in 2009, more than 3 million kilograms of antimicrobials were administered to human patients in the United States. While the life-saving benefits of antimicrobials are indisputable, the consequences of use and misuse must also be considered. Major concerns related to the use of antimicrobials are increasing resistance, higher incidence of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection (CDI) and increased healthcare costs (including costs related to adverse events associated with antimicrobial use).

Evidence-based Synthesis Program - Department of Veterans Affairs (US).

Version: September 2013
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Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about oral complications, such as mucositis and salivary gland dysfunction, that occur in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy or radiation therapy to the head and neck.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: April 23, 2014

Diagnosis and Management of Febrile Infants (0–3 Months)

To review the evidence for diagnostic accuracy of screening for serious bacterial illness (SBI) and invasive herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in febrile infants 3 months or younger; ascertain harms and benefits of various management strategies; compare prevalence of SBI and HSV between different clinical settings; determine how well the presence of viral infection predicts against SBI; and review evidence on parental compliance to return for followup assessments (infants less than 6 months).

Evidence Report/Technology Assessments - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: March 2012
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Prophylaxis Against Infective Endocarditis: Antimicrobial Prophylaxis Against Infective Endocarditis in Adults and Children Undergoing Interventional Procedures [Internet]

Infective endocarditis (IE) is a rare condition with significant morbidity and mortality. It may arise following bacteraemia in a patient with a predisposing cardiac lesion. In an attempt to prevent this disease, over the past 50 years, at-risk patients have been given antibiotic prophylaxis before dental and certain non-dental interventional procedures.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (UK).

Version: March 2008
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Bacterial Meningitis and Meningococcal Septicaemia: Management of Bacterial Meningitis and Meningococcal Septicaemia in Children and Young People Younger than 16 Years in Primary and Secondary Care

This guideline covers bacterial meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia, focusing on management of these conditions in children and young people aged younger than 16 years in primary and secondary care, and using evidence of direct relevance to these age groups where available.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: 2010

Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the health problems that continue or appear after cancer treatment has ended.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: May 18, 2015

Urinary Incontinence in Neurological Disease: Management of Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction in Neurological Disease

The guideline covers adults and children (from birth) with lower urinary tract dysfunction resulting from neurological disease or injury.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: August 2012
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Antibiotic treatment of infections due to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae: systematic evaluation of the available evidence

We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of the antibiotic treatment administered for infections caused by carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. The PubMed and Scopus databases were systematically searched. Articles reporting the clinical outcomes of patients infected with carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae according to the antibiotic treatment administered were eligible. Twenty nonrandomized studies comprising 692 patients who received definitive treatment were included. Almost all studies reported on Klebsiella spp. In 8 studies, the majority of infections were bacteremia, while pneumonia and urinary tract infections were the most common infections in 12 studies. In 10 studies, the majority of patients were critically ill. There are methodological issues, including clinical heterogeneity, that preclude the synthesis of the available evidence using statistical analyses, including meta-analysis. From the descriptive point of view, among patients who received combination treatment, mortality was up to 50% for the tigecycline-gentamicin combination, up to 64% for tigecycline-colistin, and up to 67% for carbapenem-colistin. Among the monotherapy-treated patients, mortality was up to 57% for colistin and up to 80% for tigecycline. Certain regimens were administered to a small number of patients in certain studies. Three studies reporting on 194 critically ill patients with bacteremia showed individually significantly lower mortality in the combination arm than in the monotherapy arm. In the other studies, no significant difference in mortality was recorded between the compared groups. Combination antibiotic treatment may be considered the optimal option for severely ill patients with severe infections. However, well-designed randomized studies of specific patient populations are needed to further clarify this issue.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Effectiveness and safety of high-dose tigecycline-containing regimens for the treatment of severe bacterial infections

Here we review the effectiveness and safety of high-dose tigecycline (200mg daily). A systematic search was performed in PubMed and Scopus databases as well as of abstracts presented at scientific conferences. Eight studies (263 patients; 58% critically ill) were included, comprising one randomised controlled trial (RCT), four non-randomised cohorts and three case reports. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most commonly isolated pathogen (reported in seven studies). In the RCT, response in the clinically evaluable patients was 85.0% (17/20) in the 100mg every 12h (q12h) group and 69.6% (16/23) in the 75mg q12h group (P=0.4). More episodes of diarrhoea, treatment-related nausea and vomiting developed in the high-dose group (14.3% vs. 2.8%, 8.6% vs. 2.8% and 5.7% vs. 2.8%, respectively; P>0.05 for all comparisons). Three (8.6%) and 7 (19.6%) patients died in the 200mg and 150mg daily dose groups, respectively. The cohort studies enrolled patients with severe infections, including ventilator-associated pneumonia and complicated intra-abdominal infections. Mortality with high-dose tigecycline (100mg q12h) in the cohort studies ranged from 8.3% to 26%; mortality in the low-dose groups (50mg q12h) ranged from 8% to 61% and depended on the severity of the underlying infection. There are limited available data regarding the effectiveness and safety of high-dose tigecycline. Most of the data come from critically ill patients with difficult-to-treat infections. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties of tigecycline suggest that high-dose regimens may be more effective than low-dose regimens. Candidates for administration of high-dose tigecycline should be also defined.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Handwashing in the intensive care unit: a big measure with modest effects

The review aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of hand washing on infection rates in intensive care units (ICUs). The authors concluded that there was little evidence to support efforts to control ICU infections with hand washing. However, this conclusion was not well supported by the evidence presented, as there were a number of methodological weaknesses.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2005

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