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Antibiotics for gonorrhoea in pregnancy

Pregnant women with gonorrhoea who take penicillin, spectinomycin or ceftriaxone are much less likely to show signs of infection.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Screening for Gonorrhea and Chlamydia: Systematic Review to Update the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendations [Internet]

Previous research has supported screening for gonorrhea and chlamydia in asymptomatic sexually active women, including pregnant women, who are younger than age 25 years or at increased risk, but not other patient populations.

Evidence Syntheses - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: September 2014
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Screening for gonorrhea and chlamydia: systematic review to update the US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendations

Bibliographic details: Nelson HD, Zakher B, Cantor A, Deagas M, Pappas M.  Screening for gonorrhea and chlamydia: systematic review to update the US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendations. Rockville, MD, USA: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Evidence Synthesis; 115. 201425356451

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Population‐based interventions for reducing HIV infection

Community‐ or population‐based sexually transmitted infection control does not appear to be an effective HIV prevention strategy in most settings. In the early 1990s, improved STI treatment services were shown to reduce HIV incidence in northern Tanzania, in an environment characterised by an emerging HIV epidemic, where STI treatment services were poor and where STIs were highly prevalent. Subsequent trials, however, failed to confirm these findings and also failed to show a substantial benefit for community‐wide presumptive treatment for STIs. This is likely due to the endemic nature of HIV and relatively low incidence of STIs in these populations. There are, however, other good reasons as to why STI treatment services should be strengthened and the available evidence suggests that when an intervention is applied and accepted in a community, it can improve the quality of services provided. The trial in Masaka District, Uganda showed an increase in the use of condoms, a marker for less risky sexual behaviours, although a newer study by Gregson conducted in Zimbabwe suggested no effect. With the last three trials having shown disappointing results with respect to HIV prevention, it is unlikely that further community trials will be conducted, let alone yield different results. Future trials of biomedical interventions that involve individual randomisation, however, may represent an opportunity to reexamine presumptive treatment of STIs. Such trials should also aim to measure a range of factors that include health‐seeking behaviour and quality of treatment, as well as HIV, STI and other biological endpoints.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Strategies for partner notification for sexually transmitted infections, including HIV.

Sexually transmitted infections (STI) are a major global cause of acute illness, infertility and death. Every year there are an estimated 499 million new cases of the most common curable STIs (trichomoniasis, chlamydia, syphilis and gonorrhoea), and between two and three million new cases of HIV. The presence of several STIs, including syphilis and herpes can increase the risk of acquiring or transmitting HIV.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Effectiveness of gentamicin for gonorrhoea treatment: systematic review and meta-analysis

OBJECTIVES: The development of resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents has limited treatment options for gonorrhoea. The potential emergence of cephalosporin resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae and cephalosporin allergy in some patients make it necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of other available antimicrobial agents. Gentamicin is widely available in the USA and is used for gonorrhoea treatment in several countries. We conducted a systematic review of the medical literature to assess the effectiveness of gentamicin for treatment of uncomplicated urogenital gonococcal infections.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

Outreach for chlamydia and gonorrhoea screening: a systematic review of strategies and outcomes

BACKGROUND: High Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) prevalence have been reported in populations that do not regularly access health centres for sexually transmissible infections (STI) testing. We reviewed current outreach strategies used to increase access to STI testing and their outcomes.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

Screening for gonorrhea and chlamydia: an update for the US Preventive Services Task Force

BACKGROUND: Previous research has supported screening for gonorrhea and chlamydia in asymptomatic, sexually active women (including pregnant women) who are younger than 25 years or at increased risk but not in other patient populations.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Home-based chlamydia and gonorrhoea screening: a systematic review of strategies and outcomes

BACKGROUND: In many countries, low Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) screening rates among young people in primary-care have encouraged screening programs outside of clinics. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) make it possible to screen people in homes with self-collected specimens. We systematically reviewed the strategies and outcomes of home-based CT/NG screening programs.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

Efficacy and safety of ceftriaxone for uncomplicated gonorrhoea: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

The authors concluded that better efficacy, for uncomplicated gonorrhoea, was found for ceftriaxone 250mg versus cefixime 400mg, and for ceftriaxone 125mg versus spectinomycin 2g. Unexplained statistical variation, potential reporting bias, and a high risk that bias could have affected the pooled results, mean that the authors' conclusions may not be reliable.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

A meta-analysis of the efficacy of ocular prophylactic agents used for the prevention of gonococcal and chlamydial ophthalmia neonatorum

INTRODUCTION: Neonatal eye prophylaxis has been routine in North America for more than a century. Contextual changes justify reexamining this practice, and prompted a systematic review of the efficacy of prophylactic agents.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2010

Systematic review: noninvasive testing for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae

This review compared the diagnostic accuracy of three nucleic acid amplification tests (using urine samples) for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The authors concluded that accuracy results in tests for the first condition equate favourably to traditional sampling methods. More research is needed for the second condition. Limitations in the review process mean that the reliability of the authors' conclusions is unclear.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2005

Long-acting Reversible Contraception: The Effective and Appropriate Use of Long-Acting Reversible Contraception

Contraception can be divided into two broad categories: hormonal and nonhormonal. There are two categories of hormonal contraception: combined oestrogen and progestogen and progestogen-only. Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) is defined in this guideline as methods that require administering less than once per cycle or month.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health (UK).

Version: October 2005
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Contraception: Overview

The introduction of the birth control pill in the 1960s was somewhat of a revolution. A wide range of hormonal contraceptives are available nowadays. The contraceptive patch and vaginal ring are among the more recent ones.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: July 3, 2013

Programs for preventing pregnancy and disease through better condom use

Unprotected sex can result in disease and death in many areas of the world, due to sexually transmitted infections (STI) including HIV. The male condom is one of the oldest birth control methods and the earliest method that works to prevent HIV. When used correctly, condoms can provide dual protection against pregnancy and HIV/STI. We examined behavioral programs to improve condom use.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Nonoxynol‐9 for preventing vaginal acquisition of sexually transmitted infections by women from men

There is good evidence that nonoxynol‐9 does not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STI), and there is some evidence that it may be harmful by increasing the rate of genital ulceration. As such, this product cannot be recommended for STI prevention.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Contraception: How do the contraceptive skin patch and vaginal ring compare with the pill?

The contraceptive skin patch, vaginal ring and pill are similarly effective forms of contraception. But the skin patch is associated with more side effects than the other two hormonal contraceptives.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: July 24, 2013

Screening Pelvic Examinations in Asymptomatic Average Risk Adult Women [Internet]

The routine pelvic examination has been a usual part of preventive care for women for many decades. In 2008, 63.4 million pelvic examinations were performed in the United States. Many women and providers believe that the routine pelvic exam should be included in an annual comprehensive well-woman visit. The exam consists of inspection of the external genitalia, speculum examination of the vagina and cervix, bimanual examination, and sometimes rectal or rectovaginal examination. Traditionally, the examination in the asymptomatic average risk women has been used to screen for pathology through palpation, visualization, and specimen collection.

Evidence-based Synthesis Program - Department of Veterans Affairs.

Version: September 2013
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Topical microbicides for prevention of sexually transmitted infections

Microbicide research has had disappointing outcomes during the last two decades as most microbicides have not shown evidence that they can prevent acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, a recent small preliminary study suggests that microbicides containing the antiretroviral drug tenofovir may prevent acquisition of HIV and herpes simplex virus infection in women; but further research is needed to assess the generalisability of these findings. Therefore, there is not enough evidence to recommend topical microbicides for HIV or STI prevention at present.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Behavioral Sexual Risk Reduction Counseling in Primary Care to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Infections: An Updated Systematic Evidence Review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force [Internet]

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are common and a source of substantial morbidity in the United States. Behavioral sexual risk reduction counseling in primary care may help prevent STIs.

Evidence Syntheses - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: September 2014
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Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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