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Antibiotics for gonorrhoea in pregnancy

Pregnant women with gonorrhoea who take penicillin, spectinomycin or ceftriaxone are much less likely to show signs of infection.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Screening for Gonorrhea and Chlamydia: Systematic Review to Update the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendations [Internet]

Previous research has supported screening for gonorrhea and chlamydia in asymptomatic sexually active women, including pregnant women, who are younger than age 25 years or at increased risk, but not other patient populations.

Evidence Syntheses - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: September 2014
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Home‐based specimen collection in the management of chlamydia and gonorrhoea infections

Review question: Cochrane authors reviewed evidence about the effects of self‐collected specimens at home compared with specimens collected at clinic on the clinical management of chlamydia and gonorrhoea infections.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Screening for gonorrhea and chlamydia: systematic review to update the US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendations

Bibliographic details: Nelson HD, Zakher B, Cantor A, Deagas M, Pappas M.  Screening for gonorrhea and chlamydia: systematic review to update the US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendations. Rockville, MD, USA: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Evidence Synthesis; 115. 201425356451

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Population‐based interventions for reducing HIV infection

Community‐ or population‐based sexually transmitted infection control does not appear to be an effective HIV prevention strategy in most settings. In the early 1990s, improved STI treatment services were shown to reduce HIV incidence in northern Tanzania, in an environment characterised by an emerging HIV epidemic, where STI treatment services were poor and where STIs were highly prevalent. Subsequent trials, however, failed to confirm these findings and also failed to show a substantial benefit for community‐wide presumptive treatment for STIs. This is likely due to the endemic nature of HIV and relatively low incidence of STIs in these populations. There are, however, other good reasons as to why STI treatment services should be strengthened and the available evidence suggests that when an intervention is applied and accepted in a community, it can improve the quality of services provided. The trial in Masaka District, Uganda showed an increase in the use of condoms, a marker for less risky sexual behaviours, although a newer study by Gregson conducted in Zimbabwe suggested no effect. With the last three trials having shown disappointing results with respect to HIV prevention, it is unlikely that further community trials will be conducted, let alone yield different results. Future trials of biomedical interventions that involve individual randomisation, however, may represent an opportunity to reexamine presumptive treatment of STIs. Such trials should also aim to measure a range of factors that include health‐seeking behaviour and quality of treatment, as well as HIV, STI and other biological endpoints.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Effectiveness of gentamicin for gonorrhoea treatment: systematic review and meta-analysis

OBJECTIVES: The development of resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents has limited treatment options for gonorrhoea. The potential emergence of cephalosporin resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae and cephalosporin allergy in some patients make it necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of other available antimicrobial agents. Gentamicin is widely available in the USA and is used for gonorrhoea treatment in several countries. We conducted a systematic review of the medical literature to assess the effectiveness of gentamicin for treatment of uncomplicated urogenital gonococcal infections.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

Home-based chlamydia and gonorrhoea screening: a systematic review of strategies and outcomes

BACKGROUND: In many countries, low Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) screening rates among young people in primary-care have encouraged screening programs outside of clinics. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) make it possible to screen people in homes with self-collected specimens. We systematically reviewed the strategies and outcomes of home-based CT/NG screening programs.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

Strategies for partner notification for sexually transmitted infections, including HIV.

Sexually transmitted infections (STI) are a major global cause of acute illness, infertility and death. Every year there are an estimated 499 million new cases of the most common curable STIs (trichomoniasis, chlamydia, syphilis and gonorrhoea), and between two and three million new cases of HIV. The presence of several STIs, including syphilis and herpes can increase the risk of acquiring or transmitting HIV.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Outreach for chlamydia and gonorrhoea screening: a systematic review of strategies and outcomes

BACKGROUND: High Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) prevalence have been reported in populations that do not regularly access health centres for sexually transmissible infections (STI) testing. We reviewed current outreach strategies used to increase access to STI testing and their outcomes.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

Screening for gonorrhea and chlamydia: an update for the US Preventive Services Task Force

BACKGROUND: Previous research has supported screening for gonorrhea and chlamydia in asymptomatic, sexually active women (including pregnant women) who are younger than 25 years or at increased risk but not in other patient populations.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Efficacy and safety of ceftriaxone for uncomplicated gonorrhoea: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

The authors concluded that better efficacy, for uncomplicated gonorrhoea, was found for ceftriaxone 250mg versus cefixime 400mg, and for ceftriaxone 125mg versus spectinomycin 2g. Unexplained statistical variation, potential reporting bias, and a high risk that bias could have affected the pooled results, mean that the authors' conclusions may not be reliable.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

The effectiveness of gentamicin in the treatment of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: a systematic review

BACKGROUND: A high level of resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae has developed against penicillins, sulphonamides, tetracyclines and quinolones, and recent surveillance data have shown a gradual reduction in sensitivity to current first-line agents with an upward drift in the minimum inhibitory concentration of ceftriaxone. Laboratory sensitivity testing suggests that gentamicin, an aminoglycoside, may be an effective treatment option for gonorrhoea infection when used as a single intramuscular dose.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

The efficacy of clinic-based interventions aimed at increasing screening for bacterial sexually transmitted infections among men who have sex with men: a systematic review

BACKGROUND: In many countries, the prevalence of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among men who have sex with men (MSM) is high. We undertook a systematic review to identify clinic-based strategies for increasing screening and detection of bacterial STIs among MSM.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

Periodic presumptive treatment of curable sexually transmitted infections among sex workers: a systematic review

BACKGROUND: Unprotected sex work remains a major driver of HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) epidemics in many countries. STI treatment can lower disease burden, complications and prevalence of HIV cofactors. Periodic presumptive treatment (PPT) has been used with sex workers to reduce their high burden of largely asymptomatic STIs. The objective of this review is to assess benefits and harms of PPT among female sex workers.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

Point-of-care tests for the diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection: a systematic review of operational and performance characteristics

OBJECTIVES: Systematic review of the performance and operational characteristics of point-of-care (POC) tests for the diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

A meta-analysis of the efficacy of ocular prophylactic agents used for the prevention of gonococcal and chlamydial ophthalmia neonatorum

INTRODUCTION: Neonatal eye prophylaxis has been routine in North America for more than a century. Contextual changes justify reexamining this practice, and prompted a systematic review of the efficacy of prophylactic agents.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2010

Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of traditional and new partner notification technologies for curable sexually transmitted infections: observational study, systematic reviews and mathematical modelling

Study finds evidence that expedited partner therapy is clinically more effective in reducing reinfection of index patients who have had chlamydia, gonorrhoea or trichomonas when compared with simple patient referral but not when compared with simple patient referral but not when compared with enhanced methods of patient referral. It is possible that partner notification for the current or most recent sexual partner has the greatest impact on reducing chlamydia transmission in heterosexual young adults.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: January 2014
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MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry for Pathogen Identification: A Review of Accuracy and Clinical Effectiveness [Internet]

This Rapid Response report reviews the accuracy and clinical impact of Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) for the identification of microbial pathogens. This report was reviewed by experts in clinical microbiology and bacteriology and mycology.

Rapid Response Report: Peer-Reviewed Summary with Critical Appraisal - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: October 16, 2015
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Systematic review: noninvasive testing for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae

This review compared the diagnostic accuracy of three nucleic acid amplification tests (using urine samples) for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The authors concluded that accuracy results in tests for the first condition equate favourably to traditional sampling methods. More research is needed for the second condition. Limitations in the review process mean that the reliability of the authors' conclusions is unclear.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2005

Self-Collected versus Clinician Collected Samples for Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing in Women: A Review of Comparative Clinical Effectiveness Cost-Effectiveness, and Guidelines [Internet]

The purpose of this report is to examine the clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and evidence-based guidelines regarding the use self-collected samples for sexually transmitted infections (STI) testing, as compared with samples collected by clinicians.

Rapid Response Report: Summary with Critical Appraisal - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: June 22, 2016
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