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Systematic review: noninvasive testing for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae

This review compared the diagnostic accuracy of three nucleic acid amplification tests (using urine samples) for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The authors concluded that accuracy results in tests for the first condition equate favourably to traditional sampling methods. More research is needed for the second condition. Limitations in the review process mean that the reliability of the authors' conclusions is unclear.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2005

Efficacy and safety of ceftriaxone for uncomplicated gonorrhoea: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

The authors concluded that better efficacy, for uncomplicated gonorrhoea, was found for ceftriaxone 250mg versus cefixime 400mg, and for ceftriaxone 125mg versus spectinomycin 2g. Unexplained statistical variation, potential reporting bias, and a high risk that bias could have affected the pooled results, mean that the authors' conclusions may not be reliable.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

Effectiveness of gentamicin for gonorrhoea treatment: systematic review and meta-analysis

OBJECTIVES: The development of resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents has limited treatment options for gonorrhoea. The potential emergence of cephalosporin resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae and cephalosporin allergy in some patients make it necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of other available antimicrobial agents. Gentamicin is widely available in the USA and is used for gonorrhoea treatment in several countries. We conducted a systematic review of the medical literature to assess the effectiveness of gentamicin for treatment of uncomplicated urogenital gonococcal infections.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

Antibiotics for gonorrhoea in pregnancy

Pregnant women with gonorrhoea who take penicillin, spectinomycin or ceftriaxone are much less likely to show signs of infection.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Outreach for chlamydia and gonorrhoea screening: a systematic review of strategies and outcomes

BACKGROUND: High Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) prevalence have been reported in populations that do not regularly access health centres for sexually transmissible infections (STI) testing. We reviewed current outreach strategies used to increase access to STI testing and their outcomes.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

Home-based chlamydia and gonorrhoea screening: a systematic review of strategies and outcomes

BACKGROUND: In many countries, low Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) screening rates among young people in primary-care have encouraged screening programs outside of clinics. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) make it possible to screen people in homes with self-collected specimens. We systematically reviewed the strategies and outcomes of home-based CT/NG screening programs.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

Health Literacy Interventions and Outcomes: An Updated Systematic Review

To update a 2004 systematic review of health care service use and health outcomes related to differences in health literacy level and interventions designed to improve these outcomes for individuals with low health literacy. Disparities in health outcomes and effectiveness of interventions among different sociodemographic groups were also examined.

Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: March 2011
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Long-acting Reversible Contraception: The Effective and Appropriate Use of Long-Acting Reversible Contraception

Contraception can be divided into two broad categories: hormonal and nonhormonal. There are two categories of hormonal contraception: combined oestrogen and progestogen and progestogen-only. Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) is defined in this guideline as methods that require administering less than once per cycle or month.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health (UK).

Version: October 2005
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Behavioral Counseling to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Infections [Internet]

Despite advances in prevention and treatment, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. There are an estimated 19 million new infections each year in the US costing about $13 billion.

Evidence Syntheses - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: October 2008
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The Guide to Clinical Preventive Services 2012: Recommendations of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

Since its inception, the USPSTF has made and maintained recommendations on more than 100 clinical preventive services that are intended to prevent or reduce the risk for heart disease, cancer, infectious diseases, and other conditions and events that impact the health of children, adolescents, adults, and pregnant women. The Guide to Clinical Preventive Services 2012 includes new or updated recommendations on 64 clinical preventive services released from 2002–2012 in a brief, easily usable format meant for use at the point of patient care. Recommendations that were being updated while this edition of the Guide was being compiled, as well as the complete USPSTF recommendation statements, are available along with their supporting scientific evidence at www.USPreventiveServicesTaskForce.org.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: October 2012
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Screening for Chlamydial Infection: A Focused Evidence Update for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force [Internet]

In preparing this review, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) began by considering what type of evidence would be necessary to require revision of the 2001 systematic review of the evidence on screening for chlamydial infection. For example, since the USPSTF in 2001 found insufficient evidence to conclude that screening men could lead to a decreased incidence of infection in women, new evidence concerning this question might lead to a revision of the USPSTF recommendation for screening men. Additionally, changes in the epidemiology of chlamydial infection might lead to a revision of the categorization of increased risk.

Evidence Syntheses - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: June 2007
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Programs for preventing pregnancy and disease through better condom use

Unprotected sex can result in disease and death in many areas of the world, due to sexually transmitted infections (STI) including HIV. The male condom is one of the oldest birth control methods and the earliest method that works to prevent HIV. When used correctly, condoms can provide dual protection against pregnancy and HIV/STI. We examined behavioral programs to improve condom use.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Sexually transmitted infections and male circumcision: a systematic review and meta-analysis

The claim that circumcision reduces the risk of sexually transmitted infections has been repeated so frequently that many believe it is true. A systematic review and meta-analyses were performed on studies of genital discharge syndrome versus genital ulcerative disease, genital discharge syndrome, nonspecific urethritis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, genital ulcerative disease, chancroid, syphilis, herpes simplex virus, human papillomavirus, and contracting a sexually transmitted infection of any type. Chlamydia, gonorrhea, genital herpes, and human papillomavirus are not significantly impacted by circumcision. Syphilis showed mixed results with studies of prevalence suggesting intact men were at great risk and studies of incidence suggesting the opposite. Intact men appear to be of greater risk for genital ulcerative disease while at lower risk for genital discharge syndrome, nonspecific urethritis, genital warts, and the overall risk of any sexually transmitted infection. In studies of general populations, there is no clear or consistent positive impact of circumcision on the risk of individual sexually transmitted infections. Consequently, the prevention of sexually transmitted infections cannot rationally be interpreted as a benefit of circumcision, and any policy of circumcision for the general population to prevent sexually transmitted infections is not supported by the evidence in the medical literature.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

The efficacy of clinic-based interventions aimed at increasing screening for bacterial sexually transmitted infections among men who have sex with men: a systematic review

BACKGROUND: In many countries, the prevalence of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among men who have sex with men (MSM) is high. We undertook a systematic review to identify clinic-based strategies for increasing screening and detection of bacterial STIs among MSM.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

Strategies for partner notification for sexually transmitted infections, including HIV.

Sexually transmitted infections (STI) are a major global cause of acute illness, infertility and death. Every year there are an estimated 499 million new cases of the most common curable STIs (trichomoniasis, chlamydia, syphilis and gonorrhoea), and between two and three million new cases of HIV. The presence of several STIs, including syphilis and herpes can increase the risk of acquiring or transmitting HIV.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Antenatal Care: Routine Care for the Healthy Pregnant Woman

The original antenatal care guideline was published by NICE in 2003. Since then a number of important pieces of evidence have become available, particularly concerning gestational diabetes, haemoglobinopathy and ultrasound, so that the update was initiated. This update has also provided an opportunity to look at a number of aspects of antenatal care: the development of a method to assess women for whom additional care is necessary (the ‘antenatal assessment tool’), information giving to women, lifestyle (vitamin D supplementation, alcohol consumption), screening for the baby (use of ultrasound for gestational age assessment and screening for fetal abnormalities, methods for determining normal fetal growth, placenta praevia), and screening for the mother (haemoglobinopathy screening, gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia and preterm labour, chlamydia).

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: March 2008
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Comparative effectiveness and acceptability of home-based and clinic-based sampling methods for sexually transmissible infections screening in females aged 14-50 years: a systematic review and meta-analysis

BACKGROUND: Home-based sampling is a strategy to enhance uptake of sexually transmissible infection (STI) screening. This review aimed to compare the screening uptake levels of home-based self-sampling and clinic-based specimen collection for STIs (chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis), gonorrhoea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae) and trichomoniasis) in females aged 14-50 years. Acceptability and effect on specimen quality were determined.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

Community empowerment among female sex workers is an effective HIV prevention intervention: a systematic review of the peer-reviewed evidence from low- and middle-income countries

We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of community empowerment interventions for HIV prevention among sex workers in low- and middle-income countries from 1990-2010. Two coders abstracted data using standardized forms. Of 6,664 citations screened, ten studies met inclusion criteria. For HIV infection, two observational studies showed a significantly protective combined effect [odds ratio (OR): 0.84, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.709-0.988]. For STI infection, one longitudinal study showed reduced gonorrhoea/chlamydia (OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.26-0.99). Observational studies showed reduced gonorrhoea (OR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.47-0.90), but non-significant effects on chlamydia and syphilis. For condom use, one randomized controlled trial showed improvements with clients (beta: 0.3447, p = 0.002). One longitudinal study showed improvements with regular clients (OR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.1-3.3), but no change with new clients. Observational studies showed improvements with new clients (OR: 3.04, 95% CI: 1.29-7.17), regular clients (OR: 2.20, 95% CI: 1.41-3.42), and all clients (OR: 5.87, 95% CI: 2.88-11.94), but not regular non-paying partners. Overall, community empowerment-based HIV prevention was associated with significant improvements across HIV outcomes and settings.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

Screening on urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis

INTRODUCTION: Around 92 million urogenital infections are caused yearly by Chlamydia trachomatis worldwide [1].The overall incidence of sexually transmitted diseases is increasing, as shown by the increases in the number of reported cases of syphilis and gonorrhea [2]. Chlamydia trachomatis infections are associated with various serious diseases in women, men and newborns, which could be, at least partially, avoided by means of early diagnosis and therapy. The Federal Joint Committee - responsible for decision-making concerning the benefit package of the German Social Health Insurance - has publicly announced the starting of deliberations on the issue of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2005

Periodic presumptive treatment of curable sexually transmitted infections among sex workers: a systematic review

BACKGROUND: Unprotected sex work remains a major driver of HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) epidemics in many countries. STI treatment can lower disease burden, complications and prevalence of HIV cofactors. Periodic presumptive treatment (PPT) has been used with sex workers to reduce their high burden of largely asymptomatic STIs. The objective of this review is to assess benefits and harms of PPT among female sex workers.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

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